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Buck Whaley's Memoirs 

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Buck Whaley's Memoirs 



Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 









The manuscript Memoirs of Thomas Whaley, now 
first published, are known to have been in existence ever 
since 1800, the year in which the writer died. They 
are mentioned in an obituary notice of him which 
appeared in The Gentleman's Magazine at the time, but 
they are supposed to have passed out of the hands of 
the family some forty or fifty years ago,i since which time 
the place of their disposal has been a mystery, and even 
their existence a matter of considerable doubt. The 
unknown owners had been appealed to from time to time, 
by persons interested in the social history of Ireland 
during the latter portion of the eighteenth century, to 
make their contents public,'' but such suggestions do not 
seem to have reached the ears of those for whom they 
were intended. 

Some little time ago, by a lucky accident, I happened 
to purchase in a London auction room what I recognised 
to be an interesting example of Irish binding, in the 
characteristic style of decoration common in Dublin at 
the close of the eighteenth Century, consisting of two 
handsome 4to volumes of manuscript bound in red 
morocco, inlaid and tooled in gold, and lettered on the 
back " Travels by T. W.'" 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog., sub Whaley (Thomas). 

^ See Fitzpatrick, Ireland before the Union, p. 79, «., and ^ates and 
Queries, 3rd Series, ii. 314. ' See Illustration. 


After investigation of the contents — in which I was 
materially assisted by Mr. Henry F. Berry, I.S.O., of the 
Public Record Office, Dublin (to whom I am indebted for 
much other valuable aid and information) — I discovered 
that these volumes were the original manuscript Memoirs 
of Thomas Whaley so long missing, and which, as I have 
learned from enquiries since made, seem to have been for 
many years passing from hand to hand amongst English 
book-collectors, their preservation in all probability being 
attributable rather to their gold-tooled covers than to the 
more or less anonymous story which they contained. 

The work was obviously compiled with a view to 
publication during the lifetime of the writer, who refers 
to his intention to publish it by subscription ;^ but the 
statement which has been made in many quarters, that 
the author had left directions to his executors to print 
the Memoirs, is not supported by anything to be found 
in his will, which may be seen at the Public Record 
Office in Dublin. 

The work is in all likelihood in the handwriting of 
an amanuensis, being written throughout in copper-plate 
of an extremely clear and readable type ; and the whole 
is in an excellent state of preservation. The contents are, 
however, in a sense wrijten anonymously, the lettered 
title on the backs of the bound volumes being merely 
" Travels by T. W.," while on the written title-page 
within the author describes himself by initials only, and 
in the body of the work the identity of the principal 
persons mentioned is sought to be concealed in a like 
way. There is one remarkable instance, however, where 
the writer lays the mask aside, and where his name and 
that of his fellow-traveller, Hugh Moore, appear in full. 
1 See post, p. 107. 


This is in the copy of the Certificate given to him by 
the Superior of the Convent at Nazareth which bears 
writness to his having visited that city in March, 1789.' 
Whaley's sudden death at an early age may have inter- 
fered with the publication of the Memoirs, but the idea 
of making them public does not seem to have been 
abandoned even after his death, for there are many indi- 
cations in the manuscripts themselves which strongly 
support the theory that the first volume at least was 
prepared for the printer. In it are found occasional 
erasures, while other words have been superadded in a 
different hand, obviously with a view to toning down 
some personal revelations which were calculated to hurt 
the surviving members of the family. I shall have 
occasion later on to refer to these alterations in greater 
detail, as the necessity for making them will be better 
understood after a perusal of the main incidents of 
Whaley's life and travels. 

Thomas Whaley, in Ireland commonly known as 
Buck, or Jerusalem Whaley, was born in Dublin on the 
15th December, 1766.'' He was the eldest surviving 
son of Richard Chapell Whaley, of Whaley Abbey, 
CO. Wicklow, and of Dublin, M.P. for co. Wicklow, 
1747-60, a man of considerable property and of ancient 
descent, whose ancestors had settled in Ireland in the 
time of Oliver Cromwell, to whom, indeed, two of them 
were closely related.' This Richard Chapell Whaley 

1 See post, p. 224. 

2 His own statement at p. 8 pat that he was born in 1768 is obviously 
an error. It does not fit in with other statements which he makes 
elsewhere, nor with the inscription on his tombstone. See p. xxviii. 

' The pedigree of the Whaley family, so far as I have been able to 
extract it from the many conflicting statements found in the authorities 
quoted at the end of this note, seems to have been as on next page : — 




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was twice married ; first, in 1727, to Catherine, daughter 
of Robert Armitage, who died without issue ; and 
secondly, in 1759, when at an advanced age, to Anne, 

Henry Whaley, son of Edward the Regicide, came to Ireland in 1658 
with a letter of introduction from Oliver Cromwell to Henry Cromwell, 
then Lord Deputy. The original is in the possession of Mr. John Whaley 
of Annsboro, co. Kildare. 

Letter from Oliver Cromwell^ Lard Protector. 

** Harry Cromwell — I write not often to you. Now I think my selfe 
ingaged to my deare Cousin Whaley to lay my comands upon you that 
you shew all lovinge respect to his eldest sonn, by his present Ladye, 
whom you are to receave in the room of his eldest brother both into his 
comand and into your affection. I assure you though hee bee soe neerly 
to us as you know, yett I would not importune on his behalfe soe heartily 
as now I can upon the scoare of his owne worth, w*^"* indeed is as remark- 
able as I believe in any of ten thousand of his yeares. Hee is excellent in 
the Latine, ffrench, and Italiane toungues, of good other learninge w*** 
partes suitable, and (w*=** compleates this testimonie) is hopefully seasoned 
with religious principles, lett him be much w'^ you, and use him as yr 
owne. being most serious in this desire, and expecting a suitable returne 
there unto, 

" I rest your lovinge Father 

« Oliver P. 

" my love to your deare wife 
and to the two babes. 

"June I, 1658. 

"(Endorsed) i June 1658. His Highness c^nserning; Capt. Whaly." 

The reasons for the advancement of Henry Whaley " in the room of 
his eldest brother" (John) will be found on referring to the Calendar of 
State Papers^ Ireland^ where documents are given from which it appears 
that Capt. John Whaley, a few days before the date of the above letter, 
had incurred the Protector's displeasure by fighting a duel with the Earl 
of Chesterfield, in consequence of which both combatants were committed 
to the Tower. The Petition of Capt. Whaley, dated 15th June, 1658, 
to Cromwell, contains a touching reference to the writer's recent marriage : 
" [He] would submit to his confinement were he alone concerned, but he 
has newly entered into a condition wherein his suffering will as nearly 
become another's affliction as his own and is anxious to avoid the un- 
happiness which a longer separation may produce." 

Another document set out in the State Papers {Ireland^ 1647- 1660. 
Addenda^ p. 700), mentions him as " being displaced for deboistnesse." 

Many members of the Whaley family are described in contemporary 
records as being interested as Adventurers in the double ordinance and as 
getting grants of land in Ireland. Henry Whaley, the Judge Advocate, 
in this way became seized of several denominations of land in the liberties 
of Galway and also in the barony and liberties of Athenry, for which his 


daughter of the Rev. Bernard Ward, then a lady of 
eighteen. The offspring of the second marriage were : 
(i) Richard Chapell, who died young. 
(2) Thomas, the writer of the Memoirs. 
1(3) John, who married, ist. Lady Anne Meade, 
daughter of John, Earl of Clanwilliam ; and 
2nd, Mary Anne, daughter of John Richard- 
son. John Whaley died 1847. ^'^ ^°" ^Y 
his second wife, John Richard William, 
married Louisa, daughter of Dr. Townsend, 
late Bishop of Meath. 

(4) William, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the army, 

died 1843. 

(5) Susanna, who married Sir James Stewart, Bart., 

of Fort Stewart. 

(6) Anne, who in 1786 married Right Hon. John 

Fitzgibbon, afterwards Earl of Clare and Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. She died 13 Jan., 1844. 

(7) Sophia, who married Hon. Robert Ward, son of 

Lord Bangor. 
Richard Chapell Whaley 's Dublin residence was at 
first No. y-/ (now No. 87), St. Stephen's Green, South ; 

son John, after his father's death, passed patent under the Acts of Settle- 
ment (Lodge, Peerage of Ireland, vi. 71). 

I have not been able to discover the relationship, if any, of Richard 
Whaley (husband of Eliz''. Chappell) to Cromwell's cousins, but he may 
well have been connected with them. Sir Walter Scott erroneously refers 
to the Regicide Whaley as Richard (Peveril of the Peak, Cadell's Ed., 
1838, p. 266 and note). 

See Noble's Memoirs of the Protectorate-House of Cromwell ; The Visi- 
tations of the County of^ Nottingham, 1569 and 1614 (Harleian Soc^. Publi- 
cations, 1871); Familia Minorum Gentium,vo\. iv. (Harl. Soc^) ; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland (Atchdsde), vol. vi. ; Sir Wm. Betham's MS. Pedit^rees 
Brit. Mus. ; Do. MS. Pedigrees in Ulster's Office, Dublin ; MS. Fisita'- 
tion of Nottinghamsheire, by S'. Rich''. St. george N" King of Arms in 1 6 14, 
Brit. Mus. (Harl.) i Nichol's Leicestershire, ii. 736; Calendar of State Papers, 
Ireland, 1650-1660, /■asi/m ; and Notes and ^eries, ^th Series, iii. 501 ■ 
5th Series, v. 463-4; vii. 8r ; viii. 177 and 358. ' 


and while he was in occupation of this house, Sir John 
Meade, first Lord Clanwilliam, came into the neighbour- 
hood, and built himself a new mansion (now No. 85), 
which seems to have stirred the envy of Whaley. The 
latter thereupon purchased the piece of ground lying 
between them, boasting (according to tradition) that he 
would build something to make his noble neighbour's 
house look no better than a pigstye in comparison. The 
house he commenced to build, but did not live to finish, 
was the mansion illustrated at page xi., and which also 
appears in the right-hand distance in the view of the 
Beaux Walk at page xv. Being unfinished at the time 
of his death, it was by will bequeathed to his " dear wife 
Anne," directions being left to his executors to complete 
the building. It was occupied by one member or another 
of the family up to the year 1853, when, some little time 
after the death of John Whaley, it became the property 
of Cardinal Cullen, and is now the Catholic University 
of Ireland. The artistic decorations of its interior still 
retain much of their original magnificence. 

It is said that Richard Chapell Whaley acquired 
during his lifetime the sobriquet of Burn-Chapell Whaley 
from the number of Roman Catholic churches he had 
helped to destroy by fire — an assertion which is to 
some extent confirmed bv a periodical publication which 
appeared twenty years after his death.' A more harmless 
instance of his peculiarities is afforded by a very singular 

^ Tirwn and Country Magazine., 1789, P- 9. "The father of our hero 
["The Jerusalem Pilgrim"] was honoured with a commission of the 
peace, and in consequence of the proclamation became a furious perse- 
cutor of the Popish ecclesiastics. In one of his priest-hunting excursions 
it happened that, by firing a fowling-piece, he lodged the wadding in the 
thatch of a Romish chapel, which [led to his being] notoriously known 
by the name of Burn-Chapel till the day of his death." 


cheque which he once drew on La Touche's Bank in 
favour of his wife — probably the only example of such a 
document ever written in rhyme. 

" Mr. La Touche, 
Open your pouch, 
And give unto my darling 
Five hundred pounds sterling : 
For which this will be your bailey. 
Signed, Richard Chapell Whaley." 

Richard Chapell Whaley died about the 1 6th 
January, 1769,^ leaving his young widow and seven 
children surviving. About two years after, the widow 
married a Mr. John Richardson of Dublin.* 

Young Thomas Whaley upon his father's death 
became entitled, as he mentions in the Memoirs, to 
estates worth ;/^7,ooo a year, together with a sum of 
jr6o,ooo in cash,' the other members of the family 
being at the same time amply provided for. He re- 
mained at school until he was sixteen, when, with a view 
to completing his education, his mother sent him to 
France, with an allowance of jC9°"^ ^ year, under the 
charge of a tutor, a gentleman of education who had 
been in the army, but who had been obliged to sell his 
commission to pay his debts, and who proved but " an 
indifferent mentor," to a lad such as Whaley was, 
possessed of what was then a vast fortune, extravagant in 
his ideas, impracticable in all matters of business, in- 
tolerant of any kind of moral restraint, and a gambler 
and libertine to boot. 

After a short but riotous experience of life in France, 

' Skater's Gazeteer of i6th to i8th Jan., 1769 : "In Stephen's Green, 
at an advanced age, Richard Chapell Whaley, Esq." 

^ The marriage license is dated 7th Dec, 1770. ' See post, p. 9. 

PREFACE. xiii 

fully described in the following pages, young Whaley 
returned to Dublin, where he seems to have plunged 
with a natural relish into the vortex of bravado and 
extravagance which distinguished the world of high life 
in the Irish capital at the time. To appreciate the 
utterly reckless nature of his conduct at this period and 
after, it should be remembered that the character of 
Ireland was then an anomaly in the moral world. Any 
approach to the habits of the industrious classes by an 
application to trade or business, or even a profession, was 
considered a degradation to a gentleman, and the upper 
orders of society affected a most rigid exclusiveness." 
Lawlessness of every kind was rampant in the metropolis. 
The few miserable watchmen, to whom the keeping of 
good order amongst the citizens was entrusted, were 
utterly inefficient for any purpose of protection, and 
looked on in terror at the many conflicts which were 
perpetually being waged by day and night in the streets. 
Notable amongst the gentry of the time was a class 
called " Bucks," whose whole enjoyment and the busi- 
ness of whose life seemed to consist in eccentricity 
and violence. Many of their names have come down 
to us, as Buck English,' Buck Sheehy and various 

Some of the Bucks associated together under the 
name of the Hell-Fire Club, and from their head- 

' Ireland Sixty Tears Ago, John E. Walshe, Master of the Rolls in 
Ireland. Dublin, 1847. 

^ This English was one of the most extraordinary characters of his 
day. Amongst other achievements he fought two duels, in both of which 
he killed his antagonist. On one occasion he killed a waiter at an inn in 
England, and had him charged in the bill at ;^50. — Huish (Robt.) 
Memoirs of George the Fourth, Lond., 1831, i. p. 405. See Barrington's 
Personal Sketches, ii. 8. For a description of Bucks, Macaronis, Jessa- 
mies, etc., see Ashton, Old Times, p. 53, seq. 


quarters at Kilakee on the hills outside Dublin in nightly 
revels defied both God and man.' 

" Lucas's," the celebrated cofFee-house, was then a 
favourite resort of the idle and wealthy, and was par- 
ticularly patronised by Bucks whose intolerable insolence 
was shown to all persons of lower rank than themselves. 

Another gathering-place for the aristocracy and 
Members of Parliament was Daly's Club in College 
Green, where extravagant scenes of gambling and dissi- 
pation were constantly being enacted. In this, the most 
famous establishment of its kind in Ireland, it is said 
that the shutters were occasionally closed at noon that 
gambling might go on by candle-light ; and it was no 
uncommon occurrence to see one of the players, suspected 
of cheating, being flung from an upper window into the 
street. The club-house was rebuilt in 1791, and on so 
luxurious a scale as to excite the surprise and admiration 
of travellers who visited Ireland.'' 

The first Irish State Lottery was drawn in 1782," an 
occurrence which naturally added fuel to the fire of 
speculation which was already burning pretty brightly at 
this period amongst high and low : while, as an addi- 
tional incentive to immorality and degradation, the 
hideous spectacles afforded by public executions provided 
constant amusement for a mob whose love of drink and 
devilment was only surpassed by their social superiors. 

' The Dublin Hell-fire Club does not seem to have been open to the 
admission of lady members, a privilege which was allowed occasionally in 
similar institutions in England. — See Mrs. Delany's Autobiography and 
Correspondence^ vi, 162. 

'^ "The god of cards and dice has a temple, called Daly's, dedicated to 
his honour in Dublin, much more magnificent than any temple to be 
found in that city dedicated to the God of the Universe." — Extract from 
a writer in 1794 quoted in Gilbert's History of Dublin^ iii., 39. 

' At the Opera-house, Capel Street, on 24th June. 


Such was the metropolis of Ireland at the time when 
Burns was writing, 

" As sure's the deil's In hell, 
Or Dublin City;" 

and to such surroundings young Whaley returned after a 
preliminary course of extravagance and dissipation in a 
foreign country where vicious habits of every kind were, 
if anything, more common than at home. It was 
probably about this time that he won his spurs as a Buck. 
He does not himself mention the names of his Irish 
boon companions in the orgies that went on nightly in 
his Dublin house ' — but from other sources it is known 
that he was on terms of close intimacy with Francis 
Higgins, the notorious Sham Squire, and with Lord 
Clonmell, and that the three were frequently to be seen 
disporting themselves on the Beaux Walk in Stephen's 
Green during the hours in which persons of fashion in 
Dublin were accustomed to take the air. By all accounts. 
Buck Whaley must have presented a striking figure on 
such occasions. Amongst others, his brother-in-law. 
Lord Cloncurry, writing in 1849, describes him as having 
been " a perfect specimen of the Irish gentleman of the 
olden time." He had not, however, yet reached this high 
level of good looks when the portrait was painted which 
I am enabled to reproduce through the kindness of 
Mr. John Whaley of Annsboro, co. Kildare. This was 
apparently taken when he was still a boy.' 

^ Buck Whaley was never the owner of the mansion in St. Stephen's 
Green, which remained the property of his mother until her death, when 
it passed to her then eldest surviving son, John Whaley. 

' What purports to be a portrait of Whaley at a later date, by the 
name of " The Jerusalem Pilgrim," will be found at p. 9 of the Town and 
Country Magazine for 1789, and beside it a representation of a London 
Fille de Chambre^ whose history is given in the accompanying article. She 
may possibly be the female acquaintance mentioned at pp. 33 — 37 of the 


On the loth of February, 1785, when he was only 
eighteen years old, he was elected a member of the Irish 
House of Commons,' taking his seat for Newcastle in 
the county of Dublin, which place he represented until 
1790. At a later date, in 1797, he was elected for 
Enniscorthy ; and continued M.P. until his death in 
1800. It is a curious feature of his Memoirs that he has 
extremely little to say in reference to his parliamentary 
life ; but it is possible that he paid but small attention 
to his duties as a legislator so long as there was anything 
else to offer attractions of a more diverting kind ; and as 
a matter of fact he was absent from Ireland for a con- 
siderable portion of the time during which he had a seat 
in the Irish House. 

It was at this period of his career that the well-known 
journey to Jerusalem was undertaken. It originated in a 
jest, and ended in a large and serious wager. Being at 
dinner one day at the Duke of Leinster's ^ with some 
people of fashion, Whaley was asked by one of the 
company to what part of the world he meant to direct 
his course next. " To Jerusalem," he answered without 
hesitation. It was suggested by some present that there 
was no such place then existing ; others questioned the 
possibility of his getting there even if it were still in 
existence ; whereupon Whaley " offered to bet any sum " 
that he would go to Jerusalem and return to Dublin within 
two years from his departure. Within the next few 
days he had fifteen thousand pounds depending on the 

1 See post, p. 276. 

^ See post, pp. 34-5. 

^ It has frequently been stated that it was a condition of the bet that 
the journey should be performed on foot, except where it was absolutely 
necessary to make a sea passage. There is no mention of any such 

PREFACE. xvii 

He set out for Deal on the 20th September, 
1788, where he was joined by a friend, Captain 
Wilson ; and from that port on the 7th October 
he commenced his memorable journey on board the 

At Gibraltar he met another friend and countryman. 
Captain Hugh Moore, who was then about to return to 
England on leave. Whaley however prevailed upon 
him to alter his plans, and he consented to join the 
expedition.^ Captain Wilson was prevented from con- 
tinuing the journey beyond Smyrna owing to a rheumatic 
attack.'' Whaley and Moore left Smyrna for St. Jean 
d'Acre on the 3rd of February, 1789, on board the 
Heureuse Marie, and reached Jerusalem on the 28th of the 
same month. They arrived again in Dublin in June or 

stipulation by Whaley himself, or by Capt. Moore, his fellow-traveller; 
and, as a feet, the greater portion of the trip was accomplished on ship- 
board. The fiction as to playing ball against the walls of Jerusalem 
seems also to have been the outcome of exaggeration, although Whaley's 
brother-in-law, Lord Cloncurry, repeats the story in the traditional form. 
— See Personal Recollections. In Hook*s Gurney Married, vol. i., p. 146, 
ed. 1838, occurs the sentence; **I should as soon think of walking 
to Jerusalem, as Parson Whalley did in my father's time." T. Ciofton 
Croker, in his Memoirs of Joseph Holt, General of the Irish Rebels in 
1 798, appends a long note in reference to Buck Whaley's performances, 
which I include in the Appendix. 

^ Hugh Moore, Whaley's travelling-companion on the journey to Jeru- 
salem and back, of Eglantine House and Mount Panther, co. Down, Captain 
in the 5th Dragoon Guards, was a descendant of a very old Scotch family, 
the Muires of Rowallane in Ayrshire, his first ancestor in Ireland being a 
colonel in the army of William III., who obtained a grant of land in 
Ulster. He was the eldest son of Mr. John Moore of Clough, and 
Deborah, daughter of Mr. Robert Isaac of Holywood. He raised, and 
was Colonel of, the Eglantine Yeomanry during the Irish Rebellion of 
1798, at which time he served as A.D.C. to General Needham. He 
married a daughter of Mr. Robert Armitage of Kensington, and died 
29th July, 1848, aged 86. — See Knox's History of County Down and 
Burke's Landed Gentry (Moore of Rowallane). 
' See post, p. 54. 

xviii PREFACE. 

July, 1789, and their return was celebrated by the lighting 
of bonfires through the city by the excited populace.i 
Whaley then " produced such incontestable proofs of 
having accomplished his arduous undertaking " that his 
friends were obliged reluctantly to pay him a sum of 
fifteen thousand pounds.'' This left him seven thousand 
pounds to the good after defraying the expenses of the 
expedition ; " the only instance," to use his own words, 
" in all my life before in which any of my projects 
turned out to my advantage."' He remained in Dublin 
upwards of two years, engaged largely in gambling, only 
to find in the end that there was a considerable balance 
against him. 

Speaking of these years, he says, " It was at this 
period I happily formed an acquaintance with a lady of 
exquisite taste and sensibility, from whom I have never 
since separated. She has been a consolation to me in all 
my troubles, her persuasive mildness has been a constant 
check on the impetuosity of my temper, and at this 
moment constitutes, in my retirement, the principal 
source of all my felicity." She was a Miss Courtney ; * 
and she lived with Whaley up to the time of her death, 
which took place when he was resident in the Isle 
of Man. 

Having gone the round of such amusements as 
Ireland could afford, he opened house in London, 
" bought horses and carriages, subscribed to all the 
fashionable clubs, and was in a short time a complete 
man of the ton at the West End of the town." 

^ Dublin Evening Past, July 23, 1789. 
^ See post, p. 270. 
' See past, p. 270. 

' Knutiford: its Traditions and History, by Rev. Henry Green (Man- 
chester, 1887), author of Shakspert and the Emblem Writers. 


A restless curiosity next led him to Paris, where the 
Revolution was then in progress. His experiences in the 
French capital at that dangerous time are highly in- 
teresting, and are detailed with his usual openness. 
From thence he returned to DubHn, but only for the 
purpose of selling an estate, which brought him twenty- 
five thousand pounds. " Having paid some debts and 
made a few necessary purchases," he went back to Paris 
with fourteen thousand pounds in his pocket, and again 
plunged into the old life. 

A journey to Switzerland followed, in the course of 
which he made the acquaintance of William Beckford, 
the author of Vathek, who was then living in luxurious 
seclusion at Lausanne, and also Edward Gibbon, the 
historian of The Decline and Fall of the Roman 'Empire. 
He gives some interesting particulars concerning both. 
Later on, after having spent some time in Italy, he 
returned to Paris, where he remained until after the trial 
and death of Louis XVL Here, in the interests of 
safety, he was obliged to part company with his lady 
companion. War was about to be declared between 
England and France, and her position was' one of much 
danger and apprehension. After many difficulties she 
made her escape to England for the purpose of procuring 
money for her protector, who was now reduced to some- 
thing approaching impecuniosity. He himself remained 
in Paris, to be involved shortly afterwards in a hostile 
meeting with Count Arthur Dillon, whom he had openly 
accused of having swindled him at play. Later on he 
escaped from the French capital, and after some perilous 
adventures reached Br\issels in safety. 

' See post, p. ag4, seq. 

C 2 


Making his way from thence to Calais, he awaited 
the return of his " dear companion " from England. 
After a period of anxious delay the packet-boat at length 
appeared off the coast, and he was enabled with help of 
his glass to see Miss Courtney on board. The munici- 
pality however refused to admit the vessel into the 
harbour, and he had the mortification of seeing the ship 
put about, without being able to send his friend even a 
letter, for the conveyance of which he had offered a large 
reward. Further difficulties met him on his way to 
Ostend, which he reached eventually in disguise. 

Here, after a delay of some ten days, he had the 
satisfaction to see the British flag flying on a ship in the 
harbour, and recognizing some old friends among the 
officers, he was supplied with sufficient money to take 
him to Dover. After a series of baffling disappointments 
and romantic episodes he at length overtook his 
" Euridyce," with whom he returned to London, only to 
find himself a little while later the inmate of a debtors' 
prison. From this unpleasant position, after an ineffectual 
attempt at gaol-breaking, he was released by his brother- 
in-law, the Irish Lord Chancellor, who happened to be 
in town at the time. " Determined," as he says, " not to 
stay another hour in London," Whaley then set out for 
Dublin. Here he disposed of all his remaining estates 
for the discharge of his personal debts, and with the 
surplus, which amounted to about five thousand pounds, 
true to the spirit of gambling to which he had always 
been a ready slave, he resolved to try his fortune at play, 
and either retrieve himself or complete his ruin. " The 
latter," he says, " was my fate, for in one winter I lost 
ten thousand pounds, which obliged me to sell all my 
own jewels, and those I had given to my companion in 


better days : so that in the course of a few years I 
dissipated a fortune of near four hundred thousand 
pounds, and contracted debts to the amount of thirty 
thousand more, without ever purchasing or acquiring 
contentment or one hour's true happiness."' 

He retired shortly afterwards to the Isle of Man 
in a hopeless condition of insolvency, where he tells 
us he divided his time between the education of his 
children, the improvement of a small farm, and the 
writing of his Memoirs. He ends his story of a wasted 
and riotous life in a spirit of contrition and remorse, 
expressing a hope that what he had written might prove 
of some service to other young men exposed to tempta- 
tions like his own. 

For the continuous folly and eccentricities of Whaley's 
ill-spent life it is difficult to account in any rational way ; 
but, with his accustomed hardihood, he does not shrink 
from the attempt himself. 

"I was born with strong passions, a lively imagination, and a spirit 
that could brook no restraint. I possessed a restlessness and activity of 
mind that directed me to the most extravagant pursuits ; and the ardour 
of my disposition never abated till satiety had weakened the power of enjoy- 
ment i till my health was impaired and my fortune destroyed No 

small share of my follies are to be laid to a neglected education." * 

His apologia, written as it was in the sackcloth and 
ashes of broken fortune and ruined social standing — had 
his life but ended with the writing of it — might have 
appealed with some measure of success to sympathetic 
readers. Unfortunately for him, the traditions which 
have come down to us connected with his later years go 
far towards showing that the spirit of humiliation which 
he adopts in the introductory and concluding portions of 
his Memoirs, and the sincerity of his anxiety for the 

' See^os/, p. 332. 2 See post, p. 335. 

xxii PREFACE. 

morals of other young men likely to follow in his steps, 
were merely the outcome of a kind of a death- bed 
repentance, which was thoroughly genuine so long as 
" the fell sergeant " was in sight, but the stagey and 
artificial nature of which became aggressively apparent 
when the prospect of immediate danger had been 

The Isle of Man,' the spot he selected for his retire- 
ment, was then a favourite place of sanctuary for those 
who, having outrun the constable, still possessed that 
genteel repugnance to the presence of bailiffs which is 
characteristic of the persons to whom such officers are 
most assiduous in their attentions. Here, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Douglas, he settled down after ten years 
of dissolute living, " blessed," as he tells us, " with 
the reciprocal friendship of a tender and beloved 
companion .... whose mild manners and amiable 
disposition form a striking contrast with the frivolous- 
ness, the vanity and tinsel which I formerly so much 
admired in my female acquaintances." The first period 
of his life in the island was, no doubt, taken up with the 
writing of the Memoirs, which seem to have been ready 
for the press in 1797. It is strange, however, that 
Whaley is altogether silent regarding his life in the 
neighbourhood of Douglas at this period ; for local 
tradition does not represent him as devoted solely to 
literature and the concerns of his new home. On the 
contrary, his ways would seem not to have changed in 
any material respect from their accustomed course, and 

1 In the MS. reading (p. 7, post), "I am, at present, quietly settled in 
Ireland." The word "Ireland" has been written over an erasure of 
something of greater length. Mr. Greenfield's MS., referred to later on 
(p. xxxix., posi\ has the same erasure and addition, but in his MS. the 
words " Isle of Man " are still plainly visible. 

PREFACE. xxiii 

he is described as filling at the Assemblies in Douglas the 
office of Master of the Ceremonies in much the same 
way as Beau Nash played that part at Bath/ Bankrupt 
as his condition was when he retired from the world, 
it is certain that an extraordinary change in his fortunes 
took place before he was long a resident in the Isle of 
Man, for he commenced to build a mansion there of so 
costly and luxurious a character that it at once became 
known amongst the Manx people by the name of 
" Whaley's Folly." This was Fort Anne, an illustration 
of which as it appeared some few years later will be 
found at p. xxiv. It is described in a scarce pamphlet 
by Thomas Callister, 1815 : 

" Fort Ann. — This is an exceedingly handsome seat, having been 
built at great expense by Thomas Whalley {sic), Esq., deceased, an Irish 
gentleman of fortune, some years since. It is in an elevated situation on 
the road leading to Douglas Head, just opposite the Light House, and 
commands a most delightful prospect of Castle Mona, of Colonel Stuart's 
seat, of The Hills,' the quay, the town and the bay, as well as of 
Howstrake, and a great part of the country all around. On the west 
side is a long spacious and elegant hall, through which you pass in 
entering, which is chiefly composed of stucco work j and on the east there 
is a low building adjoining (left open at top with window openings in the 
side walk), of nearly the same size as the hall, which is so contrived as to 
have the appearance to a stranger, from the pier, of this edifice having 
been the remains of some ancient ruins, and that the several other parts 
thereof had been lately modernised : the stables and coach-house are 
remarkably elegant and the out-oifices adjoining are neat and commodious : 
there are also two fine gardens adjoining, one of them pretty large, and 
the other contains a green-house, etc. There are at present two families 
that occupy it, each in distinct and separate apartments, one of which is 
Major Ormsby's, and the other the Honourable Mrs. Whalley, who is the 
proprietor. Under the building are extensive vaults, and the interior 
altogether as well as the exterior are both much admired ; and although it 
falls greatly short of Castle Mona in extent and elegance, yet the views 
thereof from several spots, especially from the pier, the strand, and the 
bay, have an uncommon pleasing effect." 

It is unknown exactly when he commenced to build 

^ Knutsford i its Traditions and History. Henry Green. 1887. 
^ The name of a house. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

this house, but a contemporary record describes it as still 
unfinished in 1798 : 

" The Duke of Athol's seat is in the vicinity of Douglas, and Mr. 
Whalley's beautiful house and grounds, which are still in a progressive 
state of improvement, embellish Douglas very much ; it is a part of the 
Nunnery estate." ^ 

Earlier in the same work, under the heading "A View 
of the Principal Estates, etc., with their Proprietors, 
1798," Fort Ann is mentioned as that of Mr. Whalley. 

During the building of this house, Whaley lost a 
favourite and trusty servant named Jack. The inter- 
course between Douglas and Liverpool was, in those 
days, very uncertain, and accompanied by danger, and 
the servant had been sent to the latter place for the pur- 
pose of procuring a sum of money. This he obtained ; 
but on returning in an open vessel he was shipwrecked 
and drowned. The money was found on his person 
when the body was washed ashore.^ 

The house, which has been enlarged in recent years 
by the completion of extensive wings on either side, was 
converted into an hotel about the middle of the last 
century. It is now known as the Fort Anne Hotel, and 
many traces of the original luxurious fittings are still 
visible in the solid mahogany window-shutters with 
silvered plate-glass let in, the Chippendale panels below 
the windows, and the mahogany doors inlaid with 
Chippendale work. Especially noticeable is a finely 
carved Carrara marble mantelpiece, one of the two medal- 
lions on which is said to be a likeness of Buck Whaley 
himself Two portraits formerly hung in the dining- 
room of the hotel, one of Whaley, and the other of his 
lady companion — he in the character of a sportsman, and 

' Feltham (J.). A Tmr through the Island tif Mann. Bath, 1798 p. 2-31. 
' Ibid. p. 149. ' Knutsfurd: its Traditions and History. 


she in the style of Mrs. Siddons. These pictures were 
sold by auction some twenty years ago, since when they 
have disappeared, and eluded the many efforts which 
have been made by others as well as by myself to trace 

The change which took place in Whaley's financial 
position during his residence in the Isle of Man enabled 
him, amongst other things, to get into the Irish Parlia- 
ment for a second time. He was elected for Enniscorthy 
towards the end of 1797. Here, as perhaps in other 
directions, his brother-in-law. Lord Clare, would naturally 
have lent him a helping hand ; but it is plain from the 
costly nature of the building of Fort Anne that money 
must have come to him, and in large amounts too, before 
he embarked on the erection of such a residence. If 
local tradition count for anything, the house would 
appear to have been built out of the proceeds of 
successful gambling. 

Up till now the name of Whaley does not seem 
to have been recorded amongst those that played a 
part in the Chronique Scandaleuse which has grown up 
around the life and doings of George the Fourth 
when Prince of Wales. The following Memoirs, how- 
ever, show that he was entitled to a place there ; ^ and 

* The portrait of Whaley was probably the one referred to in Monads 
Herald and Fargher's hie of Man Advertiser, nth May, 1896: "A full- 
length portrait of the Regent, and a companion picture of Whalley, his 
huntsman and favourite hounds, painted by Northcote, were presented to 
the town of Douglas by Sir William Hillary, and were hung in the 
Oddfellows' Hall, in Athol Street. Their removal occurred by * accident.' 
Power, the actor, rented the hall, aiid his men who remained to take down 
the scenery and ship it, took down these pictures also ; when someone 
told them they * were not Power's' . . . Marshall, the owner of 
Fort Anne . . . claimed them, and removed them back to Fort 
Anne, which he had no more right to do than ..." 

' Seej>«j/, p. 271-6. 

xxvi PREFACE. 

if gossip long current in the Isle of Man can be relied 
on, the part he played, in at least the financial scenes of 
the royal drama, must be regarded as of more importance 
than that of a mere walking gentleman. A writer who 
has collected a considerable amount of information re- 
lating to Whaley's later life ' tells us of meetings at the 
gaming-table between him and the Prince of Wales, in 
which fortune at last seemed to take the side of the one 
who had been so long the victim of others in similar 
encounters, and in which the commoner not only relieved 
his princely opponent of vast sums of cash, but in the 
end succeeded by a grand coup in annexing a Favorita of 
His Royal Highness, whom her ungallant protector had 
in a moment of desperation staked as his only marketable 
asset. At a somewhat later date, when the question of 
the Union was engaging the chief attention of parlia- 
mentarians, we learn that another addition was made to 
Whaley's finances, though no doubt of smaller amount 
than his profits from play. Castlereagh, writing to the 
Duke of Portland, under date the yth February, 1800, 
states that Whaley was absolutely bought by the Opposi- 
tion stockpurse, and received two thousand pounds down, 
and was to receive as much more. The statement is 
confirmed by Cornwallis : " Twelve of our supporters 
deserted to the enemy on the last division, one was 
bought during the debate (Jerusalem Whaley, the Chan- 
cellor's brother-in-law) ; " ' while Barrington states that 

' Rev. Henry Green, M.A. Knutsford, op. cit. See Extract from 
Holies MemoirSy Appendix, ad fin. 

^ Cornwallis Correspondence, vol. iii. p. 183; Letter to Bp. of Lichfield 
and Coventry. A more detailed account of these transactions is given in 
Grattan's Memoirs, vol. v. pp. 71, 72: — "Mr. Thomas Whaley had in 
1799 voted for the Union; he paid ^^4,000 for his election for the town 
of Enniscorthy. He was not in affluent circumstances, but well inclined 
to oppose the Union, and Mr. Goold accordingly agreed that these 

PREFACE. xxvii 

Whaley afterwards took a bribe from the Government 
party to vote in favour of the Union. 

The house at Fort Anne, according to a tradition 
current at Knutsford — where Buck Whaley died — was 
built upon Irish soil. Whaley, it appears, whether to 
win a bet, or for the purpose of fulfilling some strange 
vow, had undertaken to live upon Irish ground without 
residing in Ireland, and in order to perform the under- 
taking had, previous to laying the foundations, shipped 
over to Douglas a quantity of earth from his native land 
sufficient to underlie the whole mansion to the depth of 
six feet. Another story limits the amount of Irish soil 
to " a spot " in the grounds. 

He does not seem to have been long settled in the 
new house when Miss Courtney, his lady companion, died, 
leaving him with two sons and a daughter. She appears 
to have passed as his wife during their stay in the Isle 
of Man, but it is abundantly clear from his own will — 
referred to later on — that she was never legally entitled 
to this status, in spite of the very strong attachment 
which her protector had always shown for her. The 
date of her death is not known. 

In January 1800 Whaley married' the Hon. Mary 
Catherine, daughter of Nicholas Lawless, first Lord 
Cloncurry, and sister to Valentine, second Lord Cloncurry, 
then an untried prisoner in the Tower of London ; but 
his married life came to an end before the year was out, 

expenses would be paid if he would vote against the Government. He 
did so, and when the division took place on the question in 1800, Mr. 
Cooke, the acting man for Lord Castlereagh . . . went to him and 
offered him (to use his expression) a carte blanche-^ but Mr. Whaley 
would not break the promise he had made to the Opposition. The funds, 
however, were soon exhausted, and a member who would have opposed 
the Union was lost in consequence, and voted for it," &c. 
^ GentlemarCi Alagazine, 1800, p. 1 1 14. 

xxviii PREFACE. 

his death taking place on the 2nci November, iSoo. 
At the time of its occurrence he seems to have been on 
his way from Liverpool to London, for he was brought 
in an almost expiring condition to the " George Inn " at 
Knutsford, in Cheshire, then a well known halting place 
on the mail-coach road, where he died soon after being 

The newspapers of the day ascribed his death to a 
rheumatic fever contracted in Ireland ; but tradition has 
preserved a more tragic account of his demise, and would 
have us believe that he was stabbed in a fit of jealousy 
by one of two sisters to whom he was paying marked 
attentions at a time when each of them was in ignorance 
of his concealed attachment to the other. Sarah, or 
Sally, Jenkinson is stated by one writer ' to have been 
the name of the lady from whom he received his death 
wound : another authority * records the fact that this was 
the very light-o'-love who had passed into his possession 
from the royal seraglio. 

He was buried in Knutsford churchyard, where on a 
plain stone covering his grave is inscribed: — 

" Underneath is interred the body of Thomas 
Whaley, Esquire, of the City of Dublin, who died 
November 2nd, 1 800. Aged 34 years." 

" A strange circumstance," says a historian of the locality,' " took 
place just before his funeral. The body had been placed in a leaden 
coffin and brought into the old assembly room, and the workmen had just 
made up the coffin, when Mr. Robinson, an Irishman, who also was a 
dancing-master of that day, stepping upon the coffin, danced a hornpipe 
over the body." 

The Hon. Mrs. Whaley continued to reside at Fort 
Anne after the death of her husband, in charge of the 

' Edward Evans in The Irish Builder, Dec, 1894. 
^ Isle of Man Examiner, June 2ist, 1902. 
^ Green's Knutsford, p. 139. 

PREFACE. xxix 

three children, whom she brought up as her own. One 
of them, Sophia Isabella, afterwards married a Mr. Tayler 
of Sussex. The eldest son, Thomas Whaley, became 
proprietor of the mansion after Mrs. Whaley's death, and 
tried to finish the wing next the sea. On his death, the 
second son, Richard, endeavoured to complete the 
addition, but died before the work was done ; after which 
Mrs. Tayler sold the place. 

Whaley's will, made at Liverpool, is dated the 
24th October, 1800, and probate was granted to his 
widow the Hon. Mary Whaley on the 23rd January, 
1 80 1. The testator appointed his wife, the Earl of 
Clare, Val. Goold and Hugh Moore, executors, trustees 
and testamentary guardians of his " natural " children, 
leaving two thousand pounds to each of the three ; one 
thousand pounds to Val. Goold, five hundred to Hugh 
Moore, five hundred to Thos. Goold, and the residue to 
his wife absolutely. 

The reckless and eccentric doings of Buck Whaley 
were, as might be expected, the talk of Dublin for years 
after he had quitted the stage on which many of them 
had been enacted ; and the details of his performances 
seem in many instances to have been exaggerated by 
writers of gossip connected with the subject. I have 
already referred to some obvious fictions relating to his 
journey to Jerusalem.' Another story about him relates 
to a leap which he made from a drawing-room window 
into the street. 

The scene of this mad act has been laid in places 
varying from the mansion in Stephen's Green to Daly's 
Club, and other houses. In his own account of it, 
however, the scene is laid at the York Hotel, Dover.'' 

' See ante, p. xvi. * See post, p. 326, and Appendix, ad fin. 


Curiously enough, his own brother-in-law describes this 
exploit as taking place in Dublin, and adds that Whaley 
rendered himself a cripple for life in the doing of it ; 
while the hero of the performance tells us that he escaped 
with whole bones. The inaccuracy may be accounted 
for by the fact that Whaley was dead forty-seven years 
when Lord Cloncurry's Personal Recollections were 

The Freeman s Journal oi the 8th November, 1800, at 
that time owned by Francis Higgins, the so-called Sham 
Squire, is about the only newspaper that contains any 
extended reference to Whaley's death. 

" Died, Thos. Whaley, Esq. ; Member of Parliament for the borough 
of Enniscorthy, of whom it need not be said that he moved in the most 
elevated circles. When of age he found himself in possession of great 
hereditary property and consequence, and nature and education gifted him 
with a mind suited in liberality and benevolence to the heir of such a 
fortune. His conversation was universally acknowledged to abound in 
refined sentiments, elegant address, and a convivial disposition — the 
pleasing current of whose good and polite nature perhaps hurried him to 
leave the anchor of steady prudence, a clinging to which is after all in the 
routine praise, and it is confessedly an unenvied praise, of the high as well 
as low ! 'Tis well known that Mr. Whaley was blessed with a good 
understanding, but the whirl and blaze in which he lived diminished its 
effect and force in an eccentricity of pursuits ; the wide influence of his 
name and the credit of his estate were without reserve communicated to 
those ephemeral fashionables who live like butterflies in the sunshine and 
derive subsistence as the satellites and seducers of the great, and who 
sometimes gradually exhaust in their numbers the copious springs that 
supply their wants ! To the unceasing calls of such Mr. Whaley was 
never deaf — his heart was susceptible of the most feeling and friendly 
impressions j and from his constant exposure to those artful ones, 'tis 
unnecessary to notice how incalculably he suffered in their manifold lures. 
In a word, the life of Mr. Whaley had the improvident feature of 
greatness, but his fault was the generous failing of an exalted mind. Mr. 
Whaley, about twelve months ago, married the Hon. Miss Lawless, 
daughter of the late and sister to the present Lord Cloncurry." 

The scatter-brained adventures of so remarkable a 
character as Buck Whaley could hardly escape the notice 
of the Dublin ballad-monger of the time, and amongst 

PREFACE. xxxi 

the ephemeral literature coming from such a source the 
following piece of doggerel, relating to his journey to 
Jerusalem, has survived : — ' 


Tune — " Rutland Gigg." 


One morning walking George's-quay, 
A monstrous crowd stoppM up the way, 
Who came to see a sight so rare, 
A sight that made all Dublin stare. 

Balloons, a vol.^ review 

Ne'er gathered such a crew, 

As there did take their stand. 

This sight for to command. 

Tol hi Id lol Ul hi. 

Buck Whalley lacking much in cash. 
And being used to cut a dash, 
He wagered full ten thousand pound 
He'd visit soon the Holy Ground. 

In Loftus's fine ship 

He said he'd take a trip. 

And Costello so famed, 

The captain then was named. 

From Park Street* down through College Green, 
The grand procession now was seen ; 
The Boxing Chairmen first mov'd on 
To clear away the blackguard throng \ 

' The version given here is from the Haliday Collection of Pamphlets 
relating to Ireland (Royal Irish Academy), Miscellaneous Verses, 1789, 
Vol. 550. The Ballad is printed with some slight variations, and without 
verses viii. and xi., in the Dublin University Magazine^ Dec. 1861, 
p. 722-3. The name is spelt "Whalley" throughout. See Notes and 
^eries, 3rd Series, ii. 149, where the author is said to be "a bard who 
contributed to a collection of political squibs entitled ' Both Sides of the 
Gutter' (1790 or thereabouts)." Some other rhyming effusions relating 
to the Whaley family will be found in the Appendix. 

* /.^., volunteer. 

' Now Leinster Street. See Dublin Street Names, by Rev. C. T 
M'Cready, D.D. 


Then Whalley debonair 
Marched forward with his Bear, 
And Lawlor^ too was there 
Which made Lord Naas^ to stare. 


Says Lawlor, "Whalley ! my dear friend, 
My sage advice to you I'll lend, 
As you this bet will win no doubt, 
I'll shew you how to lay it out ; 

And Moore,^ that dirty whelp, 

I'm sure will lend a help ; 

With box and dice, my buck, 

We'll all have charming luck." 


Next Heydon in her vis-a-vis 
With paint and ribbons, smile and glee; 
As aide-de-camp, close by her side, 
Long Bob* the Turkey-cock did ride ; 

And Guilford's Lord ^ came next. 

Who seemed extremely vext, 

To see the Lady's nob 

So very close to Bob. 

^ Possibly J. Lawlor, called to the Irish Bar in 1773, and a resident in 
St. Stephen's Green. 

^ See Lodge, Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iii., 422. 

3 Original note {a) " Earl of D.," i.e. the Earl of Drogheda. The 
uncompHmentary epithet is possibly not unconnected with the fact that 
Lord Drogheda (who was in the Army, and afterwards Field Marshal) 
had been sent in 1762 to disturbed districts in the province of Munster in 
command of a military force, by whom many of the insurgents were 
stated to have been killed {Grattans Memoirsj 2nd series, i., p. xi., seq.). 

* Original note (h) " Uniacke." In all probability Col, Robert 
Uniacke, M.P. Youghal, Surveyor-General of Ordnance (1800). He 
was High Sheriff, Co. Waterford, in 1782, and then opposed to a union 
with England. Became a strong Unionist later. " He was at times 
stationed at the back-door entrance into the House of Commons, to let 
Members in or out, as circumstances required — an oiBce to which his 
bodily strength and vigour were particularly adapted " (Barrington's His- 
toric Anecdotesj i., 342). He is stated to have been "connected with 
Lord Clare" {Grattan's Memoirs^ vol. v. See 1^., iii., 453, and Burke's 
Landed Gentryy ed. 1847, p. 1456). 

^ Lord Gillford, eldest son of Earl of Clanwilliam, the former next-door 
neighbour of Thos. C, Whaley, 

PREFACE. xxxiii 

Then came French valets two and two, 
By garhck you'd have smelt the crew ; 
And large as any Shetland hog, 
Came Watch, the black Newfoundland dog. 

A Swiss bore in the train 

A baboon with a chain ; 

The stripM post-chaise came by. 

With Zara and with Fly.' 

In phaeton and six, high rear'd, 
Dudley Loftus^ next appeared : 
A monkey perched was by his side. 
Which looked, for all the world, his bride. 

Poor Singleton in black 

Upon a dirty hack. 

With heavy heart mov'd on 

To see his friend begone. 
Against the council Whalley went 
Of brother-in-law Fitz Petulant,' 
And Mr. Fitz felt sorrow more, 
Than when he went to fight with Orr. 

John Whalley his next heir, 

With streaming eyes was there. 

For fear his brother Tom 

Should ne'er return home. 

Tul hi hi hi tol hi. 

And now behold upon the strand. 
This cargo for the Holy Land, 
Bears, lap-dogs, monkeys. Frenchmen, — , 
Bear-leaders, and dependants poor. 

Black Mark' loung'd in the crew. 
He'd nothing else to do : 
Peg Plunket^ on her horse 
Was surely there of course. 
1 Original note (<:) " Two lap-dogs." 

' Probably the same person as mentioned in verse II. See Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 1847, p. 758. 

^ Fitzgibbon, who seems to have been known by this sobriquet — see 
Lessons to a Toung Chancellor, or a Letter from Mentor to Lord Jeffreys, 
Baron Petulant of the Kingdom of Barataria, 1792. 

' Possibly Marcus Beresford (eldest son of Rt. Hon. John Beresford), 
M.P. Dungarvan, 1783; called to the Bar 1786. Baron Hamilton, 
writing to his father in March, 1787, refers to him as "my companion 
Mark" ; while the next line in the ballad may allude to his very junior 
standing as a barrister [Beresford Correspondence, i., 321). 

^ A lady somewhat notorious for her indiscretions at this period. She 


xxxiv PREFACE. 


His creditors, poor men, were there, 
And in their looks you'd see despair, 
For bailiffs he cared not a louse, 
Because you know " he's in the House." 

Cuff from the Barrack Board' 

Swore by great Temple's Lord,* 

This action to requite, 

Tom should be dubb'd a Knight. 

There came along with Jemmy Cuff 
As Commissaire ! Sir Paddy Puff,^ 
Ben Arthure' fam'd for bounty rare, 
(But that is neither here or there). 

Sir King* and fisty Ben' 

Are both hard honest men. 

It cost them nought — and so 

They went to see the show. 

The Boxing Bishop," and at his back. 
Jack Coffee,' alias Paddy Whack. 

was daughter of a Mr. Plunket, of Killough, Co. West Meath, and 
married a Mr. Leeson. Her autobiography was published under the title 
oi Memotrs of Mrs. Margaret Leeson^ 2 vols., Dublin, 1795. 

' Rt. Hon. James Cuff, M.P., Superintendent-General of Barracks and 
Treasurer to the Barrack Board, afterwards Lord Tyrawley. See Beres~ 
ford Correspondence^ ii., 6q, and Complete Peerage^ vii., 443. 

* George Nugent Grenville Temple, Marq. of Buckingham, then 
Lord Lieutenant. 

' "Sir Paddy Puff" and "Sir King" are the same, iiiz. Sir Patrick 
King, Knt., a commissary of the Muster Master General. 

* Benedict Arthur — the same who is called '* fisty Ben ** two lines 

" Tradition says that there was a pugilist bishop of the Beresford 
family in the eighteenth century, so the reference is perhaps to the 
Rt. Rev. William Beresford, then Bishop of Ossory, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Tuam, and first Lord Decies. He married Elizabeth, sister of 
Rt. Hon. John Fitzgibbon. Possibly, however. Dr. Robert Fowler, then 
Archbishop of Dublin, may be the person alluded to, as would appear to 
be the case from some lines in a contemporary publication already 
mentioned. Both Sides of the Gutter^ p. 128 — 

Their Lordships the bishops, men of learning and parts, 
In composing of pray'rs have been breaking their hearts ; 

And his good Grace of D quits money affairs, 

And boxing his Clergy — for thanksgiving pray'rs. 

' Perhaps John Coffey, who appears amongst the attorneys in the 
Directory of the day. 


His Grace had come (long may he h've !) 
His benediction for to give. 

He trod (though did not know) 

On Napper Tandy's* toe, 

Who lent his Grace a clout, 

And so they boxed it out. 


Now all embarked, this motley crew 
Each minute lessened to the view ; 
And soon will plough the boisterous main. 
Wealth, honour, and renown to gain. 
Jerus*lem*s barren lands, 
And Egypt's dreary sands, 
Like wandering pilgrims roam 
To bring much knowledge home. 


From Cork see Tom Fitzgerald ^ steers, 
His boat now trimmed in its best geers, 
To give Beau Whalley an escort, 
And see him safely out of port. 

And in a fishing boat, 

Astern was Lundy Foot,' 

With all his penny boys 

To make a roaring noise. 

Considering the early age at which Whaley was 
removed from school, he seems to have acquired no 
inconsiderable amount of education. He was certainly 
an observant and intelligent traveller, and in spite of 

* James Napper Tandy, the well-known rebel. He had a more 
serious conflict with the Beresford family afterwards, a prosecution being 
instituted against him in 1793 for a seditious pamphlet containing, 
amongst other things, severe strictures on that family, with a list of their 
places and pensions. He fled the country before the trial came on. 

^ Possibly Major Thomas Fitzgerald, one of the Delegates from 
Co. Cork to the National Convention, 1783 [Grattari's Memoirs^ iii., 467). 

^ A tobacconist who had risen to wealth and eminence at the time. It 
is said that when he first set up as a man of society in Dublin, fearing the 
laughter of the populace, he requested Curran to write a Latin motto for 
the coat-of-arms he intended to put on his carriage. The wit suggested 
" ^uid rides'' 

d 2 

xxxvi PREFACE. 

many distractions, must have spent much of his time in 
noting down such descriptive details as he has preserved 
of his visits to Gibraltar, Constantinople, Asia Minor, 
Jerusalem, and other places of interest. At Rome, he 
tells us that he spent eight hours a day for two months 
" in viewing whatever was worthy the notice of a 

The sketches he made during his wanderings, which 
were, however, unfortunately lost,' point to the possession 
of some artistic ability ; and his allusions to ancient 
history and mythology, his occasional quotations from 
the Latin poets, together with some evidence of a know- 
ledge of Greek, all go to show that he retained some- 
thing more than a mere schoolboy smattering of the 
classics. Where he chiefly fails as a writer is in the 
spelling of foreign names of places, some of which, as 
he gives them, are quite impossible to identify. The 
Memoirs were, however, compiled from notes made here 
and there through his travels, often, no doubt, in a 
hurried manner, and from casual information gathered by 
the way, and when after the lapse of some years he came 
to transcribe his disjointed memoranda, he had probably 
forgotten the less-known names, and may have been out 
of the reach of such books as would have enabled him 
to show more correctness in this branch of orthography. 

Not unconnected with the subject of his general 
attainments in the way of education, there is one feature 
of the Memoirs which is deserving of more than a 
passing notice. He gives in his pages exact copies of 
several inscriptions, which he took from the original 
slabs or tombstones in Jerusalem as they then appeared, 
although saying nothing as to what led him into this 

1 See;*05/, p. 307. ' Seepmt, p. 6. 

PREFACE. xxxvii 

branch of archasology, one seldom touched on by any 
but those who have devoted some serious study to 
matters of the kind. It might be suggested, and with 
plausibiUty, that his reproductions of these ancient writ- 
ings were intended to be used as further proofs of his 
having been in the Holy City, and with a view to 
convincing the friends who had wagered against his 
getting there. But the honesty of his confession of the 
purpose for which he obtained the certificates given to 
him by the Superiors of the conventual establishments 
at Jerusalem and Nazareth ' show that such suggestions 
are unnecessary. 

The importance of his readings of these early inscrip- 
tions lies in the fact that many of them are now no 
longer in existence, their destruction in 1808, just twenty 
years after he had copied them, having been effected by 
the Greek churchmen on the spot in their anxiety to get 
rid of all evidence that the Holy Sepulchre had ever 
been in the possession of the Latin, or Western, Church. 
Two of the inscriptions which Whaley transferred to his 
pages are to be found in the Itinerary of Fynes Moryson 
(London 16 17), although the fact does not seem to have 
been noticed by the chief authorities who have written 
on the subject ; but Moryson's readings differ from those 
given by Whaley, and, curiously enough, it is Whaley's 
versions that turn out to be the more accurate of the two. 

I have already referred to the anonymous nature of 
the manuscript throughout, and the skeleton form in 
which nearly all the names of persons are set down whose 
identity might lead to the discovery of the author. The 
texture of the veil is, however, so extremely thin as to be 
almost transparent. The work, as originally penned, 

* See poit^ p. 223. 

xxxviii PREFACE. 

obviously gave the real initials of all the individuals 
whose names are hinted at ; but when the manuscript 
came to be edited, it was evidently considered that the 
disguise was one too easy to be seen through, and we 
find that, at any rate in the first volume, the initials 
originally written have in many cases been erased, and 
others of a misleading kind have been introduced in their 

This tampering with the original text must, I think, 
have occurred subsequently to Whaley's marriage — 
possibly even after his death — the substituted letters 
being in a different, and what is manifestly a feminine 
hand. Amongst the changes effected in this way are 
the letters " W. M." as the initials of the author, written 
over an erasure on the title-page of Vol. I., and the 
frequent substitution of " Mr. N." as descriptive of 
Mr. Richardson, Whaley's stepfather, in places where 
" Mr. R." had obviously been previously written. 

The latter alteration has, however, been forgotten in 
some instances, even in Vol. I. ; and, as already men- 
tioned, Whaley's full name occurs in the same volume 
at page 224. Another important change effected in the 
text has to do with Whaley's relations with his " lady 
companion." By a stroke of the pen she is made his 
" wife " early in the first volume,' although in the second 
volume she is merely a " companion " or " friend — " except 
in a solitary instance where she is referred to as " Mrs. 
W — ," indicative, I fancy, of the assumed character 
under which she passed when living with him in Paris.'' 
Other similar amendments of the original text are 
referred to in the foot-notes as they occur. 

Whoever the editor may have been, his (or her) hand 

1 See past, p. 8. ^ $ec post, p. 310. 

PREFACE. xxxix 

seems to have been stayed before even the first volume 
was ready for the printer ; the second volume is, as a 
matter of fact, untampered with ; even such tell-tale 
phrases as " my brother-in-law, the Chancellor " being 
left untouched. The difficulty of preserving the desired 
incognito of the persons referred to, and of the hero in 
particular, may have led to the discontinuance of the 
work. Family considerations would of themselves have 
supplied a good reason for keeping it unpublished ; and 
there was one, at least, of high and influential position at 
the time who can hardly have been anxious to give the 
public an opportunity of gloating over the eccentricities 
of his wife's brother. Lord Clare may, in all probability, 
be assumed to have taken stringent measures to keep the 
manuscript from the eyes of the world, much in the same 
way as, at a later date. Lord Brougham took care that 
certain inconvenient portions of the Creevey Papers, 
popularly supposed to have contained reflections of a 
compromising character upon persons then living, should 
not be allowed even to reach the hands of Creevey's 
executors.' Clare's taking such a course is not rendered 
more unlikely by the fact of his having given orders 
when dying for the destruction of his own papers, a 
thing that we have reason to believe he did.^ 

While engaged in correcting the proofs of the 
Memoirs, I became aware of the existence of two other 
manuscripts connected with the subject of Whaley's life 
and travels. The first of these, brought to my notice by 
its owner, Mr. T. C. Greenfield of Sutton, Surrey, is 
contained in two plainly bound 4to volumes, and is to all 
intents and purposes a duplicate of my own, although the 
actual wording is occasionally diffisrent. It was given to 

1 Creevey Papers, Introd. p. xiv. ^ Diet. Nat. Biog. 


the present owner some twenty years ago, together with 
some notes in reference to Buck Whaley, by a Dr. 
Orlando Thomas Dobbin, an Irish book-collector, but 
without any information as to how it had come into his 
possession. I refer to it hereafter for brevity as MS. 
No. 2. It is without a title-page, or other indication of 
authorship, and the " Notice " is missing. It begins : 
" After having made the tour of Europe, etc.," but some 
earlier leaves have obviously been removed from their 
places. The Jerusalem inscriptions are wanting, the 
Nazareth Certificate, and also the numbered items descrip- 
tive of the contents of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
{post, pp. 200 — 207). Proper names of persons are 
represented by initials ; and erasures occur, at least in the 
first few pages, even more frequently than in my copy. 
It is quite possible that this MS. is in Whaley's own 
handwriting ; but if so it would seem to be a late copy, 
as the paper upon which it is written is water-marked 
" 1799 " all through. It may indeed have been the 
identical transcript prepared by Whaley himself for the 
press when he was about to publish the Memoirs, un- 
willing possibly that the handsomely bound copy should 
be used for such a purpose. The alterations which have 
been made in the text were evidently subsequent in date 
to Whaley's time, and the words which are occasionally 
substituted for passages crossed out are all in a lady's 
hand. Attention is drawn to these passages in the foot- 
notes later on. On the whole, the contents of this MS. 
are somewhat shorter than as they are given in my copy 
although in one notable instance there is quite a long 
account of an episode in Cyprus which is not even 
alluded to in my version. This will be found in the 
Appendix. On the other hand, the very full account of 


Cyprus given in the pages following (238 — 263) has 
practically no place in MS. No. 2 ; and indeed, so far 
as Cyprus is concerned, the journeys and incidents as 
described in the two narratives might very well be 
journeys made by two different travellers. Another 
remarkable feature of MS. No. 2 is that in it the amount 
stated to have been staked on the journey to Jerusalem 
is put at ;^2 5,000, while in my copy it is only ;^ 15,000 
(see post, p. 270), a discrepancy for which it is difficult to 
suggest any reasonable explanation. Some other varia- 
tions will be found noted from time to time as they 
occur. If this MS. No. 2 was not the copy intended for 
the printer, as I have suggested, it may perhaps have 
been a duplicate made for the use of Whaley's intimate 
friends, who might naturally be supposed to have been 
more interested in his actual adventures than in the 
results of his archasological researches, and for whose 
benefit the work was possibly docked of its drier details ; 
but even on this supposition it is hard to account for the 
omission of the Certificate which established the fact 
that the traveller had visited the Holy Land. Mr. 
Greenfield has been kind enough to give me many 
opportunities of inspecting his MS. and for this and 
other assistance I am much indebted to him. 

The second additional MS. has an interest and impor- 
tance of quite another kind, being an independent 
account of the Journey to Jerusalem written by Capt. 
Hugh Moore, Buck Whaley's travelling companion from 
Gibraltar to the Holy City, and from thence back to 
Dublin. This MS. was written on board ship,' as the 
writer mentions, and it has been preserved in the author's 
family ever since. Mr. H. Armytage Moore, of Rowal- 

' See Appendix. 

xlii PREFACE. 

lane, co. Down, the grandson of the writer, has 
generously lent it to me for the purpose of supplementing 
and completing Whaley's own account of this portion of 
the Memoirs. 

A peculiar value is given to this MS. by the fact that 
in it there is no attempt to conceal the names of the 
persons with whom the travellers came in contact ; and 
with its assistance I have been enabled to fill up a large 
number of blanks which occur in Whaley's narrative, or 
to confirm conjectural additions which I had already 
made from other sources of information. Some extracts 
from the original will be found in the Appendix. It 
commences at Gibraltar on the 6th November, 1788, 
and covers much the same ground as Whaley's journal 
as far as St. Jean d'Acre on the return journey from 
Jerusalem. Here it comes to an end somewhat abruptly. 
That it is incomplete is shown by the interesting 
Itinerary which is found on one of its last pages, and 
which contains a resume of the entire journey, with 
dates and distances, from Gibraltar to Jerusalem and 
from thence to Dublin.^ 

The language used in this journal of Capt. Moore 
is quite different from Whaley's ; but now and again 
there are passages which show that one of the writers 
must have copied from the other, or that both had 
incorporated material derived from a common source. 
Moore's account of Constantinople, its public buildings, 
antiquities, and other objects of interest, occupying some 
forty pages of the MS., is all in French, transcribed, as 
he says himself, from " an Itineraire " made by Mons. 
Grand, " a young Frenchman of observation " to whom 
he had been introduced by Sir Robert Ainslie, the 

^ See Appendix. 

PREFACE. xliii 

British Ambassador at the time. By way of explanation 
for its insertion, he states that he had himself been pre- 
vented from getting more than a cursory view of the 
Turkish capital owing to his constant attendance upon 
his comrade Whaley, who was an invalid during most 
of the time they spent there. Whaley's own description 
of much that he saw in Constantinople must necessarily 
have been derived largely from second-hand information, 
as he was obviously less able to go about the city than 
Capt. Moore. 

A particularly interesting page of this journal is the 
one on which is pasted the original certificate of having 
visited Nazareth, with the seal of the Convent of 
St. Mary attached. This document . is reproduced in 
facsimile at page 224. The original of the more impor- 
tant Jerusalem certificate seems also to have been pre- 
served at one time in this volume, but the leaf to which 
it was attached has unfortunately been torn out of the 

In the matter of inscriptions, Hugh Moore seems to 
have been even more of an antiquarian than Whaley, 
setting out, as he does, many of those which were then 
to be seen in Constantinople, in Greek, Latin and 
Russian, while his readings of those at Jerusalem are 
fuller at times than the versions given by his companion. 
Here again Capt. Moore was sometimes indebted to 
others, as he acknowledges, both for the originals and the 
renderings which occasionally accompany them. 

I am under a further debt of obligation to Mr. 
Armytage Moore for the photograph of Capt. Moore's 
portrait, which is reproduced at page xlii. 

I have taken as few liberties as possible with the 
original text of Whaley's manuscript, the changes intro- 

xliv PREFACE. 

duced being mainly directed to the correction of faulty 
punctuation, the cancellation of constantly recurring 
capital letters, and the occasional modernising of the 
spelling. In some rare cases where Whaley's language 
is somewhat too outspoken, I have indicated omissions 
from the original by asterisks. Any words added to 
the text will be found enclosed in square brackets [ ]. 

In addition to those already mentioned as assisting me 
in the editing of these Memoirs, I desire to express my 
thanks for aid and information to Mr. W. G. Wood, of 
Streatham ; Mr. John Whaley, of Annsboro, Naas, co. 
Kildare ; Miss Whaley, of Malahide, co. Dublin ; Mr. 
Thomas Cunnellon, T.C., Knutsford ; the Manageress, 
Fort Anne Hotel, Douglas ; Mr. Horace Headlam, 
of the Public Record Office, London ; the Assistant 
Librarian, Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall ; 
the Librarian of the Foreign Office ; Mr. F. Elrington 
Ball, of DubHn ; and the Secretary of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. 


"January, 1906. 


Portrait of Buck Whaley . . . Facing Title 


No. 86, Stephen's Green, Ddblin . . „ xi 

The Beaux Walk . . . . . . „ xv 

Fort Anne „ xxiv 

Portrait of Capt. Hugh Moore . . . „ xlii 

The Binding of the MS. Memoirs . . „ xlvii 

Sir Robt. Boyd, K.B „ 52 

Facsimile of a Page of Capt. Moore's 

Journal . . . . . . . „ 224 

William Beckford „ 294 

Lord Clare . . . . . • • » 33' 

:/U ,„^,;.„.-. -,./.7, .,./,,y, l.-'-U ,-. ,/■•/,/. 






in 1788. 




W M , Esq.* 



DUBLIN, 1797. 

[* See Preface, p. xxxviii.] 


I AM apprehensive that I shall be accused both of pre- 
sumption and singularity in thus obtruding myself on the 
notice of my friends and the public ; therefore think it 
expedient to detail the motives that influenced my 

Having during my solitary retirement often revolved 
in my mind the various scenes of life, in vsrhich I have 
been either a principal actor or merely a spectator ; and 
having always had within myself a secret friend and 
monitor, who persuaded me to make observations, to 
draw conclusions and to hoard up for riper years the 
lessons of experience ; I thought that a faithful picture 
of my youthful eccentricities, drawn with justice and 
impartiality, would not be unacceptable to my country- 
men, and particularly to my younger friends, who 
will find some few examples which they may follow 
with advantage, but many more which they ought to 

The energetic and sophistical Rousseau, the ingenious 
and excellent Lavater, the sublime and elegant Gibbon, 
have given instances and served as models for such pub- 
lications : why should I not presume in my humble way 
to follow their steps and lay in my claim to immortality ? 

It must be confessed that their pursuits in life have 
been quite different ; they have exhibited to the 



Philosopher, the Legislator, the Man of Letters many 
striking traits of originality. Some of them have led 
astray many a young man, many a good Christian, from 
the path of religion into the comfortless labyrinth of 
irreligion and infidelity. 

Disclaiming all such pretensions, I shall simply give 
a sketch of my actions and pursuits : I shall unfold the 
deepest recesses of my heart and unmask the various arts 
and stratagems that are used to mislead young men of 
great expectations, and to ruin their health, morals and 

The notes I have made and the various Journals I 
have kept of my voyages, that of Jerusalem in particular, 
enable me likewise to intersperse my narrative with 
much instructive matter and entertaining anecdotes ; 
many of which, though more ably communicated by 
eminent writers, yet have some novelty from the different 
manner in which I may have viewed and considered 

The imprisonment and death of the unfortunate 
Lewis the Sixteenth, and the boldness with which, from 
my eagerness to see and observe every thing, I approached 
some of the most formidable and atrocious characters, 
distinguished in that incomprehensible and ever to be 
lamented Revolution, enable me also to throw some light 
on that land of darkness and to discover some of the 
secret springs used to lead, under the seducing smiles of 
liberty, a good and loyal people into all the excesses of 
savage barbarity. Whatever I have seen and observed I 
shall faithfully detail, without presuming or attempting 
to misguide the reader ; claiming, as a reward of my 
sincerity, that indulgence which candour and impartiality 
are always sure to obtain. 


Should but one young man learn from these sheets 
some useful lesson, and stop in the career of folly and 
dissipation ; or one of my indulgent friends be induced to 
believe that my extraordinary levities proceeded, not from 
a corrupted heart, but an eccentric and exalted imagi- 
nation and ridiculous pretensions to notoriety, I shall 
think myself amply repaid for having attempted this 

t 2 




Introduction — My Birth — My Mother's Character — My Own — A 
Journey to France — Auch — The House Establishment of an 
Englishman in Foreign Countries — A French Bishop — A 
Match Proposed — An Intrigue — A Journey to Marseilles — 
To Lyons — An Acquaintance with Gamblers — Honesty of a 
Foreign Banker — Paris — A French Courtezan — An Assigna- 
tion — My Stepfather Introduced . . . • [ 7 ] 


My Return to Dublin — An Extraordinary Wager — A Sea Journal — 
Description of an Albacore — The Moorish Fleet — Gibralter 
— The Grand Battery — St. George's Hall — Poco Roco, or 
Eliott*s Parlour — Ince's Gallery — Willis's Battery or Queen's 
Gallery — The King's Bastion — St. Michael's Cave — Some 
Remarks on Gibralter . . . . . [ 33 J 


The Sea Voyage resumed — The Island of St. Peter — Sicily — Mount 
Olympus — A Storm — Smyrna — A Tandour — L* A vant 
Souper — The Custom-House — A Caravan — A Mosque — A 
Turkish Bath — A Lead-Foundry — Character of Pauolo, my 
Servant — A Turkish Burying-Ground — Journey to Constanti- 
nople — Magnesia — Its Governor — Preparation for a Battle [ 62 J 


Constantinople — Pera — Dancing Boys — The Grand Signior's Pro- 
cession to St. Sophia — View of Constantinople — The Grand 
Signior's Barges — Mosque of St. Sophia — The Character of 
Capitan Pasha — Our Reception — Turkish Fleet — Dervishes 
— The Seraglio [ 103 ] 



Constantinople continued — Pera — Its Antiquities — Obelisks — Cistern 
of Basilica — The Slave Market — The Coffee Manufactory — 
The Watch-Tower — The Seven Towers — Ramaden — A 
Bath for the Ladies — Character of the Turks — Dress — The 
Ladies — Their Food — Their Diversions — Arts and Sciences 
— A Turkish Billet-Doux — The Plague — The Police — The 
Grand Signior — Public Buildings — Marriages — Janissaries [ 127 ] 


Departure from Constantinople — The Dardanelles — Ancient Troy — 
Return to Smyrna — Homer's Cavern — Population of Smyrna 
— Ephesus — The River Meander — Fogia Nova — Seis — Patmos 
— A Greek Seminary — St. John the Evangelist — St. John of 
Acre — Nazareth — The Church of the Annunciation — The 
Governor of Nazareth . . . . , • [ ^55 ] 


1. An Allegorical Frontispiece. Pagt 

2. A View of Smyrna ........ 37 

3. Pauolo, my Faithful Servant . . . . . . 163 

4. Magnesia . . . . . . . . , • '77 

5. A View of Constantinople ....... 217 

6. My Presentation to Capitan Pasha .... 234 

7. The Grand Signior's Seraglio . . . . . 252 

8. A Turkish Lady Coming out of the Bath . . . 284 

[* The accidental loss of these sketches is referred to in the text, p. 107. 
For list of illustrations in this volume, see p. XLV.] 


Introduction — My Birth — My Mother's Character — My Own — A Journey 
to France —To Auch — The House Establishment of an Englishman 
in Foreign Countries — A French Bishop — A Match Proposed — An 
Intrigue — A Journey to Marseilles — To Lyons — An Acquaintance 
with Gamblers — Honesty of a Foreign Banker — Paris — A French 
Courtezan — An Assignation — My Stepfather Introduced. 

After having made the tour ot Europe and visited 
several parts of Asia and Africa ; having indulged myself 
in all the pleasures which a young man of a lively 
imagination, possessed of a large fortune, and entire 
master of his actions may be supposed capable of 
enjoying ; having vainly sought for happiness in the 
society of what is called the best company, and dis- 
tinguished myself as a man of gallantry * with the fair 
sex; * a little sober reflection has convinced me how much 
I was deceived in believing that a life of dissipation could 
produce enjoyment ; or that tumultuous pleasures led to 
real happiness. I now find that the latter can only be 
attained in a calm and retired life remote from the vortex 
of fashionable amusements, in the pursuit of which man 
may be said to live rather for others than himself; and 
where the transient pleasures he enjoys are constantly 
succeeded by pain and languor. 

* I am at present quietly settled in Ireland,' blessed 

^ See Preface. 
* The words between asterisks are crossed out in MS. No. 2. 


with the society of a wife' whose mild manners and 
amiable disposition form a striking contrast with the 
frivolousness, the vanity and tinsel which I formerly so 
much admired in my female acquaintances. 

My time is divided between the education of my 
children,* the improvement of my small farm, and the 
writing of these Memoirs, which I hope may prove of some 
service to youth in particular and to travellers in general. 

The former will discover the different modes of 
seduction practised by the artful and designing of both 
sexes ; a knowledge by which he may be a considerable 
saver, both in pocket and constitution. 

The traveller will find a description of the manners, 
customs and prevailing opinions of the different nations I 
have visited. He will be taught to shun the impositions 
and artifice practised upon strangers ; and at the same 
time learn to avoid giving offence by that overbearing 
pride and self-importance too common to our countrymen, 
and from the display of which, by our ostentatious 
travellers, the British nation has suffered greatly in the 
opinion of foreigners. 

I would not, however, have it imagined that these 
reflections are occasioned by a satiety of the world, or an 
incapacity of enjoying its pleasures ; but that they proceed 
from a full and firm conviction of their truth and utility. 

*I was born at Dublin in the year 1768." My father 
was a man of very large property, having amply provided 
for all his children, not less than seven in number : I had 
for my own share an estate of seven thousand pounds a 
year, besides upwards of sixty thousand pounds in money. 

1 See Preface. « Ihid. 

* The whole of this passage, to the 3rd line from the bottom of p. 10, 
is crossed out or removed from MS. No. 2. 


On my father's death, which happened when I was 
four years old/ the care of my education devolved upon 
my mother, who sent me to one of the first seminaries of 
Ireland, where I remained till I was fifteen. 

I shall beg leave to introduce my mother to the 
reader's acquaintance, lest he should imagine that the 
irregularities of my conduct, which he will have an 
opportunity of witnessing, by perusing these Memoirs, 
might have proceeded from her own bad example, or a 
neglect, on her part, in my education. 

My mother at the age of eighteen was married to my 
father, then in his fifty-ninth year. To a person 
remarkably handsome were united captivating manners, 
a well-cultivated mind and the most incorruptible virtue. 
But what raised her highest in the esteem of all who 
knew her, was the undeviating rectitude of her conduct 
towards my father, notwithstanding the disparity of their 
age, which would have been sufficient to have excited the 
malevolence of slander against her, had she given the 
least opening for it, by any levity in her behaviour. She 
was the mother of seven children, all of whom she 
brought up in the paths of religion and virtue : and 
whatever follies any of us may have committed, the 
cause could never be imputed to her. All her cares, 
all her anxieties were on our account ; and the 
most bitter sensation I feel in reflecting on my past 
conduct proceeds from the pangs I have inflicted on 
that most excellent woman. Indeed, I may attribute 
my reform in a great measure to the desire, which I 
never ceased to feel, of contributing to her ease and 

Three years after my father's death she married 

' See Preface. 


Mr. N ,' of whom I shall have occasion to speak more 

fully hereafter. This choice would in itself have been 
sufficient to have gained her the esteem of all who 
knew her, had she not so amply possessed it before. 

Ere I proceed in detailing the principal occurrences 
of my life, I wish to say a few words respecting the 
opinion I have formed of my own character. 

It is a just, though trite observation, that the most 
difficult knowledge is that of knowing oneself; for which 
reason I shall not attempt to give a finished picture ot 
my character, but merely sketch a few outlines, by which 
the reader may be enabled to form some judgment of my 
behaviour in the different scenes through which I have 
passed, and in which I have been a principal actor. 

The most prominent feature in my character, to 
which I may in a great measure impute all my mis- 
fortunes, is the extreme anxiety and impatience I always 
felt at the approach of any difficulty. To avoid an 
impending evil, I have formed plans so wild and extrava- 
gant, and for the most part so impracticable, that what 
I had before dreaded appeared light when compared 
with the distress I incurred by my own precipitate folly. 
Added to this, an impatience of all control whatsoever, 
and a temper always impelled to action in proportion to 
the resistance which it had to encounter; and it will 
no longer be a matter of surprise if I were continually 
entangled in some new and perplexing embarrassment. 

When I had attained my sixteenth year, *my mother 
thought proper * to send me to France in order to finish 

^ There is here an obvious erasure — the letter N being substituted. 
See Preface. 

* The words between the asterisks are crossed out in MS. No. 2, the 
words " it was considered right " being added. 


my education. For this purpose she assigned me a yearly 
allowance of nine hundred pounds, and placed me under 
the care of a tutor, who had been recommended to her 
by some persons of distinction in Ireland. He had been 
in the army, but his pay not corresponding with his 
expenses he was under the necessity of selling his 
commission to pay his debts, and had now taken up the 
profession of governor, or as it is sometimes termed 
bear-leader, to young men of family. He had had a 
good education, and profited considerably by the observa- 
tions he had made abroad. His heart was good ; but 
his constitution had been impaired by early intemper- 
ance ; and he wanted that address and firmness ot 
character necessary to superintend the conduct of a 
young man like me, on whom opposition badly managed, 
or authority indiscriminately exercised, always acted as 
a stimulus to excess. Though he proved an indifFerent 
Mentor, as will appear in the sequel ; yet I do not by 
any means wish so far to injure his memory as to lay to 
his charge the blame of my follies and eccentricities, 
which I am willing to take on my own account. 

I went to meet him at Bath, from whence we 
travelled to London in order to forward the necessary 
preparations for our journey to Paris. We had not 
long arrived at that place before I gave him a specimen 
of what he had to expect. 

One evening he proposed going to the play ; which, 
for certain reasons, I declined. 

On his return, he indiscreetly entered my room and 
found his hopeful pupil with very indifFerent company, 
of which, however, he took no notice ; but went immedi- 
ately to bed. In the morning I appeared before him 
with all the awkward bashfulness attendant on a first 


offence : but he soon reassured me by treating the matter 
as a bagatelle. 

Such a morality, so consonant to my own taste, soon 
reconciled me to the character of my tutor ; and for 
some time we lived together on the best terms imagin- 
able. We remained about three weeks at Paris. I 
shall not attempt to say any thing at present of this 
famous city, so many descriptions of it having been 
already given — I mean as it existed ten years ago — for, 
since the Revolution it may be described as a place that 
stood in such or such a degree of latitude : besides, as I 
often visited it since, I shall take occasion to say some- 
thing which may give an idea of its present inhabitants. 

From Paris we travelled to Auch, where I was to 
learn French, and perfect myself in the exercise of riding, 
fencing and dancing. This place was fixed upon by my 
governor, as he had many acquaintances there whom he 
was desirous of seeing. 

On my arrival I hired an elegant house, set up a 
pack of hounds, procured a stable of hunters, and estab- 
lished my house quite a I'angloise. But all this was not 
sufficient to satisfy my restless disposition. I therefore 
took a house at Cauterets and a small country residence 
at Bagneres, both situated in the upper Pyrenees, and 
much frequented on account of their mineral waters. 
I had likewise a house at Tarbes, which being the capital 
of the upper Pyrenees and the bishop's see, with a 
magnificent episcopal palace, was a most populous and 
gay city. All these places were but a few leagues from 
one another ; at each of which I took care to have the 
honours of my table done by some favourites. My 
tutor, in support of system, was determined to follow 
me at least half way ; and accordingly took under his 


protection another fair one, with whom he alternately 
visited one of my country houses. But though our 
taste and inclinations, in respect to the sex, were per- 
fectly similar, yet I found that we generally agreed better 
asunder, and therefore his visit at one of my residences 
was always a signal for me to remove to the other. 

In this manner I spent about a twelvemonth, during 
which time I made occasional excursions to Bareges, 
famous for its medicinal waters, where I exhibited all the 
folly and extravagance peculiar to our countrymen abroad. 

I passed the greatest part of my time at my house at 
Tarbes, as I found there an intimacy with the Prince and 

Princess de R R ,' who had been banished to their 

country seat through the intrigues of the Court. This exile, 
however, was attended neither with gloom nor melancholy. 
Their chateau, which was magnificent, was generally filled 
with people of the first rank, and the most remarkable for 
wit and talents. Gallantry was the principal pursuit of 
the inhabitants and visitors of this fairy castle. 

I became acquainted here with Monseigneur de T — 2, 
who spent all the time that could be spared from his 
pastoral functions, which required his attendance but one 
hour in the week, at the Prince's chateau. The austerity 
of the priest he threw aside with his clerical habit, and in 
•our ioci'e'ty was all life and spirit. I had the good fortune 
to be hdncJUfedsvithfais^'^iirticu^ai; attention, which from 
' %' p^sbh in Such h'i'gh^estimation could not fail of being 
very acceptable to a young rftan,,of my disposition. , I am 
indebted to him for much useful information respecting 
France, and I shall ever retain for him the greatest esteem 
and veneration. 

' Filled in In pencil in the MS. " R(ohan) R(ohan)." 
' de Tarbes in MS. No. 2. 


The Prince was one of those characters of whom 
nothing would be said, if he were not a Prince ! The 
Princess, on the other hand, must have attracted notice 
in any station : although past forty, she was still a fine 
woman ; and had something peculiarly pleasing in her 
manners and address. In public she condescended to 
treat me in the manner she would a favourite son ; but in 
a tete-a-tete she would have been much displeased had I 
behaved to her with the respect due to a mother ; and 
this, I firmly believe, without any criminal intent, but 
merely from the vanity of being admired. 

The following scene, which passed between the 
Princess, her daughter, and myself, will shew that how- 
ever deficient she might have been in female delicacy, 
she at least harboured no design against me in her own 

She had a daughter, who was at that time about sixteen ; 
and though not handsome she was lively and agreeable. 
One day the Princess invited me to breakfast with her on 
the following morning in her bedchamber. This is so 
common in France that it created no surprise in me : I 
accordingly repaired to the place of assignation. When 
I entered the apartment, the Princess was still in bed and 
her daughter seated on one side of it. Breakfast was 
served and we conversed for some time on indifferent 
subjects. At length the Princess, under pretence of 
examining a new pair of stays which her daughter wore, 
took off the young lady's handkerchief and left her neck 
entirely bare ; all the time observing me with a fixed eye, 
in order to discover how I should be affected at such an 
extraordinary behaviour. Astonishment, I believe, was 
strongly depicted in my countenance, and, libertine as I 
was, I could not avoid being shocked at so great an out- 


rage against female decorum. When the young lady had 
quitted the apartment the Princess asked my opinion of 
her daughter, and without waiting for my answer told 
me that the young person had conceived a very favour- 
able idea of me, and proceeded without further ceremony 
to propose a match between us. At first I looked upon 
this as a feint ; as I had conceived the idea that the 
Princess did not regard me with indifference herself. 
But on her persisting in the proposal, I expressed my 
acknowledgment in the warmest terms, and promised to 
write immediately to my friends on the subject, which I 
did that very evening. It was not long before I received 
an answer, which contained a positive disapprobation of 
the match, on account of the difference of our religions. 
This, I must own, was a circumstance which never 
occurred to me. My friends were not content with 
simply expressing their refusal, but wrote to my tutor, to 
remove me with all possible speed from Auch, in which 
perhaps he would have found some difficulty had it 
not been backed by a motive more powerful than his 
authority, and which I am going to relate. 

In the neighbourhood of Auch I became acquainted 

with the Count de V , a young nobleman of a 

large fortune, which he chiefly devoted to his pleasures. 
As our dispositions were so congenial, it is not extra- 
ordinary that a strict intimacy should soon have com- 
menced between us. At his house I fell passionately in 
love with a young lady of exquisite beauty. She was a 
relation of his, and as I had by this time pretty well got 
rid of that mauvaise honte which I carried with me to 
France, I did not hesitate long before I made her 
acquainted with my passion, and in a short time succeeded 
to the utmost extent of my wishes. Our intrigue was 


carried 'On with such circumspection that we concealed 
it from the knowledge of her mother, notwithstanding 
all her vigilance. But there was a third witness likely to 
intrude, of which we were not aware, and which rendered 
it necessary immediately to concert some measures to 
prevent its turning evidence against us. The best 
expedient I could devise was to make the Count a 
confidant of the whole affair, well knowing the looseness 
of his morals in everything in which women were con- 
cerned ; nor was I deceived in my expectations. His 
advice was to carry off directly his fair cousin from her 
relations, and remove her to some place where she might 
remain concealed till such time as it might be thought 
proper for her to appear again in the world. I accord- 
ingly conveyed her secretly to my house at Auch, where 
I intended she should continue during my residence in 
that part of the country. But unfortunately an Abbe of 
whom I learned French, and who had free access to my 
house, discovered the secret, and either through envy or 
resentment at not having been consulted in the affair, 
he read the poor girl so severe a lecture on the enormity 
of the sin of being connected with an heretic and the 
damnation that must ensue, that I found her, on my re- 
turn, bathed in a flood of tears and given up to despair. 
I comforted her as well as I could, and exhausted my little 
stock of morality, in order to convince her of the ab- 
surdity of this Abbe's assertions. It became, however, 
necessary to rerrioye her, for fear of worse consequences, 
to a place of greater security. As soon as this was 
accomplished, I went in quest of Monsieur I'Abbe, whom 
I found by the luckiest chance on the parade with some 
officers of my acquaintance. I reproached him in very 
severe terms with his unfashionable behaviour ; and 


chastised him on the spot, by giving him a very severe 

The Abbe made immediate application to a magis- 
trate, who without any process or form of trial com- 
mitted me to prison. I was, however, soon liberated 
by the interposition of the Archbishop of Auch, who 
passed his word that I should appear to answer any 
charges which might be preferred against me. 

In the meantime he wrote an account of the trans- 
action to the Minister, who immediately sent an order 
that the magistrate should be dismissed for the irre- 
gularity of his conduct : for that revengeful Abbe had 
brought no less a charge against me than of having 
insulted, violently assaulted and raised my sacrilegious 
hands against a Priest ; a crime which was punished with 
all the severity of the law, and for which the magistrate 
thought proper to have me imprisoned and dealt with as 
a common malefactor ; nor [do] I know whether I should 
not have been doomed to experience the same fate which 
the young and unfortunate Chevalier de la Barre suffered 
at Abbeville in 1766, had it not turned out, luckily for 
me, that this fellow only wore the dress of a Priest, and 
had never been ordained ; a fact, the certainty of which 
it was the duty of the Magister to ascertain before he 
had begun any criminal process against me. 

I mention this circumstance as one out of many to 
which I was witness, where the slightest offence was 
punished with the strictest severity ; and which may 
serve as a lesson to democrats and revolutionists, who 
have vilified the old government of France as a pretence 
for their massacres and pillage. 

Before I left Auch I consulted one of the most 
experienced lawyers, upon the best means of conveying 


away my protegee, without risk to her or myself. His 
advice was, that she should [meet] me at a small distance 
from town, in the presence of some witnesses, who would 
be ready to prove that it was she who inveigled and 
carried me off. This was a subterfuge practised in 
France to evade the severity of the law against seduction. 

At length I quitted Auch, where I had expended 
above eighteen thousand pounds, and repaired with my 
beauteous Helen to Lyons, and from thence to Montpellier, 
where she was delivered of a daughter who died shortly 
after. When the mother was sufficiently recovered to be 
removed, I placed her in the Convent of the Tiercelets 
and allowed her a pension which was regularly remitted 
to her until all communication was stopped between 
England and France. Since that time all my endeavours 
to discover what became of her have been fruitless. 

After this inconsiderate proceeding, I went to spend 
some time at Marseilles, on a visit to my sister' who was 
settled in that city ; and as she was acquainted with most 
of the principal inhabitants, I passed my time very 
agreeably among them. I was enraptured with the 
vivacity and cheerfulness of these Provenjals. 

The Marseillese ladies are in general handsome, 
excessively gay and without the least restraint in their 
conversation ; using the most familiar and unrestrained 
expressions to gentlemen as well as to each other without 
the least ceremony. This freedom of speech, however, 
keeps the bon ton at a distance ; and though very pleasing 
in their own circles, becomes very vulgar and tedious to a 
nice observer. I was young, had a respectable train of 
servants and spoke the French language tolerably well : 

^ Probably Lady Stewart. 


this was more than sufficient to gain me admission into 
all their parties. But my versatile disposition, or rather 
my evil genius, prompted me to quit this pleasant and 
harmless society and return to Lyons, where I met with 
an adventure, from which I may date all my subsequent 

In this city I could find nothing to amuse me, if I 
except the sumptuous entertainments I gave to all those 
who chose to partake of them. Magnificent balls and 
suppers to the ladies, extravagant and expensive dinners to 
the gentlemen, succeeded each other in quick rotation. 

The people of Lyons are very different from those of 
Marseilles. The latter only think how to make life 
agreeable, while the former concentrate all their enjoy- 
ments in the eagerness of making a rapid fortune. As an 
instance of their interested character, I shall relate a 
circumstance not generally known ; and which I should 
not have discovered, had not a Lyonese girl led me into 
the secret. At Lyons there is a league formed between 
the shopkeepers and the other inhabitants against all 
strangers who come to visit them. It is usual for 
foreigners to bring letters of recommendation to some of 
the principal inhabitants for the purpose of procuring 
lodging and assisting them in the purchase of whatever 
they may stand in need of These complaisant con- 
ductors have ten per cent, from the merchant upon every 
article which he sells by their recommendation, and for 
which he of course takes care to reimburse himself in 
the price of his commodities ; so that the purchaser pays 
ten per cent, more than he would have done, if he [had] 
gone alone to the shop ; and at the same time looks upon 
himself as much obliged to his friend for his assistance in 
obtaining what he thinks a good bargain. 

c 4 


The rich and the poor are here employed in their 
shops and warehouses from morning till night. The 
spirit of gain is the sole active principle which prevails in 
this vast magazine of luxury, which distributes its various 
articles to the four quarters of the world. 

As to the Lyonese ladies, they possess but few 
attractive charms. A certain apathy and listlessness of 
manners destroy the effects of any beauty with which 
nature may have endowed them ; and which is further 
injured by those monstrous wens, from which very few of 
them are exempt. I had no resource therefore, but in 
the pleasures of the table. 

Among my numerous friends and acquaintances were 
two Irish gentlemen, whose names I shall conceal ; 
because I only wish to impeach myself. I lived with 
them in so close an intimacy, that in a short time we 
became inseparable. Some time afterwards I received an 
anonymous letter, cautioning me to beware of my new 
friends, who were represented to be a couple of desperate 
gamblers, come from Spa, for the express purpose of 
making me the dupe of their execrable trade. They had 
received information of my residence at Lyons from one 
of their emissaries, whom they employed in such places as 
young men of fortune were likely to resort to. I paid but 
very little attention to this advice, as I never observed in 
either of them the least inclination for play : besides, I 
was so little addicted to it myself, that I did not believe 
they had sufficient influence over me to induce me to 
play, even were they so inclined. However, I shewed 
the letter to my tutor, who was of opinion that I should 
entirely avoid their company, and gave me some further 
exhortation against every species of gaming whatsoever : 
yet I was so infatuated with my new acquaintance, that I 


disregarded this good advice and the admonition of my 
unknown friend. 

Some time afterwards we were invited to dinner by 
the two gentlemen, which invitation my tutor declined : 
nor could I ever learn what motive induced him not to 
accompany me to a place which he himself thought 
dangerous. This gave occasion for many of my relations 
to think that he was a party concerned in the scheme. 
But they certainly did him injustice. He was, it is true, 
a man of free principles, but I could never accuse him 
of anything unfair or dishonourable ; besides, it was no 
uncommon thing with him to excuse himself from parties 
to which we were both invited. I therefore went alone 
to encounter this pair of worthies. 

They had taken care to provide a handsome company 
of female beauties, who by their persuasion and example 
induced me to sacrifice so liberally to Bacchus at dinner, 
that before the dessert was introduced the glasses seemed 
to dance before me. Nothing would then satisfy them 
but we must drink champagne out of pint rummers, 
which soon completed the business. 

When I was in a proper state for them to begin their 
operations, they one and all proposed playing at hiding 
the horse. I was in no condition to refuse anything, 
and soon acceded to their proposal, and without being 
scarcely conscious that I was engaged in it I lost 
fourteen thousand eight hundred pounds on my parole, 
exclusive of my ready money, carriage, jewels, etc. 
I know not why they even stopped here ; for I was in 
such a state that they might have stript me of my 
whole fortune. I cannot, however, feel myself much 
indebted for this instance of their forbearance. They 
contented themselves for the present with a bill for the 


amount, which I drew on La Touche's Bank, and [I] 
then went to bed in a state of torpid insensibility. 

The first thing I did in the morning was to com- 
municate the whole transaction to my governor, with 
which he was visibly affected : but as he saw the state of 
mind I was in, he forbore saying anything that might 
add to my distress, but rather endeavoured to console me 
by saying that the evil was not without remedy, and that 
at least it would have one good effect by rendering me 
more cautious and prevent me from ever falling into such 
hands for the future. This, though a negative sort of com- 
fort, joined to the natural strength of my animal spirits, 
restored me in some measure to a state of tranquillity. 

I did not enjoy it long. My banker, on whom I had 
drawn for so enormous a sum, communicated the affair to 
my friends before he would honour the bill. They 
advised him by no means to pay it, and it was returned 
protested. This was a most mortifying piece of intelli- 
gence to the fraternity ; yet they were not without their 
expedients : they advised me to repair immediately to 
London, where, upon my fortune being made known, I 
should find no difficulty in getting my bills discounted to 
any amount I thought proper. As a further inducement 
for me to undertake the journey, they offered to remit 
half the debt, provided I should succeed in procuring the 

My tutor was much averse to this scheme, which, he 
said, would entirely ruin him in the opinion of my 
relations, whose friendship it was so much his interest and 
inclination to preserve. But upon my representing to 
him the advantage of getting rid of half the debt he at 
length consented, and the following plan was concerted 
between us, in order to conceal from my friends my 


departure from France. I was to leave with him a series 
of letters to my mother, of diiFerent dates, according to 
the periods I usually wrote to her, which he was to 
dispatch occasionally as if I had been actually on the spot. 
This, I must own, I did rather to avoid giving my 
mother pain than to remove any anxiety I felt on his 
account. I then drew a bill upon Dublin for two 
thousand louis-d'ors, with part of which I paid some 
debts I owed at Lyons, and the remainder was to bear my 
expenses to London. Matters being thus arranged I set 
out with one of my creditors, leaving the other with my 
tutor, who I believe would gladly have dispensed with 
such a companion. 

Before I take leave of Lyons and those good-natured 
friends, I must mention a trick played on me of a different 
nature ; but which, if we consider both the parties con- 
cerned, had more knavery in it. In the company of 
gamblers, we are, or should be, on our guard; knowing that 
plunder is their trade: but we confide in men of business, 
from a supposition that they cannot injure us without 
hurting their own credit. The following fact, however, 
will be a caution to travellers how they sign bills of ex- 
change abroad without strictly examining their contents. 

I had by this time an unlimited credit on P — d at 
Paris. My friends thought this was one of the many 
expedients which might be tried to save me from ruin, 
and reclaim me from my follies, by inspiring [me] with a 
sense of honour and gratitude ; and if it had not the 
desired effect, it would at all events prevent me from 
raising money by having recourse to usurers. 

This Mr. P — gave me letters of credit on all the 
principal towns which I visited. I drew on him from all 
parts of France, and whenever I owed him ^2000 he 


sent me two bills of exchange, as first and second, on my 
banker at Dublin, of the same amount for me to sign, 
which I always did without hesitation. But when I 
came afterwards to settle with my agent at home, I found 
that many of these bills had been paid twice over. This 
vile negotiator had drawn them in such a manner as to 
make them appear of different tenour and dates. All my 
attempts to rectify this mistake and recover the money 
have hitherto been fruitless : for whenever I wished him 
to confront my checks with his letters of exchange, he 
always found some pretence or other to prevent the 
investigation. I have reproached him in his own house 
with the infamy of his conduct ; and this I have done at 
a time when it was so dangerous to have any diiFerence 
with a man who was flourishing under the reign of 
Robespierre. I can assert with truth and upon my 
honour, that I do not think I have been defrauded of less 
than ten thousand pounds in this manner. So much for 
the honesty of a foreign banker. 

On my arrival at Paris we took up our lodgings at 
the Hotel Jacob, Faubourg St. Germain. In the evening 
I went to the opera, where chance placed me near a lady 
of exquisite beauty, whose occupation it was not difficult to 
discover, and who, as I soon perceived, set me down as an 
object worthy her attention. A conversation therefore 
commenced between us, in the course of which she 
proved herself a perfect mistress of that species of dialect 
which is called jargon in France. After the opera I 
offered my hand to conduct her to the lobby, where she 
took the opportunity of telling me that her horses being 
all out of order, her brother, who was a captain in the 
army, had attended her to the opera in his carriage, under 
a promise of returning after the performance. As she did 


not perceive him, she hoped it was not trespassing too far 
to request I would send one of my servants to call z. fiacre. 
After expressing my astonishment at the want of attention 
in her brother, I congratulated myself on its effects, as it 
gave me an opportunity of being in some degree useful to 
her. I pressed her to accept of my carriage, to which, 
after much well-acted repugnance, she consented. I 
accompanied her to the house, where I found everything 
in the most magnificent style, and perfectly consonant 
with the way of living of a person of the first rank and 
fashion. However, there were immediately such prepara- 
tions made as did not seem intended for her inattentive 
brother, nor could I help being struck with the analogy 
of my case to that of poor Gil Bias in a like adventure. 
However, the good opinion I had of myself, the beauty 
of the lady, her engaging and fashionable manners made 
me soon forget the comparison. Nor did I think myself 
so little versed in scenes of this nature as to suffer myself 
to be duped by such an artifice. I remained, therefore, 
perfectly satisfied with my own reflections, and attributed 
my good fortune to my own merit and address. Supper 
was soon served up, which consisted of a variety of 
delicacies and the most exquisite wines. 

During our repast she gave me a short account of her 
history. Her husband had a considerable employment at 
Court, and was then in attendance upon his Majesty at 
Versailles. I had dismissed my carriage that I might 
have some pretence for lengthening my visit, which I 
procrastinated till three o'clock in the morning, when I 
left her, highly pleased with my evening's entertainment, 
and not without having previously obtained her per- 
mission to pay my respects the following day. 

I became now her constant ckisbeo, and her husband 


was so much engaged in his attendance at Court, that he 
had the civility never once to interrupt us. I thought 
myself the happiest young fellow in Paris or London. 
One day, however, I found her buried in thought and 
overwhelmed with the most unfeigned sorrow ; nor could 
I at first prevail on her to disclose to her bosom friend 
the cause of her uneasiness. After repeated entreaties 
she confessed to me that the preceding night, having 
supped at the Duke de — , she had been induced to play, 
and had lost, besides her ready money, one thousand 
louis-d'ors on her parole ; which, if she did not pay in the 
course of the day, would not only dishonour her in the 
great world, but would be the subject of eternal animosity 
and reproach between herself and her husband. 

I was so struck with her grief and the plausibility ot 
her story, that swift as an eagle I flew to my Hotel and 
laid at her feet every sol I had in my possession, which at 
that time did not exceed ;C7o°- Quite overpowered 
with my generosity, she thanked me in the most 
courteous manner, and whatever I could do and say, she 
would not accept more than £s°°i saying that with the 
help of that sum she should be able to make up the whole 
before evening. 

I was never better satisfied with myself, in my life, 
than when I returned to my Hotel, ^^500 minus in 
pocket ; but with the consciousness of having rescued an 
amiable young woman of fashion from shame and ruin. 
I was so intoxicated with her charms and her fondness 
for me, that if she had asked two thousand guineas I 
should not have rested a moment till I had raised that 

I do not know how much longer this infatuation 
would have lasted, if my creditors had not pressed me 


very much to proceed to England. I therefore left my 
charmer with all the anguish and throbbings of a young 
and inexperienced lover, fully determined to return to her 
as soon as my affairs should be settled in London. 

But I suppose she was glad the farce was over ; for by 
what I felt and experienced in the sequel, it could not 
remain much longer concealed that she was nothing 
better than an intriguante. 

As soon as I arrived in London, I endeavoured to get 
my bills discounted ; but without effect. I had not been 
many days in the capital, when one evening a stranger 
entered my room and delivered to me the following 
letter : — 


"I am now the miserable inhabitant of a 
Convent, into which I have been forced by my friends : 
were it not for the expectation of regaining my liberty, I 
should convince them that I prefer death to a confine- 
ment so repugnant to my temper and disposition. From 
what I have heard of your character I have conceived the 
flattering hope that you will exert your utmost endeavours 
to deliver me from this captivity. As a proof of my 
gratitude I shall be happy to lay myself and fortune at 
your feet. 

"The person who will deliver you this letter is the 
husband of my nurse, who is still with me ; they are both 
in my interest ; and you may place an implicit confidence 

in him. 

"Signed, C— : P— :" 

I knew very well that Miss P — was at Paris, in the 
same Convent with Lady B — , her intimate friend, to 
whom I had been introduced. I knew likewise that 


Miss P — 's fortune was twenty-five thousand a year, 
besides two hundred thousand pounds in ready money. 

Though I never had the pleasure of seeing this rich 
heiress, yet considering my personal merits and the lady's 
acquaintance with Lady B — , her application to me 
seemed perfectly natural and consistent with reason. I 
read the letter over several times, examined the super- 
scription, and at every interval cast a look at the bearer, 
to trace if possible any marks of deceit in his countenance; 
but I could perceive none : he answered all my questions 
with such simplicity and appearance of candour that I 
could no longer doubt of the fact. 

He told me that he had received the letter from his 
wife, who enjoined him to use all his endeavours in per- 
suading me to return with him to Paris, as her mistress 
was very impatient to see me and to concert measures for 
her escape. I at length dismissed him, desiring that he 
would come in the evening when he should have his 

My Irish companion, to whom I communicated the 
intelligence, was in raptures at the prospect of such a good 
fortune, and confirmed me in the design of repairing 
immediately to Paris. But, unfortunately, I had not in 
my possession more than ten guineas remaining out of 
two thousand I had received two months before at Lyons. 
In this difficulty I had recourse to my banker for a 
supply, which he positively refused, as he feared, and not 
without reason, that my return to France would be but a 
renewal of my former follies. Upon this I found myself 
under the necessity of shewing him the letter, which 
when he had read I was both pleased and astonished to 
find him entering as warmly into the project as if he had 
been a young man of eighteen, without reflection or 


experience. My banker was a man of strict honour and 
probity: without guile himself, he suspected none in 
others ; and though engaged all his lifetime in business, 
was as ignorant of the wiles and deceit of mankind as if 
he had been the inhabitant of another world. He 
offered me all the money I should want for the occasion ; 
but wished first to see the bearer of the letter, that we 
might regulate our motions accordingly. 

When I mentioned this to the foster-father of the 
young lady, he was by no means pleased with the 
communication I had made, and represented the risk he 
should run of being discovered an accomplice in carrying 
off a person from a convent, a crime always punished in 
France with the utmost severity of the law. I quieted 
his apprehensions by assuring him that he might depend 
upon the discretion of my banker. He told me he would 
consider of it, and that he would have no objection to the 
interview in case he could do it without danger to 
himself. In the course of two days he returned and 
agreed to accompany me to the banker's. 

We all three met and dined together at a tavern in 
Covent Garden. After some conversation it was finally 
determined that he and the banker should set oif directly 
for Paris to prepare matters, and they should inform me 
whenever my presence became necessary. While we 
were giving orders about procuring a carriage my servant 
came to inform my new acquaintance that a person 
wished to speak to him. At this I perceived that he was 
visibly affected. He went out and soon after returned, 
saying he was the most unfortunate man in the world ; 
that one of his creditors had found him out and got him 
arrested, so that it was impossible he could proceed to 
Paris. The banker demanded how much the debt was. 


and on being told it was £iS°, he immediately. advanced 
this sum, upon which the other retired, as we thought, to 
pay his creditor ; but he did not think, proper to return : 
nor have we ever set eyes on him since. 

One would imagine that this was sufficient to have 
unravelled the whole plot ; and it is certain that if I had 
been left to my own determination I would have given 
up the point without further inquiry. Not so my friend ; 
he was too sanguine in the prospect of my advantage not 
to persevere while there remained any hope of success. 
His next step was to consult my creditor, who watched 
me like a tipstaff lest I should slip through his fingers. 
His advice was, and for which he had no doubt good 
reasons, that the banker should procure some person of 
the law who could speak French to accompany him 
and advise him in the steps proper to be taken on their 
arrival at Paris. He was not long in finding one fit for 
his purpose, whom he engaged under promise of allowing 
him jC5°° f°'' his attendance. 

They soon arrived at Paris, and lost no time in 
repairing to the convent, where they were immediately 
admitted to the presence of Lady B — , to whom they 
presented their credentials, I mean the letter addressed 
to me. When she had read it, she desired Miss P — 
to be called ; who no sooner cast her eyes on the letter 
than she burst into a violent fit of laughter in which 
she was joined by her companion, to the manifest 
confusion of the two adventurers, who, finding the whole 
to be a gross and manifest forgery, slunk away and made 
the best of their way back to London. 

This was not the worst part of it ; for exclusive of 
paying the attorney the stipulated sum, the banker had 
the additional mortification of seeing the whole afi^air 


detailed in all the papers under the title of "A Trip to 
Paris, or the Banker taken in." 

I found afterwards that the whole had been a plot 
laid by the fraternity for the purpose of inveigling me 
to the Continent, where they hoped not only to get me 
arrested for the bill I had drawn on Dublin, and which 
had been returned protested ; but to pursue their further 
operations and schemes on me with greater security than 
they could do in London, surrounded as I was by my 
friends and relations. But though they failed in the 
main point, their principal agent had profited something 
by his sham arrest. 

My health was now so much impaired that I found 
it absolutely necessary to apply to medical assistance. 
Unluckily it happened that I was recommended to a 
physician of eminence who was well acquainted with my 
family in Ireland. He immediately conveyed an account 
of the state in which he found me, and of my conduct 
in general, with which few indeed were unacquainted. 
My step-father Mr. N — ' was affected beyond measure 
at such an unexpected piece of intelligence, and lost no 
time in repairing to me himself. 

Although the character of Mr. N — be well known, 
I cannot resist the desire I feel of rendering homage to 
the eminent qualities of that incomparable man, and 
to pay him this small tribute of respect and gratitude. 
He is at once the tender husband, the warm friend 
and generous benefactor. He is possessed of such 
extensive knowledge, of manners so conciliating, as 
would alone have procured him friends, were he not 
endowed with every other qualification that can com- 

1 Mr. N — on this and the next page appears as Mr. R — in MS. No. 2. 
See Preface. 


mand and ensure the love and veneration of his fellow 

I was much afflicted at the sight of this sincere 
friend, who upon entering my apartment told me that on 
the first intelligence of my illness, he had come to convey 
me to his lodging, where I should be better accommo- 
dated than at a public Hotel ; and at the same time be 
at some distance from a society to whom I might impute 
the greatest part of my misfortunes. He reprobated in 
very severe terms the conduct of my governor, who, he 
said, might at least have accompanied me to London, 
since he had not sufficient authority to prevent my 
coming myself. He next took my creditor to task for 
the atrociousness of his conduct in pillaging a young 
man and enticing him away from his tutor, in hopes of 
raising money at an exorbitant interest in London, by 
which he had introduced sorrow and distress into a 
respectable family. This was so little relished by the 
person to whom it was addressed, that he thought proper 
to call Mr. N — to account for the liberty he took with 
his character. Mr. N — was not a man to be brow- 
beaten, and the affair might have had serious conse- 
quences but for the interposition of some friends who 
contrived that the matter should be settled in a manner 
more pleasing to all parties. 


My Return to Dublin — An Extraordinary Wager — A Sea Journal — 
Description of an Albacore — The Moorish Fleet — Gibralter — The 
Grand Battery — St. George's Hall — Poco Roco, or Eliott's Parlour 
— Ince*s Gallery — Willis's Battery, or Queen's Gallery — The King's 
Bastion — St. Michael's Cave — Some remarks on Gibralter. 

When I had sufBciently recovered my health, I 
accompanied Mr. R — ^ to Dublin, where I was received 
and treated like the Prodigal Son. I took a house, hired 
a number of servants, and upon looking into my affairs, 
found that I had expended, exclusive of my ready money, 
about twenty thousand pounds of my fortune. Still, 
however, I might have been happy ; I had an ample 
property remaining and was caressed by my friends, who 
looked upon my past follies with indulgence and as 
merely proceeding from the ebullitions of youth. 

This quiet life did not suit my volatile disposition : 
in order, therefore, to vary the scene, I sent over to 
London for a female companion, with whom I had been 
intimate, and who immediately accepted the invitation. 
I had no motive whatever in giving her the preference 
but that she was an exotic. My inamorata was neither 
distinguished for wit or beauty ; but I will do her the 
justice to say that she had none of that rapacity and 
extravagance so common with the generality of her 
profession. What I expended on her account was 
from my own free will and suggestion. I hired her a 
' See Preface. 


magnificent house, suitably furnished, and settled an 
allowance of five hundred a year on her : this was merely 
pro forma, for she cost me upwards of five thousand. At 
her house I kept my midnight orgies, and saw my friends, 
according to the fashionable acceptation of the word. 

But soon growing tired of this manner of living, I 
conceived the strange idea of performing, like Cook, a 
voyage round the world ; and no sooner had it got 
possession of my imagination, than I flew off at a 
tangent with my female companion to Plymouth, in 
order to put my plan in execution, which was to pur- 
chase a vessel of two hundred and eighty tons burthen, 
and to carry twenty-two guns. I entered into treaty 
with a builder, who engaged to furnish me with one of 
the above description for ten thousand pounds, equipped 
in every respect, and to be ready in the space of four 

This affair settled I returned to Dubhn, where being 
one day at dinner with some people of fashion at the 
Duke of L — 's,^ the conversation turned upon my in- 
tended voyage, when one of the company asked me to 
what part of the world I meant to direct my course first, 
to which I answered, without hesitation, " to Jerusalem." 
This was considered by the company as a mere jest ; and 
so, in fact, it was ; but the subject still continuing, some 
observed that there was no such place at present existing ; 
and others that, if it did exist, I should not be able to 
find it. This was touching me in the tender point : the 
difficulty of an undertaking always stimulated me to the 
attempt. I instantly offered to bet any sum that I would 

1 Duke of Leinster's — William Robert, the 2nd Duke, whose town 
residence was Leinster House, since occupied by the Royal Dublin 


go to Jerusalem and return to Dublin within two years- 
from my departure. I accepted without hesitation all 
the wagers that were offered me, and in a few days the 
sum I had depending on this curious expedition exceeded 
twelve thousand pounds.^ 

My whole mind was now engaged on this new 
project. I was inflamed with the desire of doing what 
had not been attempted by any of my countrymen, at 
least by those of my own age ;• and I figured to myself 
the pleasure I should feel at my return to my own 
country after having accomplished this undertaking : 
what admiration I should excite by the detail of my 
wonderful adventures, my hairbreadth scapes, and the 
descriptions I should give of the beautiful Turks, Greeks, 
and Georgians, and all the farrago with which my heated 
imagination was filled. 

I was now nearly of age, and Mr. N — ^ peremptorily 
insisted that I should again examine the state of my 
fortune ; with which request, however unwilling, I was 
under the necessity of complying. I found it still more 
diminished by the variety of my dissipation and extrava- 
gance. This worthy man, with the greatest delicacy and 
gentleness, represented to me then, that the way of life 
in which I was engaged, must inevitably lead me to ruin ; 
that my extraordinary, not to say scandalous, establish- 
ment formed for the English lady did not stand me in 
less than five thousand a year ; that the annual expense of 
my ship, exclusive of the first cost, would amount to as 
much more ; and that at the rate I proceeded, I must in 
a short time be reduced to indigence, and depend for 
support upon my friends and relations : that the attach- 
ment of the former, as I have since experienced, would 

' " Fifteen thousand pounds," MS. No. 2. ' I.e., Mr. R— , see Preface. 

D 2 


cease, when the sunshine of my fortunes, by which they 
were now attracted, should disappear ; and as to the 
latter, he knew my pride of heart too well to suppose 
that I could live under the mortification of owing the 
means of existence to any one, however nearly allied. 
He then addressed me in the following affectionate 
manner. " My dear M — i, do you look upon me as a 
friend ? " I assured him that the proofs he had given 
me of his friendship were too deeply engraven on my 
heart ever to be erased ; that I looked up to him as a 
father, and that I should ever esteem it as my greatest 
happiness to be permitted to call him by that sacred title. 
"Well then," said he, with tears in his eyes, "I conjure 
you by your friendship and ' the regard you allow me to 
have, that you will part with this woman and abandon 
the wild scheme of the voyage : that you will bestow 
your whole attention on the adjustment of your affairs ; 
on fixing an establishment suited to your income ; and, 
finally, that you will think of uniting yourself to some 
person of prudence and virtue, which will be the means 
of saving you from that precipice on which you are now 
tottering : you will then become a good husband, a good 
father and a good citizen ; three essential qualifications 
for every honest man, and without which there can be 
no real enjoyment in life." 

Had he required of me any other sacrifice than the 
two above mentioned, I should have complied without 
hesitation ; but these were my favourite hobby-horses : 
and though I would not offend Mr. N — - by a direct 
refusal, I requested he would give me till the next day 
to consider of it ; which interval I employed in deliberat- 
ing how I could best soften my non-compliance with his 

' There has been an erasure here of a W, see Preface. ^ Ihid. 


request, so as to avoid giving him offence. This I could 
not do in such a manner but that the good man was 
sensibly touched at my strange infatuation ; and any other 
but himself would have at once abandoned me to my fate. 
But his zeal to serve me was as steady as my perseverance 
in my own undoing was obstinate : so that by dint of 
argument and persuasion, he at length prevailed so far as 
to exact a promise from me that I would at least comply 
with half his request, and give up either one or the other, 
leaving the choice entirely to myself. 

As I was now really attached to the lady, I agreed to 
give up the ship, if he would undertake to get her off my 
hands ; which he did by means of a small compensation to 
the builder, who, I understand, afterwards sold her to the 
Empress of Russia. 

This matter being settled, my whole attention was 
directed towards my expedition to Jerusalem, in which I 
intended my fair one should accompany me. But the 
inconveniencies of a female companion in traversing so 
much sea and land were pointed out to me in such a 
manner as induced me to give up that part of my scheme ; 
and I accordingly left her in London on an allowance of 
two hundred a year, which was regularly paid her till all 
my property was sold. 

Having now arranged everything which I thought 
necessary for my pilgrimage, I set out for Deal on the 
20th of September, 1789,^ where I was joined by 
Mr. W — ,2 who had promised to accompany me. I 
hired a vessel called the London, to carry me to Smyrna 
and touch at Gibralter. On the 7th of October we went 
on board and set sail immediately. 

' Obviously a mistake for 1788. 
* Mr. Wilson, see Preface. 


October the gth. 

We commenced our voyage with favourable gales, 
and this day we found ourselves in the Bay of Biscay. 
The sea ran prodigiously high, and for several hours the 
motion of the ship surpassed every thing I had ever seen 
or felt before. The sea rolled over our heads and washed 
every thing off the deck. One prodigious wave striking 
the ship in the counter, set her for some moments on her 
beam-ends, knocked the man from the helm, and almost 
killed him : on my endeavouring to assist him I nearly 
shared the same fate, as I was thrown by another sea 
with great violence against my companion, and had my 
hip and thigh bruised in a most shocking manner. 

Night coming on, it blew harder and harder, and 
though the sailors termed it a hard gale, I really thought 
it deserved the appellation of a heavy storm ; nor was I, 
if countenances are allowed to reveal the emotions of the 
mind, the only person on board of that opinion. The 
captain himself acknowledged it to be the hardest gale he 
had encountered for seven years. 

The return of day, however, promised us more 
moderate weather ; and the wind shifting, we had in a 
few hours even less of it than we wished. I now began 
to feel the vanity of human wishes, and the late storm 
having made me somewhat religious I could not help 
reflecting how little we are able to judge for ourselves. I 
had, some hours before, most fervently prayed for less 
wind, and now I was about to invoke heaven for more ! 
These considerations naturally induced me to be satisfied 
with the calm rather than have it exchanged for a storm. 

My friend and I had been informed, when in London, 
that it was expedient, considering the hazardous expedi- 
tion we were going to undertake, that we should let our 


beards grow, in order that we might [be] as little noticed 
as possible in those countries we intended to visit ; which 
could be effected only by dressing ourselves as much as 
possible in the habit of the country. Accordingly, we 
had not shaved since we left London ; so that by this 
time we really appeared ridiculous and grotesque figures. 
We would more than once have undergone the operation 
of the razor had we not been well assured that a long 
beard would be of more use to us and protect us more 
efficaciously than long swords, or all the guards we could 
procure. This appeared to us a better scheme than either 
to fight the Arabs or make them large presents. 

October the \t,th. 
Early in the morning I was awoke by the noise of 
the crew on deck, who had a large fish fast at my line ; I 
got up just time enough to see him brought on board. 
This fish, known to the sailors by the name of Albacore, 
was the most beautiful I ever beheld : it had in shape 
and colour much the advantage of the Dolphin, remark- 
ably strong and full made at the shoulder, and tapering 
towards the tail. He weighed thirty-seven pounds when 
gutted, and it was out of my power to [prevent] the cook 
from cutting him open before he was a moment out of 
the water. I observed that while he underwent the 
severe operation of having his inside taken out, he lay 
as if totally devoid of feeling ; but scarcely had his 
entrails been taken from him, when, as if to make 
amends for his apparent torpor, he beat the deck with 
such astonishing violence and rapidity that it was im- 
possible to approach him. At length I was pleased to 
see an end put to his miserable existence by a blow with 
an axe, which the cook gave him on the head, which 


cutting it almost asunder, entirely deprived this beautiful 
animal of life. 

I observed one peculiarity in this fish, which I should 
[not] pass over unnoticed : I remarked his heart to be as 
large as that of a half-grown lamb, and curiosity having 
led me to take it up in my hand, I was much astonished 
to find it so convulsed as to force open my fingers when 
pressed upon it. I laid it down and took out my watch 
to see how long it would retain its motion, and much to 
my surprise the heart moved on the deck for nearly two 
minutes after I had thrown it down. It was a most 
excellent fish, and for several days was served as the first 
dish at table. I saw with regret that we could not replace 
him, and therefore ordered some of it to be pickled, and 
found it as good as any sturgeon I had ever eaten. 

October the 2.0th. 

We saw a whale quite near us. This stupendous 
animal did not in the least appear to mind us : it seemed 
to keep company with the ship, and followed it for many 
minutes, spouting up water to a very great height, and 
once he was so near as to wet our mizzen half way up 
with the spray. Had we been at all provided with 
harpoons, we might, I am certain, have made him a very 
easy prey. 

October the o.bth. 

We had now been six days beating to windward, 
expecting every day to weather Cape St. Vincent ; and 
what was most extraordinary [was], that let us be on which 
tack we would, whether steering East, West, North, or 
South, we were sure to have the wind change, as we did, 
and blow directly in our teeth. This led me to remark, 
that, in order to live pleasantly at sea, two quahfications 


were absolutely necessary : in the first place, a man must 
possess an uncommon share of philosophy, and in the next 
a good stock of patience ; particularly if he has the mis- 
fortune of being confined to a merchant ship, with a long 
voyage before him, absent from all the endearing objects 
of his heart, and the wind constantly against him, with 
no appearance of a change in his favour. In a situation 
like this, one has much time for reflection. I hope that 
those I made may be of service to me, and by way of 
assisting them, I proposed to my friend to drink a bottle 
of Madeira, and set his philosophy and mine afloat 
together. This succeeded beyond my expectation ; the 
heavy hours passed away in jocund merriment. We 
forgot that the wind was against us, and night coming 
on, we slept as well and contentedly as if we had the 
most prosperous gales in the world. 

The next morning we saw a number of fishing boats 
off the Spanish land, and through my glass I could dis- 
cern the village of Saltas in the land of Sinas, or Bodden- 
does,i so called from the redness of its soil. Saltas, as well 
as I could judge at the distance of two or three leagues, 
is a neat pretty village situated at the foot of a very high 
hill. The country on both sides is very beautiful, and 
mostly covered with underwood. I should have liked to 
go on shore ; but not having bills of health for the place, 
and [my] knowing the strictness observed by the Spaniards, 
in preventing all strangers from landing on any part of 
their coast, especially from on board a Turkey ship, 
induced me to give up all thoughts of it. Besides, the 
captain related to me a circumstance which some years 
[before] happened to himself. He was then mate of a 
merchantman bound to the Levant, and finding the ship 

1 I cannot identify any of these places. 


weather-locked upon the Spanish coast near Malaga, he 
was desired by the captain to go on shore in search of a 
few necessaries. He had scarcely landed when he was 
seized and carried before a magistrate, who sent him to 
prison, where he lay for upwards of ten days, till the ship 
went to Gibralter and the Governor was informed of the 
circumstance, who on application had him restored to 
liberty, though not till after he had paid the gaolers very 
considerable fees. This was more than suiRcient to shake 
me in my resolutions, and I was obliged to content myself 
some time longer with the exercise that walking the 
deck afforded. 

At length the wind became favourable, and the 
captain revived our spirits by informing us, that should 
the wind keep as it was, we should be in Gibralter in 
thirty-six hours. I had now been twenty-one days on 
board, and when we sailed from the Downs we expected 
that much less than half that time would have set us on 
the Rock. I could not help growing a little impatient, 
and the more so as I had a long voyage before me and 
little time allotted to perform it. 

I had not much leisure to cherish these pleasing 
expectations, as in a few hours the wind kindly returned 
to its old quarter. My patience began to be nearly 
exhausted ; for the more I endeavoured to reason with 
myself, the more I was convinced of the fallacy of human 
happiness : one moment we were elated with appearances, 
which vanish in another ; and reason, which we are told 
should be our support, only serves to convince us more 
fully of our wretched insignificance. In my opinion, a 
man should either be a Seneca, or quite a fool, to pass 
through life with any tolerable share of comfort. I am 
confident that I am no philosopher, and though I have 


vanity sufficient to prevent me from thinking myself a 
fool ; yet were I called on to give my opinion, which of 
the two characters I think the most likely to conduce to 
happiness, I should not find it a hard matter to decide in 
favour of the latter. 

October the ijth. 

At break of day we saw the coast of Barbary, distant 
four leagues, and soon after we were abreast of Cape 
Spartel, when we were very much alarmed at the appear- 
ance of several ships within gunshot of us, which we 
discovered to be the Moorish Fleet. It consisted of six 
small frigates, that seemed to mount from twenty to thirty- 
six guns each. They appeared to be full of men, above 
twice the number we have in ships of that size ; notwith- 
standing which they obeyed their signals very clumsily. 
Yet on the whole I thought the ships sailed well on 
a wind, and had they been more expert at handing 
[.'' handling] and setting their topsails, they would have 
kept tolerable pace with us. We observed them after some 
time make a signal, which immediately gave us the alarm : 
the foremost ship ordered the boats to be hoisted out, and 
on the first being let down into the water we were 
sufficiently aware of their intentions not to wait for a 
second. We crowded all the sail we could, and were in 
about two hours out of their reach. 

These boats most undoubtedly were intended to board 
us : whether their views were hostile or not, I cannot 
decide : but in either case it would have reduced us to 
the dire necessity of performing forty days quarantine at 
Gibralter, as we afterwards learned, had we been boarded 
by any ship whatever from the coast of Barbary. 

We sailed close along the Barbary shore, and found a 


strong tide hurrying us into the Gut of Gibralter, at the 
rate of seven knots. The coast appeared very wild and 
the shore very bold all the way from Cape Spartel to a 
very high land, called Apes' Hill, from the number of 
animals of that name that is seen on it. The face of the 
country is rocky, and yet covered with much underwood, 
which has an uncommonly wild appearance. Here and 
there you are struck with a romantic prospect, and some 
spots are very pretty. But as you proceed to the east- 
ward the country carries with it the appearance of an 
uninhabited sandy desert. 

On the following morning we found ourselves in the 
very centre of the Gut or Mouth of the Straits ; and on 
both sides the most beautiful sea-landscape offered itself 
to our view ; on the South the uneven surface of the 
Barbary shore forming itself into a bay, at the West end 
of which is the town of Tangiers ; on the North, nearly 
opposite, and on the Spanish shore, is the beautiful village 
of Tercese [.?]. The immense height of the rocks ascend- 
ing perpendicularly from the surface of the sea strikes 
the imagination with sublime though awful ideas. 

In the middle of the Channel that runs between these 
two shores, as you open the entrance into the Mediter- 
ranean, there runs a tide, which in the summer months 
always sets in to the westward ; and to the eastward in 
the winter months, at the rate of five knots. From the 
manner in which this tide appears to boil up in different 
places I should imagine the ground to be very foul, or 
that there runs a contrary tide at the bottom, either of 
which would give it the appearance it now has. 

I cannot be supposed to affect feelings that may be 
fairly called peculiar to the moment, when in the midst 
of that immense body of water which washes a shore of 


no less than three thousand miles, even in a direct course, 
to the head of the Black. Sea, I discovered so many new, 
interesting and variegated scenes, which were much 
heightened by the reverberation of the sound of cannon 
through a chain of mountains, and the setting sun 
plunging itself into the Atlantic directly central to our 
situation, and which was sometimes obscured by the 
interposition of impending clouds. 

On Wednesday, October 29th, we discovered the 
Rock of Gibralter. I had remained on deck from five 
in the morning with all the eagerness that curiosity 
and expectation could inspire. The renown of that 
memorable siege was too fresh in my memory not to be 
stimulated by the greatest impatience to hear those facts 
recorded on the spot which immortalized its brave 
defenders and their veteran chief. 

I had from earliest youth formed a wish of visiting 
Gibralter, and the eagerness with which I waited for the 
time of my getting on shore is not to be described. But 
I was never more disappointed in my life than at the first 
appearance which this so much celebrated place [seemed] 
to present at two miles' distance from the sea : nothing 
to strike the eye but the height of the rock and a few 
straggling houses : not the appearance of a battery, or 
the smallest indication of a fortified place. Nor was my 
opinion peculiar to myself in this respect, for I have 
heard since that a stranger on his first approach to 
Gibralter must necessarily be somewhat disappointed 
from the first view [that] place offers from the sea. But 
how soon is he undeceived when he sets his foot on 
shore, and with what pleasure and admiration does he 
gaze on everything he sees around him. Nature and art 
have gone hand in hand for many years : and if nature 


has been lavish of her favours, art has done much indeed; 
and is still exerting herself to improve her wonderful 
productions by rendering this celebrated fortress abso- 
lutely impregnable, to advance the grandeur and glory, 
the interests and honour of the British name. 

I was just stepping into the boat to go on shore when 
the captain requested I would return to the cabin and 
look at myself in a glass : nor could I help laughing at 
the ridiculous appearance I made. In dressing my hair 
the servant had taken care to powder my beard, which 
was now grown an inch long. I therefore held a council 
of war whether or not I should appear before the 
Governor in such a manner ; and the majority giving it 
against me, I was obliged to yield to the considerations of 
the present, and lose sight of the motives of prudence 
which had made me take these precautions against the 
future. Consequently my venerable beard was condemned 
to undergo the operation of the razor, and it required aU 
the exertions of my persuasive eloquence to get a respite 
for the poor whiskers. 

I inquired my way to the Governor's, and as I 
proceeded through the streets was much [struck] with 
the variety of figures that I met running promiscuously 
backward and forward, and the odd and confused noise 
resulting from a dozen different languages spoken at once. 
Jews of all nations. Moors, Turks, and Christians were 
indiscriminately mixed together, each having a different 
dress, countenance, and religion. To me all was mas- 
querade. I could not have been more amused in the 
centre of the Pantheon ; nor hit upon a character to 
which I could have done more justice than the one I 
naturally filled at the time, viz., that of a country booby, 
gaping and staring at all I saw. 


I did not find his Excellency^ at home ; but having 
been informed of my arrival, he had done me the honour 
of leaving an invitation for my friend and me to dine 
v^fith him at three. We strolled about the town till that 
hour, viewing and examining the devastations committed 
during the late siege. We were received with all that 
easy politeness and affability of manners which so 
eminently distinguish his Excellency's character, and 
denote the gentleman, as well as the social companion. I 
had the honour of being well acquainted with the General 
some years before, when he was on the staff in Ireland, 
during the administration of the late much lamented 
Duke of Rutland, whose public and private virtues can 
only be forgotten when time is no more. 

He recollected me with pleasure, and I knew suffi- 
ciently of my friend the General to be certain of meeting 
with excellent cheer at the Governor's. 

We ate, drank, laughed and talked a good deal for 
the time, but early in the evening the company broke up 
and I was going to retire when my friend recommended 
me to his secretary, Mr. B — , who, in order to make 
me pass the evening as pleasantly as possible, had invited 
a party of young people to a little dance. Though rather 
fatigued, and in boots, I could not withstand the tempta- 
tion, when I was presented to a very beautiful young 
Spaniard, agee de seize ans, aussi fraiche que jeune, et 
aimable que jolie. My pretty partner did not dislike a 
fandango. Her uncle, as he was called by some, though 
others informed me that he was more nearly related to 
her, played the base-viol. He was a fat friar of the 
Franciscan order, and so much of the bon-vivant as to 
have been excommunicated by the Pope. 

1 General Geo. Augustus Eliott, Lord Heathfield, K.B. 


After I had danced for three hours, I found myself 
under the necessity of asking quarter from my fair 
partner ; and I found much more pleasure in the conver- 
sation of this beautiful girl than I had experienced even 
in gratifying her in the fandango. 

The next day I received visits from several of the 
officers of the Garrison, among whom I had the pleasure 
of meeting with many old friends and school-fellows, 
vying with each other who should shew me the greatest 
politeness. Accompanied by some of them, I walked out 
to see the town. We first examined the storehouses and 
barracks that had been destroyed in the lower part of the 
town, and which had not been rebuilt since the siege. 
Afterwards we visited the different batteries that are con- 
structed at the foot of the Rock : among the most re- 
markable are Orange Bastion, Montague Bastion, Saluting 
Battery, King's Bastion, Prince George's Battery, and 
South Bastion. They are situated on the Line Wall to 
the west of the town. There are many other batteries 
on the different heights above, to support these in time 
of action. 

As we were proceeding to make the tour of the 
different works that defended the bottom of the Rock, 
we arrived at Waterpoint, where we found the Com- 
modore's, now Admiral Cosby's, boat, just come on shore 
in order to conduct me on board the Trusty. He received 
me with the most friendly cordiality ; and after inquiring 
about all our mutual friends in Ireland and England, he 
offered me every assistance that lay [in] his power ; telling 
me I might command his boat whenever I should want 
her ; and as the most curious and interesting part of the 
Rock must be seen by water, this kind offer, of which I 
availed myself several times, was of the greatest service. 


and enabled me amply to satisfy my curiosity. From 
thence we visited the Grand Battery, situated on the 
north, and thirty feet in height. It commands the two 
entrances from the isthmus into the garrison ; and in the 
last siege this battery, with only half its guns in play, was 
more than sufficient to prevent any boat from landing at 
any part of the isthmus, having the entire command of 
both the northern entrances which run parallel to each 
other. I spent much time in examining and admiring 
this great battery ; but the General's hour for dinner 
approaching, I was forced to make a precipitate retreat, 
and was lucky enough to find myself in good time. 

It is the fashion in Gibralter, as well as in London 
and Dublin, to complain in the midst of a most sumptuous 
repast, of the hardness of the times and the dearness and 
scarcity of provisions. I was assured, however, that they 
were then as much so as during the siege, owing to the 
disagreement which subsisted between the garrison and 
his Moorish majesty, who had taken it into his head to 
quarrel with them and refuse them provisions. It was 
even said that in one of his drunken fits he had sworn 
by his beard never to be on better terms with Gibralter. 

Our next excursion was to view and examine St. 
George's Hall and Gallery and the different embrasures 
cut out of the solid rock, that have been made and are 
still carrying on, at an immense expense. The morning 
being uncommonly warm, and our intended promenade 
being on a continual ascent, we thought it proper to hire 
mules. As we ascended the hill, every object struck me 
with new and pleasing sensations. The first thing I ob- 
served was the apple geranium, growing everywhere spon- 
taneously, and in full bloom ; likewise in different places, 
the variegated geranium ; while the general face of the 


Rock produced at this season a considerable luxuriance 
and verdure, and was ornamented with neat cottages built 
by officers, and many gardens formed and cultivated with 
vast labour and expense, the produce of which every 
proprietor of grounds sends to the common market, after 
the wants of his own house are provided for, and which 
afford a supply tolerably adequate to the great demands 
of this numerous Garrison. The uncultivated parts of the 
Rock produce vast quantities of the Palmetto, with a 
considerable variety of more humble plants and aromatic 
herbs. But the quantity of ruins still visible and the 
number of respectable habitations that were reduced to 
mere wrecks recalled to the mind of the spectator all the 
sufferings their inhabitants must have experienced during 
the siege. 

The town below had the most picturesque appearance ; 
the number of different batteries planted in, every quarter 
and seen at one view, make [one] consider with surprise 
the temerity of an enemy that would dare to approach 
within their range. In our ascent we commanded a very 
distinct view of the Causeway and Inundation from lower 
Forbiss^ to Landport, and the whole range of Line 
Wall from thence past the new Mole as far as to 
Roscia Bay. 

After we had made considerable progress in our ascent 
to St. George's Cave, we stopped for some minutes to see 
a cavern called Poco Roco, or small cave, in which 
General EHott, late Lord Heathfield, resided for some 
time during the commencement of' the late siege: This 
Uttle rock is situated nearly four hundred feet from the 
surface of the sea, and about one-third ol the way up the 

1 Forbes's Barrier is evidently intended. See Drinkwater, " Siege of 
Gibraltar," pp. 204, 205. Plan. 


Rock. The General had the front of it built up, and he 
lived on this spot for a month when the Spaniards first 
began the attack. They had the incivility to throw^ 
many shells near this humble abode, with a wish to 
dislodge this brave veteran. 

From Poco Roco Cave, now called Eliott's Parlour, 
we remounted our mules, and rode upwards of one 
hundred feet higher up the Rock, when we arrived at the 
entrance of Ince's Gallery, so denominated after the name 
of the man who planned and executed that great work. 
We unlocked the door and proceeded forward into this 
wonderful Gallery, hewn out of the solid rock. It 
extends in length, from the entrance to the most easterly 
part, seven hundred and seventy feet. In that whole 
extent, its gradual descent is about eighty-four feet : its 
breadth about eighty feet, and its height from seven to 
nine feet. 

It has fifteen different ports or embrasures, each of 
which is occupied by a long thirty-two pounder. These 
guns are supplied with ammunition from seven magazines 
hewn out of the rock of the Gallery, at equal distances ; 
and in time of a siege they can be played with 
astonishing effect on the Spanish lines, without the 
possibility of receiving any injury. 

When you arrive at the end of this Gallery, you enter 
St. George's Hall. Here, if possible, your astonishment 
is still increased, and you are really lost in amazement ; a 
vast and magnificent Hall opens to your view, into which 
you descend from Ince's Gallery by a spacious flight 
of steps. 

St. George's Hall has seven large embrasures, by 
which it is lighted : three of them are to the east, three 
to the west, and one in the centre, to the north. The 

E 2 


floor of the Hall from the steps to the north part is forty- 
six feet : its extreme breadth forty, and its height in 
general eighteen. The thickness of the rock through 
which the ports are cut is fifteen feet, and each port has 
a long thirty-two pounder. 

I observed to my friend how very highly I thought 
this vast subterraneous work was finished, and in what a 
masterly manner the workman must have used his chisel, 
so as scarcely to leave an edge or the least roughness on 
any part of the rock, which was polished with the 
greatest care : but my astonishment much increased when 
they informed me that it was intended to have the Hall 
and Gallery wainscoted from one end to the other ; this 
would answer a most salutary purpose in case of a 
desperate siege, when the barracks of the town should be 
destroyed. Here would be a capital retreat for the 
soldiers, and they would be better lodged than troops 
usually are in the best barracks. Their hammocks might 
be slung to the ceiling and drawn close by pulleys during 
the day. Their firearms could be most commodiously 
hung in gun-racks along the side of the Gallery, and 
there would be here at once complete barracks large 
enough to lodge six regiments. 

After I had spent full three hours in viewing with 
much pleasure St. George's Hall and Ince's Gallery, we 
descended the Rock and came to the old batteries at 
Willis's, so called from the name of the person who first 
constructed them. 

Under Willis's we went to see another curious work, 
now carrying on and nearly finished, called Queen's 
Gallery : it is similar to St. George's and extends north 
and north-west. When finished it will add exceedingly 
to the strength and security of Gibralter ; as there will be 


an excavated communication between all the lines, by 
which ammunition of every kind can be conveyed at all 
times wherever it is wanted. 

From Queen's Gallery we descended the hill and 
went to the King's Bastion, begun fourteen years ago. 
The first stone, which weighed seven tons, was laid by 
General Boyd' on the 28th of March, 1774. His 
speech upon this occasion seems to have been dictated by 
the spirit of prophecy. 

"May this work, which I nominate the King's 
Bastion, repel the united efforts of France and Spain ; and 
may it be as ably defended, as I make no doubt it will be 
skilfully constructed." ^ The brave veteran lived to see 
his prayer fulfilled in all its parts, and his remains are now 
deposited in a tomb constructed by his own order in the 
centre of the Bastions. 

This great battery is of a semicircular form : its 
estimate was laid at twenty-one thousand pounds, but, like 
all other estimates, by the time it was completed it did 
not cost less than fifty thousand. It was from this 
Bastion that the flat-bottomed boats, or floating batteries, 
were destroyed by red-hot shot during the late siege. 
General Eliott had dining tables made from the wrecks of 
these boats, on which I had several times the pleasure of 
dining with the Governor. 

After our morning's excursion we returned to town a 
good deal fatigued, I in particular, by the excessive heat, 

1 Lieut.-Gen. Sir R. Boyd, K.B., Colonel of 39th Foot, in 1788 
Lieut.-Governor of Gibraltar. 

' This speech as given in Drinkwater's " Siege of Gibraltar," 4th ed., 
1790, runs as follows : — " This is the first stone of a work which I name 
the King's Bastion : may it be as gallantly defended as I know it will be 
ably executed, and may I live to see it resist the United Efforts of 
France and Spain." — p. 290. 


to which I was not inured like my companions. I dined 
this day at the mess of the i8th Foot, with my friend, 
and as it turned out, my future fellow-traveller. 
Captain M — -^ 

I partook here, as indeed at all the other tables in the 
Garrison, of most excellent cheer, a well-regulated mess, 
good cookery, excellent wines and a most gentlemanlike 
society. With these inducements I trust I may be 
pardoned for having been tempted to excess ; particularly 
as I had an object in view, which I thought of much 
importance, and was determined to carry my point this 
evening, if possible. 

My friend with whom I dined was at this time just 
going to become his own master, having obtained leave 
of absence and being about to return to England with the 
Commodore, who was then quitting this station. It was 
my anxious wish to prevail on him to defer his visit to 
England and join me in my intended expedition, in 
which I was so fortunate as to succeed, and from this 
moment we considered ourselves as embarked in one 
common cause, in which we felt equally interested. 

We terminated, at a late hour, a jovial, pleasant 
evening, and parted to meet the next morning for another 

Saturday, Nov. ist. 

I was determined to explore St. Michael's Cave, as I 
did not wish to leave Gibralter without seeing this 
wonderful work of nature. The Governor had promised 
me every assistance I should want, and accordingly he 
had the goodness to send me twelve chosen men with 
torches, and a guide, with two hundred fathoms of rope 
to facilitate my subterraneous descent, as I was determined 

' Capt. Moore. 


to go to the bottom of this cave, or at least, as far as any 
other person had ever been. 

At nine in the morning I set out, accompanied by 
Captain S — 1 of the Royal Engineers and my friend 
Captain W — .^ We were mounted on mules and 
clambered up a very steep ascent. We arrived after an 
hour's ride at the mouth of the cave, where having 
refreshed ourselves with some Madeira, and summoned up 
our courage, we followed, with torches in our hands, our 
Genoese guide, and after encountering many difficulties, 
arrived at the first great chamber of this wonderful 

It would be ridiculous in the extreme for me to 
attempt the description of those awful beauties which 
surrounded us on all sides. The different crystallizations 
and the many fantastic structures which appear to support 
the ceiling of this great ante-chamber require, to be truly 
delineated, that descriptive talent which so peculiarly 
distinguishes the writings of some of our poets ; where 
the beauties of nature are heightened by the glowing 
traits of taste and imagination. From what I had seen 
I felt myself inspired with the most eager desire to 

We descended from this first great apartment, by the 
assistance of ropes, about sixty fathoms lower, where we 
landed ourselves in nearly the same kind of chamber we 
had left above. Having provided ourselves with straw, 
we had it lighted, and in a few moments the whole place 
was illuminated. Reversed pyramids of petrified water, 
thirty and forty feet in length, hanging from the ceiling 

^ Either Alexander Sutherland, Charles Shipley, or Thos. Skinner, 
according to the Army List for 1788. ' Wilson. 


everywhere, and reflecting the light in different colours, 
had the most beautiful appearance, and struck the 
imagination with the most sublime ideas. The air still 
retained its salubrity, and the only unpleasant circumstance 
that occurred to us was the number of bats, which 
everywhere flew against us and interrupted our solitary 

We remained in this second chamber till all our straw 
was consumed, and then proceeded on our journey by the 
help of ropes which were fastened at the entrance. We 
descended almost perpendicularly fifty fathoms. I now 
began to find my body rather heavy for my arms to 
support much longer ; and with some impatience asked 
my guide below me whether we should soon get to the 
bottom. He answered me that we had already reached 
it. I made haste to follow him, and soon found myself 
on my legs. I remained some time panting for breath 
and much exhausted. As soon as my friend W — had 
joined me, the rest of the party having already deserted 
us, we proceeded to the spot which our guide informed 
us was the bottom. This last apartment was not half the 
size of the other two, and the crystallizations had totally 
altered their form. Instead of the long petrified icicles, 
the whole ceiling and sides of this chamber appeared 
covered with large bunches of grapes, of different colours, 
red, white and blue, as exact as if the fruit itself had been 
hung up everywhere. I broke off several, and have kept 
them since as a great curiosity. 

Our guide now told us that we had seen all that was 
worth visiting, and advised us, on account of the foulness 
of the air, to go no lower. I asked him if he had ever 
known anyone to have gone farther. He said he had 
himself gone about twenty feet lower, and afterwards 


found it impossible to proceed, as the passage became too 
small for a man's body. I was however determined to 
go on, and lighting a new torch, I ordered him to lead 
the way. We descended with much difficulty, as the air 
began to be quite mephitic. Our torches went out, but 
happily we had left a large flambeau burning at the 
entrance of the second cave, which my guide was obliged 
to fetch, leaving me all the time in the dark. I began 
to be much incommoded with the damp, as we were in 
the most violent heat, occasioned by the hard exercise of 
lowering ourselves by ropes. 

I saw nothing here so curious as what we left some 
hundred feet above our heads : the crystallizations were 
smaller, and the water in greater abundance, dropping 
from all quarters. Our guide was pressing us to return, 
when I perceived a small aperture, which he wished to 
prevent my seeing. I asked him why he had not shewn 
it. He said that no one had ever been lower, except the 
two soldiers, who two years ago, had attempted to force 
themselves into this hole ; that, indeed, they had suc- 
ceeded in getting in, but never found their way back. 

On examining the size of the hole, I thought it suffi- 
ciently large for the dimensions of my body. I thrust 
my head and shoulders into it, and perceived that at the 
distance of five or six feet it took a different direction, 
and appeared to go perpendicularly downwards. I ascer- 
tained this fact by throwing my torch into it, which 
disappeared suddenly : we heard it for some seconds 
falling with a hollow noise, which at last subsided, and 
on looking into the hole, I perceived a very clear light at 
a great distance. I was therefore determined to endeavour 
to proceed a little farther, and if possible to go to the 


When we examined our rope we found that we had 
•only about the sixth part of the two hundred fathoms 
remaining. I fixed it round my shoulders and between 
my legs, and began to let myself down : the hole grew 
so small that it required much strength and resolution to 
proceed. I did not lose courage, but forcing myself for- 
ward I found I was, after a struggle of a few minutes, as 
low as the torch, and to my great surprise at the bottom, 
where no human being had ever yet been. I called to 
my friend, whose voice I could distinctly hear, informing 
him that I was really at the bottom, and that the air was 
by no means bad but very cold. He was determined to 
follow me ; I endeavoured to dissuade him, as I knew the 
size of his body to be too large for the narrow parts of 
the passage ; but he was positive, and got as far as the 
spot I dreaded, when, forcing himself on, he remained 
fixed for some time without being able to proceed up 
or down ; nor could he, as he afterwards informed me, 
utter a syllable. What first apprised me of our danger 
was the quantity of smoke, which not finding vent above, 
from the obstruction of his body, almost suffocated me 
below. I made all possible haste to get back, as the 
smoke increased in such a manner as almost prevented 
my respiration. I now found myself in the last ex- 
tremity, but was determined my courage and presence of 
mind should not forsake me, and finding that my life 
depended on my exertions, I struggled like a person in 
the last agonies of death, and in a little time found 
myself returned to the spot where I had left the guide. 
My friend was quite exhausted and breathless : nor could 
we speak for several minutes, and had he remained a little 
time longer in the narrow passage, he and I must inevit- 
ably [have] perished. 


We found ourselves so weak that our return to the 
land of the living was by no means an easy task. It was 
both difEcult and fatiguing to raise and pull ourselves up 
by our hands, placing our feet against the rock and 
holding fast by the rope, which was now become so wet 
that it required much strength to prevent its slipping 
through our hands, and our faUing to the bottom. 

After some hours' severe labour we had the pleasure 
of once more seeing daylight, and found ourselves at 
the mouth of St. Michael's Cave ; where I answered the 
inquiries of my friends by fainting away, and it was some 
minutes before I recovered my senses. We had been five 
hours in the cave, and were it not for the ridiculous vanity 
of saying that we had gone lower than any other person, 
and quite to the bottom, half an hour would have shewn 
us whatever was most curious and best worth our notice. 
I had the rope measured, and found that I had been as 
low as the level of the sea. The only benefit I reaped 
from this expedition was the ample materials for mirth 
and raillery it afforded my friends, who pretended that it 
had been my intention to perform my journey to Jerusalem 
through the bowels of the earth. 

After having spent a few days more in examining 
every natural and artificial curiosity of this place I 
thought it prudent to proceed on my voyage. I there- 
fore took leave of all my friends and acquaintance, 
thanking them for the friendly and encouraging reception 
they had given me. 

I cannot dismiss this subject without making a few 
general remarks on this spot. For, in my opinion, there 
can be nothing in Europe, or in the world, that can offer 
to the curious traveller so many objects to admire and 
investigate as Gibralter. He might spend a whole 


month very pleasantly in examining its natural beauties 
alone. And the artificial works, surpassing everything of 
the kind in the world, would afford him ample materials 
for study and improvement. 

To appearance, indeed, Gibralter must strike the eye 
as a barren rock, yet wherever it is cultivated, which is 
done in some spots by collecting earth together, it yields 
vegetables in great abundance. Sometimes it does not 
rain here for four months, and of course everything 
would be burned up were it not for the heavy dews 
which fall every night. But after a few hours' rain every 
cultivated spot assumes the most lively verdure. A 
garden here, of about half an acre, could not, I was 
assured, be cultivated at a less expense than £2°° ^ Y^^r, 
and yet the tenant, notwithstanding that enormous sum, 
was a considerable gainer by its produce. 

Though the Rock of Gibralter is surrounded by the 
sea, well water is to be found all over it, pretty good, 
and fit to drink, though heavy and often brackish ; but 
the rain water from the mountain, which is filtered 
through the sands without the south port, is exceedingly 
good and wholesome, and remains uncorrupt a long time. 
It is collected into a reservoir, and from thence con- 
ducted to the town. This aqueduct was first begun by 
the Moors, and carried by earthen pipes : in their time 
it reached the city, supplying the Atarasana^ and the 
Castle : that now existing was planned by a Spanish 
Jesuit, and only reaches to the grand parade. The hill 
universally abounds with cavities and receptacles for rain, 
which mostly centre in the Reservoir, affording an 
inexhaustible stock of excellent water, greatly con- 
tributing to the health of the inhabitants. 

^ Spanish for Arsenal. 


I was much surprised, in one ot my excursions, to 
spring a covey of partridges of about twelve brace. I 
saw nothing for them to feed on, but was informed that 
they eat the seed of the Palmetto, which grows in great 
abundance on every part of the Rock. I met with 
numbers of them afterwards : nor was I astonished at 
it, when I knew that there was a strict rule observed 
forbidding any person of whatever rank or condition to 
fire a shot on any account, unless at an enemy, and they 
have had sufficient sport in this way to , satisfy any 
reasonable people for some time. 

At the southern end of the Rock, some way up, 
above St. Michael's Cave, there are many wild boars, 
which are sometimes seen a dozen in number. I should 
willingly have paid those gentlemen a visit, had shooting 
been permitted. On the Sugarloaf there are monkeys in 
hundreds ; and though the soldiers often complain, when 
on guard, of being pelted by them with stones, they are 
not permitted to defend themselves by shooting at them. 

There is very little society at Gibralter, but a perfect 
harmony subsists between the Garrison and the few 
inhabitants ; and with apparent wishes to promote con- 
viviality, they spend their time in a very pleasant manner. 
I felt so much comfort and satisfaction among them that 
it was with much regret I left this celebrated Rock ; not 
less endeared to me by the hospitality I experienced 
there than it is known to the rest of the world for its 
memorable defence. 


The Sea Voyage resumed — The Island of St. Peter — Sicily — Mount 
Olympus — A Storm — Smyrna — A Tendour- — L'Avant Souper — 
The Custom-House — A Caravan — A Mosque — A Turkish Bath 
— A Lead-foundry — Character of Pauolo, my Servant — A Turkish 
Burying - Ground — Journey to Constantinople — Magnesia- — Its 
Governor — Preparations for a Battle. 

November the sixth, we re-embarked on board the 
London. Nothing remarkable occurred to us on the first 
days of our navigation ; nor shall I attempt to describe the 
various scenes and trifling occurrences which do not fail 
to attract the attention of the inexperienced navigator. 
It was not till the thirteenth that we discovered land, 
which proved to be the island of Sardinia. 

On the same morning I was very much entertained 
with the appearance of a vast number of pilot fish. This 
fish is known to live in perfect amity with the shark, 
whose caterer he is said to be, in the same manner as the 
iackal is the lion's. We endeavoured to catch some of 
them with lines ; but did not succeed. We tried to strike 
them with the harpoon, but being rather too small to be 
killed in this manner we only got two of them after 
labouring for three hours. We had them dressed for 
dinner and found them eat tolerably well. 

Having unfortunately stood too much to the north- 
ward, we perceived that most likely we should not be 
able to weather the island, which would be one hundred 
miles out of our course, and to my great mortification, 
our apprehensions were but too well founded. 


November the \\th. 

We stood in for the south end of the island, close off 
St. Peter's, the shore of which is safe and bold, and the 
rocks very lofty, resembling much the northern parts of 
Ireland, off the point of Bengore and along the Giant's 

In different places of the island of St. Peter's I 
observed the inhabitants employed along the shore in 
burning charcoal. The weather was extremely sultry ; 
but the serenity of the sky and smoothness of the waters,, 
which are experienced here as much as in any other seas, 
more than atone for the other inconveniences. We sat 
down to dinner in good spirits, and though the fare was 
none of the best, we contrived to make amends for it by 
vying with each other who should most enliven the 
conversation. We did not sit long at dinner, though the 
conversation turned a good deal on a favourite subject, 
sporting, in all its branches ; and though this subject 
naturally led us to mention most of our Irish friends, yet 
two bottles of port saw the end of our discourse ; and we 
went on deck to admire the beauties of the setting sun,, 
and there renewed our conversation till the rising moon 
brought forward other pleasing and interesting sensations. 

November the 1 jth. 
We saw the little island of Maretimo,^ exhibiting^ 
nothing to the view but a rock uncommonly high above 
the water ; it is of a circular form, and rather flat at top. 
Having passed Maretimo, we saw two more small islands, 
Fangnana and Farognana ; the former resembles Gibralter 
very much in respect to the shape of the rock. They are 

1 It was from this island probably that the first Lord Cloncurry's 
country seat at Blackrock, co. Dublin, had its name. Thos. Whaley, as. 
already mentioned in the Preface, married Lord Cloncurry's daughter. 


very steep and have a most uncommon appearance from 
the sea. 

November iStA. 

We discovered this morning, close on the shore of 
Sicily, the city of Marsala, which is built on the south- 
west promontory of the island. It appears from the sea 
a large and beautiful town ; has several good houses, a 
great many steeples, and is surrounded by a wall. 

As you proceed to the southward, the island of Sicily 
is very flat for many leagues along the shore ; but as you 
carry your eyes into the country it rises by degrees and 
terminates in lofty mountains. 

A very beautiful plain extends from Marsala a great 
way along the coast : at the distance of ten miles is 
Mazaria,^ beautifully situated close on the sea coast. It is 
fortified and the base of its walls is washed by the 
waves. The intermediate country between these two 
towns is most beautiful, and carries with it the richest 
appearance. At small distances from each other you 
discover here and there several villas most delightfully 
situated. The circumjacent country has the appearance 
of being very populous. The greater part of it is thickly 
wooded, and the whole is interspersed with villas whose 
situations are chosen with judgment and exhibit an 
uncommon degree of neatness, wealth and cheerfulness. 
As we sailed further along this beautiful island we were 
at every moment amazed and delighted with the different 
cities, towns, and villages, many miles up the country ; 
all of them exhibiting handsome churches with lofty 
spires. I stayed all day upon deck, admiring the beauties 
of this garden of the world, when on a sudden at four in 
the evening the weather changed, and threatened us with 
an impending storm. As the night advanced the gale 

^ Mazzara. 


increased in heavy squalls accompanied with thunder and 
lightning, and, indeed, our night was in every respect very 
uncomfortable. Before daybreak we could see Mount 
Etna emitting a little fire and vast clouds of thick smoke ; 
but in the morning we discerned it more perfectly, and all 
went on deck to view this celebrated mountain, where 
the ancient poets had placed the forge of Vulcan, whose 
assistants, the Cyclops, fabricated the thunderbolts of Jove. 
We could discern it at the distance of twenty-five miles, 
having then the appearance of a small bonfire. On a 
nearer view I could perceive its top, covered with snow 
and volumes of smoke, whilst the sides, on account of the 
fertility of the soil, were carefully cultivated and planted 
with vineyards. The changes in the atmosphere were 
more frequent during this day than we had yet known 
them : foul and fair weather : light breezes, and then a 
storm : thunder and lightning, and then a serene sky : 
excessive heat at one time and soon after extreme cold 
alternately succeed each other during the last twenty-four 

Saturday, November ^znd. 

After a very tedious navigation we discovered the 
Morea and passed Cape Matapan in the evening. The 
coast of this peninsula, all along as far as the island of 
Cerigo, has the appearance of being very barren and quite 
uncultivated. The surface of the coast is very high and 
uneven, the shore bold and steep. We saw no houses or 
animals of any kind till we had nearly passed the island of 
Cerigo, formerly Cythera and known for its temple dedi- 
cated to Venus, when we discovered the small village of 
that name. It has a very mean appearance, and the 
country a worse. No verdure or cultivation of any kind, 
and the land looks as if it produced nothing but stones. 


While we were passing the once celebrated land of 
Peloponnesus, we were naturally led to consider and con- 
verse on its ancient grandeur, and could not, without 
inexpressible regret, reflect on the melancholy revolution 
which time and despotism have here effected ; that a 
country once the seat of the fine arts, the nurse of 
literature, and famed for her progress in science not less 
than she was for the celebrated system of iurisprudence of 
the renowned Spartan law-giver, should now exhibit the 
most rude, barren prospect that can be conceived, where 
poverty and ignorance have succeeded to opulence and 
improvement ; where the noble, generous, arduous, and 
exalted spirit for which the Spartan youth were famed, 
and which led them to vie with each other in emulating 
every act of heroism, magnanimity, and virtue, is now 
totally extinct ; and we behold their posterity sunk to 
the lowest pitch of human degradation, mean, cruel, 
cowardly, ignorant, dishonest, and embracing contentedly 
the fetters of slavery, to which their ancestors would so 
much rather have preferred death ! 

November the lya. 
In the evening we discovered Mount Olympus to the 
northward. I had seen it in the morning but took it 
then for clouds, which it very much resembled at a 
distance. Its being always covered with snow accounted 
for the extreme cold we had lately felt, and the northerly 
wind blowing strongly over its top was a sufficient cause 
for the sudden change of climate. I cannot see why the 
ancient poets have placed on it the residence of the gods, 
and made it the seat of Jupiter, as they certainly allotted 
to him a residence which they would have found very 

A STORM. 67 

As the evening advanced, the weather began to wear 
a very threatening aspect. We spied at a distance a 
French merchant ship of the size of the London furling 
her sails, as about to lie to for the night. I was much 
pleased to find that the captain thought it advisable to 
hail her. He allowed the French to be better acquainted 
with these seas, as they frequent them more than we do. 
He always made it a rule to profit by the experience of 
the natives of those countries that he visited ; particularly 
in what regarded the weather ; as it stands to reason that 
people who have been long accustomed to its continual 
vicissitudes, will earlier foresee and judge more correctly 
of any change that is about to take place. I perfectly 
coincided with him, and his modesty increased the good 
opinion I had of his skill and prudence. We soon came 
up with the Frenchman : she was from Marseilles, and 
bound, as ourselves, to Smyrna. Her captain told us that 
[the] face of the sky portended a storm, and advised us 
on no account to venture among the islands, but to follow 
his example and lay to for the night. 

Scarcely had we time to follow his advice before it 
began to thunder and lighten. I observed that the 
lightning took a horizontal direction, about a fathom 
above the surface of the sea, and that two flashes of the 
silver forked lightning always went together, which we 
were informed to be the sure forerunner of a storm in 
these seas. The remainder of the night fully justified 
the Frenchman's fears and convinced us how right our 
captain was in following his advice. 

The wind was moderate till nine, when it began to 
blow a true hurricane, accompanied with the most 
dreadful thunder and lightning. The darkness of the 
night increased the terror of the storm. The rain poured 


down in such torrents as rendered it impossible for the 
men to keep their feet on deck. The storm had con- 
tinued raging for several hours, and threatened to grow 
worse before any change for the better could be hoped 
for. At two in the morning we carried away our mizzen- 
stay-sail ; every sea running over our decks, the boats 
were in danger of being staved : the binnacle was 
dashed to pieces : every movable on deck was washed 
away, and with difficulty the compasses were saved. 

It is impossible for anyone to figure to himself the 
distress of our situation. We were obliged to let the 
ship drift at the mercy of the waves. She made much 
water, and her seams, by her labouring, were opening 
everywhere. The water poured even into the bed-places : 
all was confusion and a dismal scene of distress. 

My Jerusalem friends often occupied my thoughts ; 
and had I gone to the bottom, I am certain that I would 
in my last moments have regretted not having been per- 
mitted by providence to perform my journey, and to win 
the bets which these gentlemen were confident they had 
laid with so great odds in their favour. 

The rain stopped at a little after five, and the wind 
by degrees became more moderate : we began then to 
cheer ourselves with the hopes of fine weather. We had 
not drifted so much in the night as we imagined : but 
found, to our very great sorrow, that our good friend the 
Frenchman had disappeared. Where she went, God 
only knows ! I really felt very much distressed on her 
account ; and as [we] were certain that she could not have 
made sail during the night, we could only dread the 

" Haud ignarus mali, miscris succurrere disco." 


Monday, November the i\th. 

I have often heard that " after a storm comes a 
calm " ; and I was glad then to find even a probability of 
it. Insensibly the wind died away and the weather 
promised fair. The captain assured us at breakfast that 
during the whole course of twenty years' experience, he 
never had witnessed a more dangerous night than the 
last : and contrary to the usual custom of sailors, who 
only pray as long as the danger lasts, he returned thanks 
to providence for our escape, and for not having ventured 
among the islands where we must have inevitably 

The next day we were nearly abreast of the island of 
Candia, ancient Crete, the largest island of the Archi- 
pelago, subject to the Grand Signior, formerly so renowned 
for the government and laws of Minos, now only remark- 
able for its poverty and the wretchedness, ignorance, and 
barbarity of its inhabitants. 

The calm continued almost uninterruptedly for several 
days, and though we were sorry not to move more 
expeditiously towards the end of our voyage, yet we 
could but enjoy the fineness of the weather : for two 
days we were very near Candia, the mountains of which 
are very high. At length we passed it, and entering the 
Aegean Sea we found ourselves in the midst of the 

The sailing was here truly delightful, and every object 
interesting. We passed most of our time on deck. The 
water was smooth as a continued sheet of glass, so that 
we were scarcely sensible of its undulation, while the 
moderate heat of the sun and the happy temperature of 
the air rendered the climate grateful in the highest 


This day we passed the islands of Melos, Paros, 
Narcos/ and Delos, and Andros ; and thought we could 
discover on Delos the remains of the temples of Apollo 
and Diana which are still to be seen there. 

In the narrow passage which separates Andros from 
the peninsula of the Negropont, on which Athens stood," 
we were a whole day becalmed, and regretted indeed not 
having it in our power to visit the ruins of that renowned 
city : but we knew too well the danger of our landing 
without permission or janissaries to protect us. 

November the 2%th. 

We this day ran along the island of Chios, or Scio, 
celebrated for its fertility, and at the present day far 
excelling every other island of the Archipelago, as well 
in the beauty of the country as the industry of its 
inhabitants. The neighbouring islands draw from it the 
corn necessary for their support ; and large quantities are 
also annually exported for the Constantinople and Smyrna 
markets : they likewise carry on a considerable trade in 
silks and wines. 

Our spirits were considerably elevated by the in- 
formation we here received from our captain, that [we] 
were now distant from Smyrna not more than twenty 
leagues, which he expected to run by the next day. 
The night was very still and on the morning of the 
29th we were abreast of Cape Colaburno,' which 
forms one point of the Gulf of Smyrna ; and here we 
had the mortification to lie the whole day becalmed, 

^ ? Naxos. 

' Whaley here seems to have confounded the island of Negropont, or 
Eubcea, with the mainland. 
^ ? Kara Burnu, 


and on the 30th, made the Isles des Anglois in the 
Gulf of Smyrna. 

We this morning passed the Orlac 1 Islands, and 
assisted by a light breeze we soon were off the castle of 
Smyrna, where we saluted the Turkish flag, which has not 
here any means of enforcing respect, as the castle is literally 
a ruin and mounts only two or three pieces of old ordnance. 
Proceeding to make sail for the town, we discovered an 
English frigate, the Ambuscade, which we also saluted 
with five guns, and received the compliment in return. 
It fell calm at twelve in sight of the town. We received a 
visit from one of the officers of the Ambuscade, Mr. S — *, 
who came on board to inquire the news from England. He 
informed us that they spoke of the plague at Smyrna, and 
that some people had already died of it. I must confess 
that my courage failed me at the very sound of the word 
plague, and I found myself rather alarmed ; but I learned 
afterwards that the death of two or three persons in one 
day was thought of no consequence at Smyrna. 

In the evening we saluted the town and received the 
bienvenue from above fifty ships of different nations, by 
each of them firing a salute on our arrival. We were 
also favoured with visits from different gentlemen of the 
town ; among them were the Messrs. L — s,^ from whom 
we received the most cordial reception : we accompanied 
them on shore, and had the pleasure of being most agree- 
ably surprised by finding at their house a most amiable 
mother,* with four still more amiable daughters, to whom 
they introduced us with all the ease and unreserved 
familiarity of old and sincere friends. I was, without 

1 ? Oglak. * Ralph Sneyd, then a midshipman of this ship. 

' Lee, as the writer mentions later. See p. 157. 

* Mrs. Maltass, a cousin of Mr. Lee. — Moore's Journal. 


further ceremonies, to seat myself at the tendour, next to 
Mademoiselle Margotten, who with all the naivete in the 
world began to explain to me the use and advantages of 
this piece of household furniture, [of] which she well 
perceived I had never seen the like before. 

In Turkey none of the rooms have fire-places. The 
tendour is used in their stead. It is a square table with 
several quilted coverings spread over it which reach down to 
the ground. Underneath the table is a large copper in which 
[charcoal ?] or embers are placed ; the knees of each person 
round the table are covered with the quilted counterpane, 
and the head confined under the tendour, renders this 
place the most comfortable and of course the most frequented 
spot in the apartment. Round this, little parties are 
always assembled, either to read, work or for other 
amusements. In cold weather the hands are warmed 
under the coverlids, and sympathy sometimes brings them 
into contact with those of your fair neighbour. Of the 
society in this family I cannot say too much ; and we 
afterwards experienced much pleasure with many advan- 
tages from this acquaintance. Mrs. M — ,i aunt to our 
hosts, the two Mr. L — s,'' was a most amiable, cheerful 
woman, and passionately fond of her four most amiable 
daughters. Never did exist a family more united, and I 
may say, more deservedly happy. The girls, beautiful 
and accomplished, were all that the prudent mother could 
wish them ; they repaid with every grace the pains taken 
by their parent in their education. These fair sisters 
were the first Smyrneottes we had seen, and from their 
beauty we formed a most favourable opinion of the 
charms of their countrywomen. Affable and unaffected 
in their manners as in their conversation, they heard 

1 Mrs. Maltass. ' Lee, as the writer mentions later. Seep. 157. 


with a wish to learn, and always answered with much 
sense and politeness, divested of all constraint, with a 
certain vivacity which was really fascinating. At six 
o'clock tea was served a PAngloise, and after it was over 
the ladies requested us to accompany them to what is 
called at Smyrna the Avant Souper, where we went on 
foot, attended by servants with lanterns. This society is 
supported among the Christian famihes of the city, and is 
held at the house of each person every night alternately. 
It was held this evening at the house of a member of 
the British factory, where we met Mr. — ^ our Consul, 
and all the principal persons of the town. The scene 
was novel and interesting, and the various habits made 
the rooms appear as if they were open for a masquerade, 
and having hunted me successfully at a Pharao^ \_sic\ bank 
held by two Greeks, at eleven o'clock I accompanied our 
party home and immediately returned to our ship for this 
night, having left our trunks and other necessaries still on 

December the 2nd. 
We employed this morning in preparing our dis- 
patches for Europe ; as we were informed that a mail 
for Marseilles was to be dispatched this day. After we 
had written our letters we returned from on board, and 
on our landing we were told that it was absolutely 
necessary for us to go to the custom-house in order to get 
our trunks. The Customs of this great city were farmed 
by a proud Turk, who did not understand our not appear- 
ing ourselves : therefore, informed of this gentleman's 
way of thinking, and his great attachment to a small 
fee, I put a spyglass in my pocket and, accompanied 
by Mr. L — and his dragoman, we proceeded to the 

' Mr. Anthony Hayes. See p. 75. ' I.e., faro. 


custom-house, where we found this long-bearded Fermier- 
general already waiting for us ; and were informed that 
he meant to receive us in state. 

Having been shewn into his presence-chamber, we 
found him seated on the ground : he did not favour us 
with a look, but ordered us to be seated and pipes to be 
given. I had not been long enough in Turkey to have 
adopted the custom of smoking ; yet I was informed by 
Mr. L — that it would be deemed highly uncivil if I did 
not at least affect to smoke. I was therefore compelled 
to put a pipe to my lips, and having sat a quarter of an 
hour without one syllable being uttered, though there 
were more than twenty people in the room, sweetmeats 
were served and afterwards a little coffee without sugar. 
The refreshments over, this Head of the Customs at length 
broke silence, and inquired if we had anything in our 
trunks besides wearing apparel. Being informed that 
we had not, he immediately gave orders that our luggage 
should be carried off unopened. I presented him after- 
wards with my spy-glass, which he did me the honour 
of accepting without looking at it, or even thanking me 
for it. 

I was struck, tor the moment, with such uncivil 
manners, but on becoming more acquainted with the 
genius of the Turks, I found this to proceed not from ill 
breeding but pride. They do not wish you to suppose 
that anything so trifling could raise a smile on their 
countenance, or afford them the least satisfaction. 
Besides, a Turk, when he receives a present from a 
Christian, imagines that he confers the obligation, and 
would not have you suppose it possible you could oblige 
him, were you to present him with half your fortune. 
However, having no wish to induce my custom-house 


friend, by so high a compliment, to change his opinion ; 
[I] gave him leave to pocket my spy-glass, with whatever 
ideas he pleased. I wished to be gone, and desiring the 
dragoman to pay him, on my part, as many compliments 
as he thought proper, I took my leave and returned to 
Mrs. L — 's. 

In the evening we had the honour of receiving visits 
from the most respectable gentlemen in the town, among 
whom was Mr. Hays,^ the British Consul. After tea, we 
again had the pleasure of accompanying the family to 
the Avant Souper, which was held at the house of a 
Dutch gentleman.^ 

We met nearly the same company as the preceding 
evening, and had the good fortune of being introduced to 
a gentleman who had travelled much in Syria. I am 
indebted to him for no little information, respecting 
the different modes of travelling ; as also the necessary 
measures to be taken to prevent frequent impositions and 
to escape the attacks of the Arabs. He informed me 
that I ought not by any means to wear the European 
dress ; that wherever I passed I should be very circum- 
spect in my behaviour ; appear to possess as few valuables 
as possible ; that I should travel with a small guard in 
preference to a great escort ; join no caravans, as they 
were frequently in league with those wandering tribes of 
Arabs whose only pursuit is plunder and robbery : that I 
should proceed with few attendants, as Httle baggage a& 
possible ; but by all means that I should be well armed. 

This gentleman advised us likewise, that in case we 

were stopped by the Arabs, we should not appear in the 

least dismayed, but peremptorily refuse giving up any 

part of our property ; however, that we should at all 

• Anthony Hayes. * Le Conte de Hauchpied. — Moore's Journal. 


events be prepared with a purse containing some money, 
Tvhich we should give them with the worst grace 
possible, in case they threatened to ill treat us ; as it is 
much more prudent to pacify than fight them ; informing 
them at the same time that sooner than be stopped a 
second time, by any of their fellow freebooters, we were 
determined to risk our lives in our defence. 

I treasured up the advice of this well-informed and 
good-natured gentleman, fully determined to profit by it 
when circumstances should render its application useful. 

December the yd. 

We went to see a caravan that had arrived the 
preceding evening. It was composed of two hundred 
and fifty camels, with one hundred leaders and fifty 
soldiers to defend them. When on their march, two of 
the soldiers are at half a mile's distance, forming an 
avant garde, in order to reconnoiter. The others are in 
the centre, assembled under one banner, always ready to 
repel the attacks of the wandering Arabs, whose chief 
object is to disperse the caravan, that they may plunder 
it with the greater facility for they are very averse to 
■come to desperate measures, unless some of their Arabs 
are previously wounded. The caravans that proceed to 
Mecca and have a general rendezvous are not so numerous 
as the others. 

Nothing can be more interesting and curious than the 
manner of loading the camels, who regularly obey the 
whistle of their masters. At the first whistle they bend 
the first joint of their fore-feet and rest on the second ; if 
this posture be too elevated, the leader whistles a second 
time and the animal squats as low as possible. On the 
third call it rises and proceeds on its journey. Nothing 


can exceed the docility and patience of these animals. 
Though they take very large strides they proceed but 
slowly, and do not perform a greater journey in one day 
than a man at an ordinary pace can accomplish. They 
travel about thirty miles in thirteen hours, sleep but 
very little, tremble at the shaking of a leaf, and are 
stopped by the smallest impediment. Their moderation 
in eating and drinking is greater than that of any other- 
known animal. They are sometimes four days without 
drinking and their food consists of some dry or burnt 
leaves : sometimes they give them a ball of paste, which 
they swallow and afterwards chew for the whole day. 
They proceed without a bridle or collar, and obey the 
voice of their leader. If you add to all their qualities the- 
advantage that is derived from camels-hair, of which 
those stuffs known by the name of camlets are manu- 
factured, it may be easily supposed that these animals are 
in the greatest request. On our return we rambled about 
for more than two hours, till we completely lost our way, 
and it was not possible for us to get any information from 
those we met by any signs we could make, as we were 
not attended by a guide ; Smyrna being one of the few 
towns in Turkey where foreigners are allowed to go out 
without janissaries. In this dilemma we walked from 
one street to another, till at length we found ourselves 
before a very magnificent building, which appeared to us. 
to be the banqueting-room of some rich jolly Turk. 

Perceiving the door of the portico open, we attempted 
to enter it. We had not proceeded far when on a sudden 
we were stopped by a Turk who appeared very angry : he 
made many gestures to shew us his displeasure ; and 
[had] his long harangue been intelligible to us, we should,, 
no doubt have found it replete with abuse. 


We were submissively taking our departure when 
another Turk of apparently superior consequence to him 
who had roughly addressed us, approached, and after 
speaking to him, made signs to us to follow him into the 
building. As soon as we entered the first door our 
conductor took off his slippers, and made a sign to us to 
imitate his example ; this we immediately complied with, 
and on opening the second door we found ourselves, to 
our great surprise, in a Mosque. 

The Turks on entering departed from us, and left us 
to make our own remarks ; and we soon perceived that 
they had withdrawn for the purpose of devotion ; as we 
saw them on their knees, as well as many other Turks in 
different parts of the building bowing frequently to the 
ground and apparently worshipping with the most fixed 
attention and ardent devotion. All was silence, and 
everything to us solemn as it was novel. We stood for a 
considerable time here looking at the building and 
examining the walls, which were divided in compart- 
ments, and adorned with texts from the Koran and 
different articles of their faith in gold characters, which 
seemed clumsily executed. During this period not one 
Turk out of twenty that were there even lifted up his 
eyes to regard us, so intent were they on their devotion, 
which they perform with a degree of propriety and 
respectful solemnity that we rarely see observed by the 
more enlightened congregations of European churches. 

Having now satisfied our curiosity we thought it 
prudent to withdraw, and having resumed our shoes at 
the door, we soon gained the street, where we fortunately 
met a Greek who understood Italian and directed us in 
our way home, where, after having related our adventures, 
we were felicitated on our narrow escape, as they termed 


it, in not having been most grossly insulted or in not 
having met with even worse than insults, as has happened 
more than once to Christians. If we had proceeded by 
ourselves as far as into the Mosque with our shoes on, 
which, had we not been met, we should certainly have 
done, there is no doubt but that our indiscretion would 
have been attended with the most serious consequences. 

The next place where curiosity led us was a Turkish 
Bath, and we examined very minutely the process in 
using this principal article of luxury among the oriental 

You first enter a large vaulted apartment, very lofty 
and of an octagonal form. In the centre is an immense 
bath of four feet in depth. On our entrance there 
were about twenty Turks in it, sitting and squatting 
in the bottom of this bason ; nor did they appear to 
take the smallest notice of us, tho' we were paying 
particular attention to them, and were asking numberless 
questions. The sides of this bath were of marble, and 
round it is a kind of gallery which serves as a place of 
exercise to those who have done bathing and who walk 
several times round it. In the walls of this apartment 
are several niches, each large enough to contain two 
persons : these are always occupied by those who are just 
come out of the water for the purpose of being rubbed 
with a kind of coarse, hard cloth, which has a much greater 
effect than a flesh brush. The steam that arises from the 
bason in the centre, which is kept moderately heated, 
makes the room warm enough to permit those in the 
niches to remain there as long as they think proper 
without running any risk of catching cold. 

There were not less than fifty naked people in the 
different parts of this chamber, who appeared not at all 


discomposed at our presence, but preserved all their 
characteristic gravity. Some had been rubbed with the 
hand, others with the cloth, and some remained still 
sitting in the bath. 

After they have amused themselves here as long as 
they like, they repair to an inner apartment of about half 
the size of the former, where the heat is considerably 
increased. There are large flat stones on which they seat 
themselves, and seconded by the intense heat of the 
vapour which issues from every part of the room, the 
perspiration soon begins; which, after it has continued for 
some time, the patient (for though the Turk undergoes 
this ceremony for pleasure, I cannot help giving him this 
appellation) is shown into another chamber where the 
heat is still more violent. Here he can go no further, 
nor could anything but custom and habit from his infancy 
enable him to go thus far ; for the heat of this place 
was so intense that I found much difficulty in respiration, 
though I did not remain in it many seconds. 

Notwithstanding the excessive heat of the apartment, 
a Turk will amuse himself by sitting here for an hour at 
a time, till every pore is open. He then calls in his 
slaves, who alternately rub him with their hands and pull 
his joints till he thinks them sufficiently supple ; when, 
after perfuming his beard with the most costly essences, 
he retires into his haram to finish the day * * * » 

Having paid three piastres, the price ot my curiosity, 
I quitted the Bath and proceeded with my friends to visit 
the manufactories. 

We first visited the Lead-foundry, where they make 
shot and cast bullets : of the latter there were several tons 
ready to be sent to the Vizier's Camp. There are about 
two hundred persons employed in this foundry : but the 


clumsiness of their implements, their ignorance of the 
mechanic powers, a knowledge of which would so much 
facilitate their operations, and, above all, their bigoted 
attachment to their primitive usages, which precludes 
every possibility of improvement, declare them in this, 
as in other arts, centuries behind European nations. 

I observed to my conductors how much I was sur- 
prised at seeing the tail of the bullets left just as they 
came from the mould. I was informed that the Turks 
preferred this mode, from a supposition that the wound 
made by a ball in this state would be the more difficult 
to cure, and consequently more destructive, never con- 
sidering that it would impede the velocity of the ball 
and render its range so uncertain as to prevent the best 
marksman from hitting his object. 

Having seen enough of this despicable manufactory, 
and finding the hour of dinner at hand, we proceeded 
homewards and on our way stopt for a few minutes at a 
great carpet manufactory, for which this city is famous. 
We were shewn a great variety of carpets, some of which 
were very beautiful. The colours were lively and the 
designs executed with a great deal of taste. 

My time now becoming precious, I found it necessary 
to proceed on my journey ; and therefore determined to 
set out immediately by land for Constantinople. I sent 
for Captain M — ^ of the London, who agreed to wait three 
weeks or a month for my return, when he was to land 
me at St. Jean de Acre, or the Port of Jaffa, on the coast 
of Syria, and likewise to touch at the island of Cyprus on 
his way. This business being arranged, I applied to my 
friend Mr. L — ^ to assist us in procuring a guard of 
janissaries, as well as a guide and mules. This worthy 

1 Capt. Neil, as mentioned in Moore's Journal. ' Lee. 



gentleman, on my first mentioning our intention of going 
to Constantinople by land, remonstrated with me against 
it, on account of the season, and more particularly on 
account of the war : dreading that we should meet with 
parties of the victorious Turks, returning from the 
camp, who are always insolent, and frequently rob and 
murder travellers. He used many other arguments to 
dissuade me from this arduous undertaking, but finding 
me determined, he acquiesced with reluctance, and 
promised to afford us every assistance in his power. 

December the i^th. 
I completed, to my very great satisfaction, one 
principal piece of business respecting my journey. I 
hired a servant, a guide and interpreter, a companion 
and a guard : and all these essential qualities I found 
centred in one man. He was an Armenian, and well 
versed in the modes of travelling in Turkey : he spoke 
all languages ; had travelled over most of the globe ; 
and had a very good character from many respectable 
gentlemen of Smyrna. This fellow proved afterwards 
of the greatest service to me ; and I really think that 
without him we should never have arrived at Con- 
stantinople. He had already been there twice by land, 
and assured me that there was no other danger to be 
apprehended than that resulting from extreme fatigue. 
He recommended plenty of ammunition and to provide 
ourselves with guns, pistols and carabines. I already 
liked my Armenian, and he on his side swore by the 
holy Sepulchre that he would with much pleasure lose 
his life to serve me. He began to relate his wars with 
the Arabs on his way to Jerusalem, where he had like- 
wise been, and assured me that he had shot many of 


those wandering plunderers. Whether the fellow was 
lying or telling the truth, I considered not ; he suc- 
ceeded in amusing me a good deal, which I found was 
his intention. 

Captain W — ^ who had accompanied me from London, 
and who had been confined for some days by a rheumatic 
complaint, not thinking it prudent to encounter the 
difHculties and fatigues to which we were likely to be 
exposed, decided on staying here until he should be re- 
established. This, of course, lessened our party ; but 
Captain M — '' and I persisted in our intention, and now 
all our arrangements being made, we took our leave of 
the amiable and friendly family from whom we had 
received so much kindness, and at four o'clock in the 
evening we set out on our journey. 

Mr. L — the younger, and Mr. M— ', brother to the 
young ladies I have before mentioned as members of 
Mr. L — 's* family, insisted on accompanying us part of 
the way to Bournat-Bat,' five miles and an half from 
Smyrna, where we intended to pass the night. Captain 
M — and I were mounted on very good horses, which 
our friends had procured for us for our whole journey. 
Our party consisted of seven persons, one of them a 
janissary, who served us as guide, the rest servants and a 
black slave, to drive our mules that carried our beds, 
baggage, etc. 

Never in my life was I more charmed with an evening 
ride ! The country had the appearance of richness. We 
saw some cotton plantations and a variety of shrubs, the 
spontaneous productions of the soil ; and the month of 
the year, though December, bore all the appearance ot 

1 Wilson. ' Captain Moore. ^ Maltass. 

' Lee. ' Bournabat. 


the finest evening in June. The air was warm, the sky- 
serene ; the birds were singing on every bush ; the spring 
had already commenced, and vegetables of various kinds 
were growing spontaneously on each side of the road. 
What most particularly engrossed my attention were the 
hedges of myrtle which form the most common fence 
to the gardens about Smyrna, and are here and there 
interspersed with the wild geranium, in full bloom. 
These hedges diffused the most fragrant as well as the 
most refreshing odours. The most common trees, in the 
neighbourhood of Smyrna, I observed to be the orange 
and lemon and a variety of evergreens. 

We arrived at the little village just as silent night was 
about to draw her sable mantle over the earth. 

I had almost forgotten the Fountain of Diana, which 
is on the road to Bournat-Bat. Indeed were it not for 
the fineness of the spring, which is in this country a great 
acquisition, and the name of the chaste goddess with 
which tradition has honoured it, it would little merit 
attention. The remains of an arch, apparently a very 
ancient structure, by which it was covered, are still visible ; 
and some slabs of marble are placed beside the spring 
in form of an oblong square, on which the story says 
that [the] goddess and her nymphs were wont to per- 
form their ablutions. This part of the fable, I believe, 
induced us to examine the well with more attention than 
we should have otherwise done ; and however impious it 
might be, we could not suppress a wish that the goddess 
and her nymphs had been there, hoping that we should 
be thought at least as worthy of their divine favour as 
Messrs. Pan, Orion, and Endymion, with all of whom the 
chastity of the goddess has been impeached, notwith- 
standing her most singular petition to Jove to grant her 


that, which to deprive others of, he had assumed so many- 
forms, under all of which he was equally successful. 
Oh happy ye, when a Cuckoo, a Bull or a Swan (how 
different from our times !) had equal influence over the 
female mind with a shower of gold ! 

Bournat-Bat, situated at the opposite [side] of the Bay 
of Smyrna, is a very neat village, and can boast of having 
the best house in all Asia for the reception of travellers. 
It is kept by an Italian woman, who keeps a billiard 
table. This house is properly speaking the Vauxhall of 
Smyrna, and a place of meeting for amusement and 
recreation for all the captains of the trading vessels in 
the Bay. The lady did us the honour of presiding at 
table, and as she had no doubt premeditated a long bill, 
she also entertained us with long stories, by way of 
passing the time more pleasantly. 

Her claret however was excellent, nor did she wish 
that we should spare it. We had tolerably good beds, 
which is a very great rarity in Turkey ; and this is 
perhaps the only place where anything better than the 
bare boards could be procured. 

During all my travels in Asia I thought myself happy 
when I could get some clean uncut straw on which I 
might spread my blankets. I mention uncut straw 
because the Turks, feeding their horses and cattle princi- 
pally on it, cut the straw very small, immediately after 
the corn is threshed, and put it into large hair bags in 
which they send it to the market. They never litter 
their horses, but make them lie on the boards, and we 
were frequently compelled to do the same. We rose 
early on the following day and took our leave of our 
good landlady, who made us pay thirty-six dollars, being 
equal to five pounds eight shilUngs sterhng, for her 


friendly and comfortable accommodations. Our escort 
consisted of nine mules, three of which carried our 
provisions for the journey, as we had nothing to expect 
on the road, and having to travel nearly three hundred 
miles on the same animals, it was necessary to spare them 
as much as possible, which would of course render our 
progress slow. The sun was just rising as we ascended the 
mountain called Yachaku,^ which commands the town 
and Bay of Smyrna. I do not remember ever having 
seen so beautiful a landscape : nor can I suppose that 
there is in the universe a richer or grander prospect than 
presented itself to our view from this mountain. The 
variety of flowering shrubs, particularly the arbutus, now 
quite covered with berries, growing in vast quantities on 
the sides of the mountain ; the flocks and herds grazing 
in the valleys ; the noble appearance of the town ; the 
extensive Bay and shipping of every nation, formed 
altogether the most beautiful coup d 'ceil in the world, and 
with the splendour of the morning inspired us with 
sensations the most pleasing. 

I could not help observing to my friend how surprised 
I was that more of our countrymen did not direct their 
travels to this delightful country ; for I will venture to 
assert that no part of the globe is better worth their 
attention, or would more amply repay their trouble and 
expense than the country from Smyrna to the old and 
magnificent town of Magnesia, once the capital of the 
Ottoman Empire, which, as well as its environs, still 
retains so much grandeur. 

Having spent half an hour on this mountain, almost 
lost in admiration, we set off by the advice of my 
faithful Pauolo, full gallop to come up with our baggage 

' Probably Yakakiot, a mountain N. of Bay of Smyrna. 


and janissaries, who had gone on before us. We soon 
overtook them at the entrance of a wood, which consisted 
chiefly of forest trees, such as oak, elm, and pine ; all, 
however, of inferior growth, and intermixed with the fig, 
olive, and almond : there was also a vast quantity of 
dwarf holly, which formed a very thick underwood. 
The arbutus and the oleander were likewise frequentc 

We now heard, for the first time, the drowsy noise of 
a caravan, which we soon overtook. It consisted of 
about thirty camels, all heavily laden. They formed a 
long string, and were fastened to one another by a 
ring which passed through the nostrils of each, and 
was tied to the tail of the foremost. Their pace was 
about the same as that of one of our heaviest waggons 
in England, but they have the advantage of performing 
much longer journeys, as they seldom stop to feed. 
This novel sight for some time engrossed our attention ; 
but in the course of a few days we were habituated 
to it, and it soon lost its power of pleasing from the 
frequent repetition and the tedious sameness of the object. 

The country around seemed in a state of nature ; yet 
displayed an uniform appearance of richness and fertility. 
We perceived but few cottages, and these were only 
the temporary abodes of shepherds, where the ragged 
ensigns of poverty were displayed, and the appearance 
of the inhabitants bespoke their wretchedness, as much 
as the neglected state of so fine a country indicated 
the badness of the government to which it was subject. 
From the hills we perceived many villages in a plain to 
our right, and saw the ruins of one that had been 
destroyed not long before by a minister of the Porte, the 
inhabitants having refused, most likely from inability, to 
furnish a large sum of money which this avaricious and 


cruel tyrant had demanded. The name of this dismantled 
village is Palamont : it had been inhabited by about five 
hundred families, who were all put to the sword without 
distinction of age or sex. Thus do these devoted people 
frequently fall victims to the rapacity and relentless 
cruelty of barbarous and despotic tyrants, who under the 
mask of duty to their sovereign veil the most atrocious 
acts of cruelty and oppression. 

After three hours' ride at the rate ot about four miles 
an hour we arrived at a coffee-house, where our guide, 
Pauolo, advised us to stop in order to refresh ourselves and 
our mules. You meet very frequently with these houses 
in Turkey ; and here the traveller may stop if he chooses, 
and be accommodated with coffee without sugar and a 
pipe. We entered a little cottage not unlike an Irish 
barn. It was built of mud and straw, and not more 
remarkable for its furniture within than its architecture 
without. The only moveables in the house [were] a 
couple of mats, on which we spread our repast ; and 
though we were surrounded by Turks, who were enjoying 
their pipes, we made an excellent meal on cold partridge 
which our good friend at Smyrna had packed up for us, 
with a liberal allowance of Madeira wine to last for our 

The first object that engaged my attention, after 
leaving our hotel, was a Burying-ground. It was 
surrounded, as all these places are, with lofty cypresses. 
I was much surprised at the sight of such an immense 
number of graves, most of them recently dug : but I soon 
recollected that I was travelling through a country where 
the plague seldom intermits for any length of time : and 
upon inquiring I found that above one thousand of these 
graves had been made about four months back, when the 


plague raged at Smyrna, and in its vicinity. These 
considerations for some time damped our spirits, and 
inspired us with gloomy and dismal ideas. Over each of 
these graves is a stone of about four feet in height, set 
upright and a turban carved on the top. They are 
painted in different colours, as red, white and green. 
Those who are honoured with the latter have their origin 
from Mahomet and call themselves his descendants. 
They are looked upon as of the same family and no 
others are permitted to have the green turban on their 
tombs after their decease. 

We travelled for the remainder of the day over a fine 
country, the soil of which shewed everywhere marks or 
richness and fertility. The road, if we may give it that 
name, was very bad, and indeed not passable for carriages; 
but we saw no obstacles to impede the equestrian 
traveller, as the grounds were without enclosures. The 
greatest part of the country was planted with cotton trees, 
and those plantations were remarkably well cultivated and 
cleared of weeds, the cotton plants being set at equal 
distances of about three feet. 

Towards evening we arrived at the summit of a very 
lofty mountain, from whence we discovered the extensive 
plain of Magnesia and could trace with the eye the 
winding course of the celebrated Meander.^ The town 

1 It is clear that Whaley has here confounded the two towns o^ 
Magnesia. The route he travelled obviously lay through Magnesia ad 
Sipylum, then an important commercial centre, situate about forty miles 
N.E. of Smyrna. The other city of the same name, Magnesia ad 
Mseandrum, had at the time been a ruin for many centuries. It stood 
some sixty miles S. by E. of Smyrna. The river he saw must have been 
the Hermus, which was the scene of the defeat of Antiochus mentioned 
at p. 93, and not the Mseander, which is, roughly, about one hundred 
miles away. 


itself is at the distance of about six miles. We intended 
stopping at Magnesia for the night, and therefore made 
as much haste as we possibly could in order to have 
suiRcient time to see the town. 

On our arrival we found much difficulty in getting a 
lodging for the night. My faithful Pauolo at length 
obtained permission for us to lie under the gateway of a 
large court where the caravans put up. There was a 
little room without windows, which did not hold out to 
us the most pleasing prospect of the rest of our en- 
tertainment for the night. We had our beds spread on the 
ground, and sending Pauolo to buy us some provisions, we 
went, accompanied by a janissary to stroll about the town. 

We did not perceive any vestige or monument of 
Magnesia having been once the seat of the Ottoman 
Court. The houses are ill built and mostly of wood ; the 
streets narrow and dirty. This had been the seat of the 
Eastern Empire, till, on the 19th of May 1453, Mahomet 
the second took Constantinople from Constantine Paleo- 
logus, and removed his Court to that celebrated city. 
Magnesia contains above one hundred thousand inhabi- 
tants, and next to Smyrna is the town of most trade in 
Turkey ; being situated in one of the richest and most 
extensive plains in the universe. It has been distinguished 
for the fertility of its soil, and it is now one of the chief 
sources of supply to the cotton market of Smyrna. 

This district, even in the time of Themistocles, four 
hundred and fifty years before the Christian era, was 
bestowed on him, on account of its fertility, by Artaxerxes 
Longimanus, King of Asia. And that noble Athenian chose 
this spot for his residence, when dismissed by Artaxerxes 
from his Court at Susa, whither he had fled to seek an 
asylum from the persecutions of the Greeks [sic] and Lace- 


demonians. Cornelius Nepos informs us that the revenues 
of this district then amounted to fifty talents (;^i 1,250), 
and at the same time makes mention of the other districts 
which Themistocles held through the liberality of the 
Persian monarch. That illustrious general resided here 
many years, and on being solicited by his benefactor 
Artaxerxes to march an army against the Athenians he 
here swallowed poison, to avoid at once the imputation 
of ingratitude and the odium he must have incurred by 
fighting against his country. The Magnesians erected a 
magnificent monument to his memory in the great square 
in this city, which existed in the time of Plutarch ; but 
neither square or monument is now visible. 

The Governor of this great and profitable district is a 
most extraordinary man. Though a Turk, he is possessed 
of talents much superior to those of his countrymen in 
general, and has extended his knowledge beyond the 
limits of the very small circle to which theirs is generally 
confined. He has raised himself by his abilities into some 
degree of credit with the Porte, and obtained the con- 
fidence of the Grand Signior.^ The information he had 
acquired respecting the commerce of this country induced 
him to fix on this spot as an eligible situation in which 
to establish himself He first made a calculation of its 
produce, considering at the same time the failure of the 
crops, to which all countries, but some parts of Turkey 
in particular, are more or less subject. He afterwards 
made his agreement with the Porte on the subject of the 
tribute he was to pay. He succeeded in it with such 
surprising accuracy and managed this important matter 
with so much address that he has constantly been able to 
gratify the most unreasonable demands of the Ottoman 

' Abdul Hamet. Moore's Journal. 


Ministry. He judiciously foresaw that his success and 
elevation would soon be followed by the loss of the 
favour of the suspicious Sultan, and wisely anticipated the 
exorbitant increase of tribute which his enemies would 
require when they saw him deprived of the countenance 
of his Sovereign. This in reality happened a few years 
afterwards : his imposts were at once more than doubled 
and successive augmentations having taken place, he now 
pays one hundred thousand pounds sterling per year, 
which is more than double the sum that the whole 
produce of his district was ever supposed to be worth. 
This he has been enabled to do by gradually improving 
the cultivation of his lands and introducing an economy 
in farming hitherto unknown, and by which he is said to 
have realised an immense fortune. 

This wonderful man is the friend of the peasant and 
adored by his dependants. The regular remittances of a 
sum which so far exceeds the expectation of the Porte, 
is said to be the thread on which the head of this 
enlightened Turk now depends, and should a peace take 
place with the Russians, which must lessen the demands 
on the Grand Signior's coffers, it is supposed that he 
would fall one of the first victims to the jealous rage of 
the party now in power. Such is the ingratitude and 
unjust conduct of this abominable Government, under 
which a subject must ever be wretched and unhappy. 

December the jth. 

We proceeded on our journey, and the first part of 

this day's ride was very unpleasant, as we had for three 

miles a bad causeway to travel over till we approached 

the Meander,^ over which there was a wooden bridge of 

^ See p. 89, n. 


considerable height and length, without battlements and 
very narrow ; and the construction of it appeared so 
feeble, that we did not cross it without apprehensions. 
Here we paused to view this celebrated stream, and bring 
to our recollection the great events which took, place on 
its banks and will perpetuate its name. Here we fancied 
we trod the ground where the great Antiochus sustained 
a total overthrow from Lucius Scipio one hundred and 
fifty years before Christ,i in which; he lost fifty thousand 
foot and four thousand horse with fifteen elephants. 

At twelve we reached a poor village called Zachonona 
about fifteen miles from Magnesia. We had sent our 
mules with the baggage forward. As we reached this 
place before them, and had not passed them on the road, 
we were seriously alarmed, and apprehended that the 
black slave who was with the baggage had either run off 
with our effects or was plundered. We remained for 
two hours in this painful suspense, and were at length 
relieved by the arrival of the negro, who had taken a 
different road, by which he had gone several miles out 
of his way. After having blamed each other for having 
separated from him, as he had in his possession every 
valuable and all our money, we resolved to be more 
prudent for the future. 

We retired to a kind of barn, where we made a 
violent attack on our cold provisions. We removed 
part of our valuables from the trunks and secured them 
in [our] own pockets. Here we were honoured with a 
visit from the Governor of the village, accompanied by 
fifty other Turks, who all appeared in uniform misery. 
They seated themselves on the ground around us and 
entertained themselves with admiring our fire-arms, 
1 The Battle of Magnesia took place 190 B.C. 


which, we were pleased to find, they were sensible of 
being well loaded. 

After our dinner we went eighteen miles farther to 
the town of Auctozaar,^ and alighted at a caravansary- 
inhabited by Greeks who carried on a manufactory of 
cotton, for sail-making and other common purposes of 
the country. The accommodation was most wretched. 
We were all obliged to lie down in the same room : nor 
could we get provisions of any kind. It had rained all 
day ; we were wet through ; and, to complete our mis- 
fortune, we had neither fire or fire-place ; nor could we 
procure even a dish of charcoal to dry our clothes. A 
traveller, however, must expect to encounter difficulties 
and disappointments, particularly in these countries. 
Habit teaches us to despise them, and the pleasure we 
experience from having surmounted obstacles seems to be 
in proportion to their magnitude. 

The next morning bore a more favourable appearance. 
We travelled over a country uncommonly beautiful ; 
diversified with eminences, covered with woods and vast 
herds of cattle and the most beautiful flocks of sheep with 
flat tails and long pendent ears, the former of an immense 
size. We observed no habitation, nor passed any village, 
for the first five hours of our ride through a most 
romantic country. We halted to breakfast by the side of 
a fountain built by the bounty of some penitent and 
charitable Turk. This is considered by them an act most 
meritorious and benevolent ; and so it really is, when 
situated so as to furnish to the weary traveller the re- 
freshing draught which he could not otherwise procure. 

We soon bid adieu to the fountain which had 
refreshed us, and continued our route over a mountainous 
' He probably means Akhissar. 


and very wild country, and in five hours arrived at a small 
village called Gelembe,i where a small mud-walled room 
afforded us shelter. We had some very tough fowls killed 
for our supper, and comforting ourselves with the hopes 
of a good night's rest, we went to bed at eight, having 
had some clean straw spread under our matresses. 

In the night, the dogs made so much noise that our 
sleep was hourly interrupted. It was not the first time 
that we had been annoyed by these animals, which 
abound in most of the Turkish towns ; not appertaining- 
to any individual, they infest the streets in large packs, 
and in the night (particularly when it is moonlight) they 
keep up a most dismal howling. We have frequently 
counted an hundred of them together. They are of the 
wolf and mastiff kind, and very large. It is extraordinary 
that in this country where the heat is excessive in 
summer these dogs are never known to go mad. 

In the morning our landlord had prepared for us a 
couple of boiled turkeys, some eggs and milk, which 
made ample amends for our bad supper. 

We had proceeded but a few miles, when it began to 
rain violently and continued the whole day without 
intermission. Our Greek capots, which we were assured 
at Smyrna would resist twelve hours' rain, were wet 
through in less than three. The additional weight of 
our clothes when wet soon knocked up our wretched 
mules, so that after a most disagreeable ride of eight hours 
we were obhged to take up our residence for the night 
in such an habitation as few Europeans have ever visited. 
It was a wretched hovel of twenty feet long, at one end 
of which were some cows and sheep, which we turned 
out to make room for horses, while [we] were obliged to- 

^ Gelembeh. 


content ourselves with the other corner. To complete 
our misery, we had no provisions left, and could procure 
nothing but some stinking camel's flesh, highly seasoned 
with garlic, and [which] is here esteemed a most delicate 
viand by the conductors of caravans who frequent these 

In the morning I was astonished to find that my 
faithful Pauolo had, during the night, baked some bread, 
made of some coarse flour which he was fortunate 
enough to find in the village, and procured some sheep's 
milk, so that we were able to make a most delicious 
breakfast. It cannot be imagined how much such little 
attentions are valued in a servant : when removed from 
all friends and relations, in a savage and remote country, 
your personal influence and property lose their weight 
and consequence and you are left to shift for yourself, 
with those advantages which nature and not any for- 
tuitous circumstances may have bestowed on you. In 
such a situation the servant has, very often, the advantage 
over his master, either by his personal strength, his 
unimpaired constitution, or his knowledge of useful arts. 
If to these qualifications he adds, as my dear Pauolo did, 
a good and feeling heart, a sensible mind, a cheerful 
disposition and a fidelity that cannot be shaken, he then 
becomes a most valuable friend : he is your companion, 
and you cheerfully and implicitly look up to him for that 
assistance which you cannot derive from your own 
powers, and which he bestows with the beneficence of a 
friend and the respectful submission of an inferior. 

On the two following days we had a most disagreeable 
and fatiguing journey to perform, as the country was 
wretched and scarcely exhibited any appearance of popu- 
lation or improvement of any kind. The hills were 


covered with brushwood, and the rains had made such 
deep ruts in the roads that in many places we had much 
difficulty in getting over them. We met with nothing 
curious or interesting, except on the second day we over- 
took a Turkish guard consisting of an Agha and about 
twenty janissaries. They had with them an unfortunate 
Greek as a prisoner : he was tied by his legs under the 
horse's belly, and his hands were tied behind his back. 
On inquiry we were informed that this man was one of 
the relations of the late Governor of Scio who had been 
beheaded some time before at Constantinople. This poor 
prisoner was going then to suffer a similar fate. He 
appeared much dejected and seldom spoke to those about 
him. While I most sincerely sympathized with this 
unhappy victim, I felt a glow of exultation which I could 
not suppress, when I reflected on the preeminence of 
that most excellent constitution which we enjoy as 
British subjects, by which our lives and properties are so 
well secured. We continued with this escort for upwards 
of three hours, when we found that our mules were not 
equal to the fine horses of the Pasha, and that we could 
not accompany them at the rate they travelled, though it 
did not exceed four miles an hour. 

We stopt under the shade of a beautiful hanging 
rock, covered with arbutus, where we refreshed ourselves, 
at the same [time] allowing our horses to pasture around 
us. We were met here by some foot-travellers who 
informed us that in all likelihood we should be attacked 
before we reached the place of our destination, which 
was at about twelve miles' distance. They said that 
there was a number of deserters from the Grand Vizier's 
army, who had encamped in this part of the country; 
that they robbed and massacred every traveller they met 


and had already assassinated many people. I concealed 
my apprehensions as well as I could, for fear of alarming 
our janissaries. Captain M — ^ and I consulted what was 
to be done. We determined to load our fire-arms anew 
and to make a most desperate resistance, being well 
convinced that nothing but the most determined courage 
could extricate us from the hands of such desperadoes. I 
informed my Armenian servant of our intentions, who 
seemed pleased to meet with an opportunity of manifest- 
ing his fidelity and courage. He swore that he would 
die by me ; and threatened to shoot the first of our band 
who should attempt to run away, or refuse to assist us 
when attacked. 

His animated and enthusiastic manner of talking 
inspired the whole troop with an ardent desire of 
signalizing their valour. I knew that I could trust to 
the courage of my Irish servant,^ and if I entertained a 
doubt of any one it was of those who should be the 
foremost in protecting us — I mean our guard and guides, 
whom we had hired at Smyrna for that very purpose. 

At four in the afternoon we perceived, at the distance 
of a mile, a number of people to the amount of thirty, 
who were assembling together and coming towards us. 
Through my glass I could discover that they were but 
indifferently armed. Only ten or twelve of them had 
guns ; the rest were armed with bludgeons and daggers. 
I informed my little caravan of this circumstance, which 
appeared to diffuse universal joy. However, as we drew 
nearer, it was deemed necessary to form some plan or 
defence. M — being the soldier, I submitted to him the 
direction of our manoeuvre; and it was accordingly 

> Moore. 

^ See Preface, 


resolved that we should proceed two by two. He and I 
went first, each of us having a double-barrelled gun and 
a case of double-barrelled pistols. My servant Pauolo 
and a janissary came next, my Irish servant and another 
ianissary afterwards, and close behind followed our 
baggage. My servants, to do them justice, did not 
appear in the least intimidated ; but all the rest seemed 
irresolute and much agitated : and had not M — and I 
gone foremost, I am convinced we should have been 
deserted by the janissaries. 

The gang was now within pistol shot of us, when it 
was proposed that we should [halt] and wait their coming 
up : this was agreed on by all, except the impatient 
Pauolo, who was for giving them the first fire, and then 
by impetuously rushing on them to disperse and put them 
into confusion. However, he obeyed my injunctions, 
which were not to attack until the party's intentions 
should appear hostile. When they saw us stop, they did 
the same, and it was easily perceived that they were more 
frightened than we were. Whereupon, I ordered 
Pauolo to ask them what their intentions were. They 
assured him that they were poor sailors, on their way 
home, and that their intentions were perfectly peaceable 
and friendly. I was convinced of the truth of this, and 
gave them some money, by way of compensation for 
having so wrongfully suspected them. Breathing again a 
little more freely, we congratulated each other that we 
had not been forced to fight. The alarm, however, 
proved of some use to us, as it served to make the 
janissaries uncommonly alert in driving on the tired 
mules, wishing to get to the place of our destination 
before dark. 

We pushed forward with all possible expedition and 


arrived by seven. We alighted at a coffee-house where 
by much pecuniary eloquence, which is as persuasive in 
this country as in any other, we prevailed on the landlord 
to dislodge some Turks who were in possession of the 
room, smoking and drinking coffee. Here we were 
tolerably comfortable for the night. 

December the iith. 

It had rained all the morning, and we travelled 
through a most comfortless country, till we arrived on 
the bank of a very large river, now called Maccatitch, but 
formerly Maceston.i Here a most violent dispute arose 
between Captain M — and a janissary ; the former 
insisting on his driving the baggage-horses before us, and 
not allowing them to stop behind, sometimes for half an 
hour. The janissary grew so very angry, that he drew 
his sabre and vented his rage on a poor mule that carried 
our bedding, by cutting him in a most shocking and 
savage manner. The poor animal, who was then stand- 
ing on the brink of the river, at least twenty feet from 
the surface of the water, was forced into it, and swam 
upwards of a mile down a most rapid stream, and would 
undoubtedly have perished had not Pauolo immediately 
undressed himself and mounted another mule, on which 
he swam to its relief. 

The quarrel began again, which I feared would have 
ended very unpleasantly. The janissary drew his sabre, 
and had not Mr. M — levelled his gun at him he would 
most likely have been dreadfully wounded. I now inter- 
fered, in hopes of making peace, as the janissary insisted 
on leaving us and returning to Smyrna. I was much 
alarmed at this, apprehending that his desire of revenge 
' Macestus. 


might induce him to get assistance from the peasants, or 
join any party in order to plunder, and perhaps murder 
us. I therefore used every means I could devise to pacify 
the scoundrel, but to no purpose ; till at last Pauolo 
putting his arms round his neck kissed him several times 
in the most affectionate manner, which appeased him a 
little. He kneeled down, put his fingers in his mouth 
and made the most ridiculous grimaces, using at the same 
time the most impertinent language, such as " Christian 
Dog," "Void of faith," "Unbeliever, etc." Thus his rage 
exhausted itself, and Pauolo renewing his embraces, he at 
last consented to accompany us. 

These altercations took up much of our time, so that 
we did not reach Maccatitch till ten in the evening, 
where we met our usual difficulties in procuring a lodging 
and supper. These are weighty concerns to a traveller, 
though they may appear uninteresting to my readers, to 
whom I wish to apologise for my tedious repetitions. 
But as Homer made his heroes eat and drink, and even 
Voltaire, in his poems, took care not to starve them, so I 
trust I may be forgiven, if in my narrative, which is 
truth itself, I record, perhaps too frequently, occurrences 
so unimportant as my breakfast, dinner and supper. 

December the 1 2th. 
We had now only six hours' ride from this place of 
misery to the village of Scala,i where we were to take 
boat for Constantinople. Throughout all Turkey the 
places where goods are embarked or disembarked are called 
Scala, which literally signifies a ladder ; and in many 
places we find not only the quay^ or spot of disembark- 
ation, but the entire village to which it appertains, to go 
^ " At the mouth of the Maccalitch." — Moore's Journal. 


by this common appellation. This prospect of so speedy 
a termination to our troubles, raised our spirits, and we 
set ofF very early and travelled along the banks of the 
Maccatitch for some miles. The country was on both 
sides very beautiful and watered with many rivulets. 

At half-past four we arrived at this little seaport, 
which contains only a few houses ; but its situation is 
extremely pleasant. On our arrival we did all in our 
power to prevail on some of the owners of the boats 
to set sail with us ; but as the wind was not directly fair, 
all our entreaties and every inducement we held out were 
in vain. They have no idea of going to sea but with a 
very fair wind. This disappointment, as it occasioned a 
delay of no less than forty-eight hours, almost exhausted 
our patience. We amused ourselves with killing some 
ducks with which the river was covered. We crossed a 
rivulet to a little island formed by this stream, and two 
small lakes to the south of the river Maccatitch where 
we had most excellent sport, having killed many wild 
ducks, teal, snipes and three hares of an uncommonly 
large size. 

At last the weather setting fair, our nokidah, or pilot, 
ventured to get under weigh, and after a very short navi- 
gation we landed at Top-Hanna ^ Scala, on the fourteenth 
of December at four in the evening. 

^ Top-Khaneh, or Gun House. 


Constantinople — ^Pera — Dancing Boys — The Grand Signior's Procession 
to St. Sophia — View of Constantinople — The Grand Signior's Barges 
— Mosque of St. Sophia — ^The Character of Capitan Pasha — Our 
Reception — The Turkish Fleet — Dervishes — The Seraglio. 

At Constantinople, as well as in other European 
capitals, you are obliged on your arrival first to proceed 
to the Custom-house, not so much for the purpose of 
paying the duties imposed by Government as to satisfy 
the rapacity of its Officers ; and we found that money had 
as much effisct on this bearded gentry, as on our Christian 
tide-waiters. We were immediately dismissed, and 
repaired to a house, which is called the French Tavern, 
where, having dressed ourselves as expeditiously as pos- 
sible, [we] went to pay our respects to our Ambassador, 
Sir R — A — ,^ for whom we had letters from England. 
He received us with all that affability and good nature so 
congenial to the character of that worthy gentleman. 
Here we met several of our intimate friends, and the 
hospitality and convivial manners of his Excellency, to 
whose table we were invited during our stay at Con- 
stantinople, made us soon forget all our sufferings from 
fatigue and hunger during our journey from Smyrna to 
this place. 

December the i ^th. 

This was the day I had fixed upon to be at Jerusalem, 
it being my birthday : yet as I had sufficient time before 
me, I did not feel myself disappointed. It was proposed 

' Sir Robert Ainslie. 


that we should make a party to the " Sweet waters." 
This is a remarkable place for snipe-shooting, and runs 
through the Grand Signior's plantations. We accom- 
panied Capt. F — 1 of the Pearl frigate on board his ship, 
and were joined there by many of the British officers. 
The Grand Signior has on this little river, which empties 
itself into the harbour of Constantinople, a very fine 
Kiosk, a tuakish, or summer-house, with many temples 
erected on its banks. There is great abundance of grass 
here in the summer, and it is on these meadows the 
Arabs encamp who attend the Grand Signior's horses, 
which are turned out in April for the remainder of the 
summer. We had but little diversion, but the beauties 
of the place made us ample recompense for this dis- 
appointment. In the spring and autumn, this river is 
the fashionable resort of the grandees of the metropolis, 
where they come in the most splendid barges of fifty and 
sixty feet in length, rowed by their eunuchs and accom- 
panied by their women. 

We walked afterwards about the town ot Pera, and 
paid visits to some English ladies. Pera is a Greek word, 
signifying " beyond," this suburb being situated beyond 
the gate of Galata. This is a most delightful situation, 
from which you have a view of the coast of Asia, and the 
Seraglio of the Grand Signior. The English, French, 
Venetian and Dutch ambassadors have their palaces here. 
Those of the Emperor and the King of Poland reside 
at Constantinople. The foreign merchants have their 
dwellings and warehouses at Pera as well as at Galata, 
amongst Jews, Greeks, Turks and Armenians. The 
French Palace is a most beautiful building, and contains 
a chapel which was kept by Capuchin friars. 

' The Hon. Seymour Finch. 


We visited the Gun Whart and saw some brass guns 
singularly constructed. They were of uncommon length, 
particularly a sixty-two pounder above twenty-five feet 
long, and many others as extraordinary in various respects, 
which did not induce us to entertain a favourable opinion 
of the Turkish ordnance, or the progress this nation has 
made in the artillery branch of military science, not- 
withstanding the assurances Monsieur de Tott has given 
us of his having brought it to the highest pitch ot 
perfection at Constantinople. 

December the 16th. 

We dined at Monsieur de B — 's,i the Spanish En- 
voy, where we had a most splendid entertainment. This 
gentleman was well acquainted with Irish hospitality, 
and gave us a great variety of most excellent wines. He 
promised us letters for the Terra Sancta at Jerusalem. 
This was a most desirable offer ; as that convent is 
principally maintained by the bounty of the Spanish 
Court ; and these letters afterwards proved of the 
greatest service to us, both at Jerusalem and in many 
other places in the Holy Land. 

We were likewise so fortunate as to be introduced 
to Madame la Baronne de H — ,^ who engaged us to 
accompany her the following day to Buyukdereh, a beauti- 
ful village on the Canal at the entrance of the Black 
Sea, where she had a country house, and intended soon 
to give a fete champetre. This was too agreeable a party 
to be refused. His Excellency was likewise engaged, 
who mounted us on his horses, and rode himself a most 
beautiful Arabian, which had been presented to him by 
the Capitan Pasha. We had a most charming ride of 

' Don Juan de Bouligny. — Moore's Journal. 
^ de Hubsch.- — Moore's Journal, 


twelve miles, and on our arrival were introduced by the 
lady to her beloved consort, whom I soon discovered 
to be a great botanist, and famous for the cultivation of 
rare and curious plants. This gentleman, between whom 
and his youthful wife there was a great disparity of 
years, spent most of his time in his garden, while her 
ladyship contented herself with now and then paying a 
visit to a most beautiful geranium flower, which was 
occasionally placed in one room or another of the castle. 
He had been married before and had a daughter a few 
months elder than her beautiful step-mother ; so that 
there existed a kind of jealousy between these ladies, who 
should please or be noticed most, a circumstance which 
generally turned to the advantage of the visitors ; and 
it was not difficult to discover that Mademoiselle 
Curregonde, rather than remain in her present state, 
would do anything to be placed under the protection of 
a husband, even were he as old as her father. However, 
we must not be too severe on those ladies, who made 
us spend two very agreeable days. Their hospitality, 
their engaging manners, I shall remember with the most 
lively sense of respect and gratitude. 

December the loth. 

We got up by sunrise fully determined to make the 
best use of the day, in visiting and examining the dif- 
ferent curiosities of Constantinople. We stopt at a sort 
of Turkish Tavern or Coffee-house, to see the Dancing 
Boys who are kept at those places * * # 

There were two Turks at breakfast in the gallery who 
were entertaining themselves in a manner horrid to the 
ideas of a rational being. Those boys have a method of 
cracking their fingers and fixing little bells to their wrists, 
with which they produce sounds and play tunes that are 


much admired. Being disgusted with this species of 
entertainment, I hastened from the horrid scene. 

We went next to see the Grand Signior go to the 
Mosque of St. Sophia, which was by far the finest 
masquerade that was ever exhibited. As my talent at 
the descriptive would not enable me to do justice to the 
grandeur of this curious procession, I endeavoured to 
supply the deficiency by a sketch which I made on the 
spot ; but which I unfortunately lost on my return from 
the Continent, with a collection of many other valuable 
drawings.i I regret this loss the more, at present, as it 
deprives me of the satisfaction of presenting a print of it 
to my subscribers. 

The Grand Signior sets off from the Seraglio at nine 
o'clock in the morning, to go to the Mosque of St. Sophia, 
or of Osmenie, the latter being the burial place of all the 
Ottoman Princes. There is on those occasions a degree 
of magnificence displayed in the dresses of the various 
guards and officers of the household, in their turbans and 
plumes, of which an European who never visited the 
Eastern countries can have no idea. Their fine horses 
with the uncommon riches of their trappings have an 
appearance of pomp and splendour that far surpasses that 
of any European Court, while the abject homage which 
the Sultan receives from his subjects, and the unrivalled 
grandeur of the exhibition inspires a stranger with a 
momentary idea, that the pompous title of " King of 
Kings," which the Grand Signior arrogates to himself, is 
realised, and that he absolutely beholds the greatest of 
earthly sovereigns. 

On our return we met with a very uncommon kind 
of vehicle, much resembling a covered cart, which is 
' See p. 6. 


used by the Turkish ladies of fashion, who are seated in 
it cross-legged on a mat. I perceived ten in the one I 
met, stowed together in such a manner that they must 
have suffered extremely from the heat, as there was but 
one small window to admit the air. I was informed 
that this fine equipage, drawn by two buffaloes, was the 
property of a renegado who was formerly a rich French 
merchant, and having failed, thought proper to change 
his religion in order to meliorate his circumstances, in 
which he has so well succeeded that he is now able to keep 
seven wives and concubines without number. I could 
not help wondering or doubting whether his temperament 
had increased proportionately with his wealth and years. 

At one I set off accompanied by Capt. F — ^ to see 
the Grand Signior's Barges. The Canal of Constantinople, 
from the entrance of the Harbour to the Towers at the 
head of the Black Sea, affords one of the finest coup-d'ceils 
in the world. 

On entering the Harbour, there is on the left 
the Seraglio of the Grand Signior with its extensive 
gardens and lofty walls ; afterwards you see the superb 
Mosques, raising their heads above the other buildings, 
which in Constantinople are generally but one or two 
stories high. On the right the view is terminated 
towards the " Sweet waters," by a magnificent Kiosk 
belonging to the Grand Signior, where he has likewise 
very extensive gardens. On the front, along the rising 
ground, is the Arsenal, Pera, Galata and the other 
suburbs of Constantinople. The beautifully situated 
town of Scutari also attracts the attention of the traveller, 
besides numberless other neat villages that extend the 
whole length of the Bosphorus, both on the European 
' See p. 104. 


and Asiatic side, as far as the mouth of the Black Sea. 
The number of ships of all nations, besides Tartans, 
Schebecks, and the most magnificent Barges, with which 
the river is always covered, and the hundreds of Kiakas 
filled with ladies, with their proprietors going on parties 
of pleasure, give the most lively appearance to the scene ; 
and one cannot help regretting that so heavenly a spot 
should be in the possession of such barbarians. From the 
peculiar advantages of its situation, it is admirably well 
calculated to be the seat of the arts, as well as the 
emporium of the most extensive commerce. What a pity 
that with all these advantages this capital should be doomed 
to remain subject to a barbarous despot, whose character 
seems merely a compound of ignorance and tyranny. 

The Grand Signior's Barges surpass anything of the 
kind in pomp and grandeur. The largest of these 
wonderful pleasure boats is ninety-six feet in length, 
ornamented in the most costly manner. They have from 
forty-eight to sixty oars, and have canopies, each of a 
different construction, supported on ivory or silver and 
gilded columns, exquisitely wrought. Under the canopy 
the Grand Signior seats himself on a carpet of the most 
costly embroidery, which commonly costs upwards of 
twenty-five thousand piastres, or two thousand five 
hundred pounds sterling, and which is always the last 
brought from Mecca. The gun-holes are of solid silver, 
beautifully carved in Turkish characters, and the magni- 
ficence as well as taste displayed throughout the whole 
is really astonishing. Notwithstanding the ornaments 
with which these boats are loaded, they are well con- 
structed for swiftness, being built sharp, somewhat 
resembling those on the Thames. 

Every year an immense caravan sets out from Con- 


stantinople to Mecca, to visit the Tomb of the Holy- 
Prophet. It consists of persons of the first rank in 
Turkey, and of no less than three, four and sometimes 
five thousand pilgrims. The Grand Signior always sends 
costly presents for the Sepulchre of Mahomet, among 
which is a carpet to cover the Tomb, and the one sent 
the year preceding is brought back to Constantinople and 
placed in the Seraglio. On that carpet the Sultan is 
usually seated when he appears in state ; and it [is] con- 
sidered by all good Musulmen as the safest and most 
sacred guard the Grand Signior could have in his Palace, 
in case of an insurrection taking place at Constantinople, 
where his person might be in danger. 

On the following day we visited the Mosque of St. 
Sophia, which is worthy of notice, both on account of 
its antiquity and structure. On our arrival the Imam 
made some difficulty about admitting us, which how- 
ever our janissary soon removed. We gave three 
Venetian sequins for allowing us to ascend the gallery, 
from which the whole inside may be seen, as Christians 
are never permitted to enter the lower part of the 
Mosque without a firman to that effect, which is an 
order from the Grand Signior written by his own hand. 

This building is of an oblong square, two hundred 
and fifty feet in length and one hundred and eighty in 
breadth. It stands east and west, according to the 
Grecian custom, and forms the figure of a cross. It is 
said to have been begun by the architect Artemius ^ and 
finished by Isodorus.^ Four immense columns, united by 
arches, support a cupola of a vast magnitude. It was 
formerly ornamented with mosaic work, which the 
Turks have almost entirely demolished. At the head ot 

' Anthemius. ' Isidorus. Moore's Journal has the same errors. 


the cross stood formerly the Sanctum Sanctorum. The 
ancient altar has been destroyed to make way for the 
mehrabe, or Turkish altar, towards which the Turks turn 
themselves when at prayer. It is only a niche in which 
is placed a very large book of the Koran, with a green 
veil, and a pair of immense chandeliers are suspended on 
each side. Near it is a kind of corridor in which the 
Grand Siguier adores his Prophet : it is but little 
ornamented, and has gilt blinds. Here the Sultan is 
obliged to come almost every Friday to offer his 
devotions : and I have been informed that if he were 
often to neglect this duty, it would occasion a rebellion. 
The floor of the Mosque is mostly covered with carpets, 
and is of a very fine marble of the island of Marmora. 
The columns of the galleries are likewise of the most 
beautiful marbles of various kinds. 

The building is in many places in the most ruinous 
condition. Many of the columns are held together by 
iron hoops, and it is probable that the slightest shock of 
an earthquake would bring this boasted monument ot 
ancient architecture to the ground. 

This Mosque has four minarets, one of which is built 
on the ancient steeple, and of a different architecture 
from the others. The souchtar, or Turkish priest, ascends 
five times a day to the highest gallery and calls the 
faithful to prayer. 

On leaving the Mosque we intended to go on a 
sailing party, but the day being too windy we were 
obliged to give up the idea, and returned to visit the 
different line-of-battle ships that were laid up at 
Tersakhaneh. We only ventured to examine their out- 
side, as the plague was then raging on board, and our 
curiosity was not quite so violent as to overcome our 


apprehensions of danger. These vessels have much 
useless finery about them, being encumbered with carved 
images, painted, or rather daubed over, in green and gold. 
They mount cannon of different calibres on their main 
deck, and carry nothing but swivels on the others ; 
trusting more to their pistols and sabres than to the 
guns, which are very badly worked by their sailors. 

We received at this time a message from the Capitan 
Pasha, brought to us by the Ambassador's dragoman, 
informing us that we might wait on him the following 
day. He likewise gave us to understand, that we should 
be obliged to take off our shoes at the door, in conformity 
to the custom of the Turks. We did not relish the idea 
of walking bare-footed, but must have submitted to it 
had not the Capitan Pasha sent an order that he would 
dispense with that ceremony. 

Before I give an account of our reception, I must 
introduce this extraordinary character to my readers, such 
as he was represented to me by several persons of the 
highest respectability, and particularly by Sir R — A — .1 

Hassan Pasha is now in his seventy-sixth year : he 
was born at Teflis in Georgia ; from whence, when a 
boy, he was brought to Constantinople and sold as a slave. 
His first master soon dying, he passed through various 
hands, and went at last to Algiers in the service of a 
Turk who fell a victim to the plague. Hassan was 
immediately seized and sold to pay off some of his 
deceased master's debts. Being of a very fine figure 
and lively disposition, he was purchased for the Dey, and 
entered into his service where he remained for some 
years, till an opportunity presented itself of making his 
escape : this he effected in a Spanish corn vessel, trading 

^ See p. 103. 


from Algiers to the port of Carthagena. Having taken 
a little money with him, he procured his passage in a vessel 
bound to the coast of Italy, from whence he crossed into 
Dalmatia, and proceeded to Constantinople, where he 
entered in the capacity of cagliongi, a post one step higher 
than a common sailor, on board the Turkish Fleet. By his 
good behaviour in [this] station he soon obtained advance- 
ment, and was gradually promoted to the rank of Kapitan 
or Commander of a ship. He filled this post at the 
time the Turkish Fleet was burnt and destroyed by the 
Russians, in the bay of Cismi,^ commanded by Count 
Alexander Orlow, in the year 1771. He shewed so 
much gallantry and good conduct in that unfortunate 
affair, that on the death of the High Admiral, who fell a 
victim to the poignancy of his grief two years afterwards, 
he was appointed his successor. He has for fifteen years 
past filled this important station with much credit and 
honour to himself He has always held the highest place 
in the confidence of his capricious sovereign ; and enjoys 
the happiness of seeing himself both loved and feared by 
all the officers and sailors of the fleet, and is looked up 
to by his country as its principal ornament and support. 
Though he is now in an advanced age, he appears both 
healthy and robust : he has a fine open manly countenance 
but strongly expressive of that ungovernable ferocity 
which manifests itself on certain occasions, and which 
may rather be attributed to the want of a liberal 
education and to that general system of despotism which 
exists in that country, and in a certain degree pervades 
every class, than to any propensity to cruelty with which 
his disposition might be naturally tinctured. He is 
brave almost to a degree of temerity, active, strong and 

' i.e., Tchesme. The year should be 1770. 


vigorous. In his youth he excelled all his companions in 
their exercises. He managed his horses with more 
address, threw his arrow to a greater distance and with 
more judgment than any man. Impelled by his vigorous 
arm, the gerite^ flew with unerring precision and double 
velocity. He uses his pistols and sabre with superior 
skill : but his pre-eminence was most conspicuous at the 
public spectacles of the Grand Signior in the circus, 
where the young men opposed themselves in fierce 
combat to the lion, or other ferocious animals and where 
the meed of victory constantly adorned Hassan's brow. 
Courageous, generous, benevolent and, except when under 
the immediate influence of passion, most humane ; 
impartial in his official distribution of rewards and 
punishments ; warm and sincere in his attachments ; 
affable and courteous to his inferiors ; ever ready to 
alleviate distress ; but implacable in his enmity to 
oppressor ; it is only to be lamented that a character 
rendered brilliant by so many excellent qualities was not 
destined to shine under the more happy influence of a 
Christian Government, where the prejudices inseparable 
from a Turkish education, which have been productive 
of the only blemish that tarnishes so bright a character, 
could never have existed. 

In the high post he enjoys as Lord High Admiral, 
his privileges are very nearly as great as those of the 
most despotic prince, and the lives of all his inferiors are 
at his disposal. 

At all the conflagrations in the city or suburbs ot 
Constantinople, which are pretty frequent, the Grand 
Signior, Grand Vizier, and Capitan Pasha are obliged to 
assist, in order to animate by their presence and per- 

^ "A kind of dart about lO or 12 feet long." — Moore's "Journal. 


suasion those [who] are employed in putting out the 
flames. The last of these great personages who arrives 
forfeits a certain sum of money, one thousand Venetian 
sequins, in favour of the first. The Capitan Pasha is 
constantly the first, though he is by many years the 
eldest of the three. On the night of the twenty-first, 
when a fire broke out in the palace of the Grand Vizier, 
who was with the army, the Capitan Pasha was at his 
beautiful villa, situated about four miles from Constantin- 
ople. He was immediately informed of it, and in a 
moment set off on horseback, with forty attendants, and 
reached town in less than twenty minutes, though the 
road was scarcely passable, being covered with snow some 
feet deep, and the night unusually dark ; so that out of 
his forty attendants, one only was able to keep up with 
him, all the rest having been thrown from their horses, 
and unable or unwilling to follow him. 

Now for an account of our audience. At ten in the 
morning I set out, accompanied by the Hon. Captain F — ,1 
and the officers of the Pearl frigate, for Top-Hanna, 
where we found the boats of the Captain and his first 
lieutenant waiting for us. The men were dressed in 
their Barge jackets, and the ofiicers in their full uniforms. 
We proceeded by water to Capitan Pasha's palace and 
arrived at the Gate of the Seraglio in less than a quarter of 
an hour. On entering the first Court we were met by the 
dragoman of the Palace, who with a suite of attendants 
conducted us through a range of apartments to the Levee 
room, where we found the Pasha ready to receive us. 

He was seated in state, on superb cushions ; behind, 
according to custom, was a display of all his most costly 
arms, beautifully mounted on gold, silver and precious 
' Hon. Seymour Finch. 

I 2 


stones. We were all struck with the noble air and 
countenance of this venerable and truly respectable old 
man. He rose half way from his seat to receive us : 
this was considered as the greatest condescension possible 
on his part ; as a Turk is scarcely ever known to rise 
to salute a Christian, and it was a matter of astonishment 
to his officers and attendants. He was most superbly 
dressed and wore his turban of state, a white band round 
his forehead, and a high cap with a large diamond 
feather. The Levee room was very large, furnished a la 
turque with beautiful cushions spread upon the ground. 
He ordered us to be seated. I had the honour of sitting 
at one side of him and Captain F — at the other ; the 
other gentlemen were seated in a semicircle at the end of 
the apartment. He began the conversation by telling us 
that he had always loved the English nation ; inquired 
much after our ambassador, who he said was a man of 
courage and probity, who could be depended upon. He 
took notice of my [clothes], which in comparison to his 
were short indeed. I informed him of my intention of 
visiting the Holy Land, and that consequently I was 
preparing myself for the long dress. This idea seemed to 
afford him great amusement, and he was so polite as to 
offer me letters of protection to all the different Governors 
and Kapitans commanding in the Mediterranean, and even 
promised to procure me -i. firman from the Grand Signior. 
I said everything I could to testify my gratitude, and 
presented him at the same time with a remarkable 
telescope, with which he was very much delighted ; the 
more so, as he had lately broken the only one in his 
possession, and had not had an opportunity of replacing 
it. I likewise presented him with a pistol which from 
its peculiar construction could fire seven balls one after 


another, with one loading ; it cost me one hundred 
guineas. But Capitan Pasha, not wishing to be behind 
hand with me in point of generosity, sent me the 
following day a most beautiful pelice, and a whole bottle 
of otto de rose, which in England as well as in Turkey 
is worth four hundred pounds, as it required no less than 
twelve acres of roses to produce that quantity. 

We were then served by a vast number of attendants 
with fifty different kinds of refreshments, such as cakes, 
sweetmeats, etc. Each article was served by a different 
servant, all dressed in the richest robes of embroidered 
satin : another slave carried an embroidered muslin 
napkin richly ornamented with gold and silver fringe 
and spangles : nor was a napkin carried by the same 
person twice, and this was changed as often as a different 
kind of sweetmeats was offered ; this sort of luxury being 
carried so far that we were not permitted even to wipe 
ourselves a second time with the same napkin. There 
could not be less than two hundred attendants, all armed 
with a fine case of pistols, and a sabre large and sharp 
enough to cut off the head of an ox. 

After this procession of sweetmeats, coffee was served, 
and then otto of roses to perfume the beard. Pipes came 
afterwards, and I having by this time learned to smoke, 
shewed myself quite an adept in the art. Having stayed 
about an hour and a quarter, we took our leave and asked 
permission to see the Pasha's stables, which he readily 
granted, and which was considered as the greatest honour 
he could pay us ; as the Turks, among other superstitious 
notions, firmly believe that if a Christian cast his eyes on 
their children and horses, the two principal objects of 
their affection and attention, they are thereby exposed to 
the danger of losing their eyes. 


We were conducted to the stables by the Master oi 
Horse. We went through several vast apartments and 
descended by a flight of steps into a private passage, 
through which we passed into the stables. They con- 
tained upwards of one hundred horses, most of which 
were exquisitely beautiful : they were chiefly Arabian, 
and many well worth one thousand guineas in England. 
Each horse had his proper attendant, and though the 
stables were very spacious, there was scarcely room to 
move, as the grooms had all assembled in expectation of 
receiving some presents from me. I gave them but a 
trifle, with which they appeared much satisfied. All the 
horses were in the highest condition, and their coats as 
fine as satin, which considering that it was December, 
and the coldest weather remembered at Constantinople 
for some years, was a remarkable and astonishing 

We stayed an hour in this place, and were returning 
to take leave, when, as we had advanced some way into a 
large apartment, I perceived the Capitan Pasha and 
several of his attendants on their knees. Our Dragoman 
came up too late to prevent me from being noticed, and 
we were going to retire when the Capitan made a sign 
and said that we should not mind him but walk on 
through the megtte or private chapel. This was another 
remarkable instance of his politeness ; as it is considered 
by the generality of Turks highly degrading to be dis- 
tracted by any object when at their devotion, especially 
in the presence of a Christian. His prayers did not 
continue above five minutes when he arose and gave 
orders that we should be shewn into a Kiosk belonging 
to the Grand Signior, where he seldom comes but in 
the summer, and then incognito to see the Pasha, who had 


made a present of it to the Grand Signior. It is of an 
octagonal form, most beautifully fitted up, with a fountain 
in the centre. The floor is of the finest variegated 
marble, and the whole surpassed in elegance everything 
of the kind I had ever seen. I was credibly informed 
it cost the Capitan Pasha upwards of fifteen thousand 

Our boats had been ordered round to one of the 
doors of this beautiful building, close to the water, so 
that from the Kiosk we took our leave and stept into 
them. We saw him peep through the window blinds 
and laugh excessively when the Barge-men dropt their 
oars together in the water. I heard afterwards from Sir 
R — A — ^ that he liked the practice exceedingly, and 
intended to introduce it into the Turkish Navy. 

The Turks send every year a Naval armament to the 
different islands and provinces bordering on the sea coast. 
This fleet is regulated as to the strength and number of 
the ships by the magnitude of the services which it is 
meant or expected to perform. If the Porte is not 
engaged in war with any foreign power, it is commonly 
composed of five or six ships. They collect the enormous 
taxes to which all those islands are subject ; particularly 
those inhabited by Greeks and other Franks. Before 
they set sail an annual ceremony is observed and per- 
formed with as much pomp and ostentation as if pre- 
parations were making against a most powerful enemy. 
And, as it may give a further idea of eastern magnificence, 
I shall give the same description of it that was given me 
by a well-informed gentleman who was witness to it last 

On the fourth of May, at eight in the morning, 

' Sir Robert Ainslie. 


the Sultan repairs in his Barge of State to one of his 
kiosks, built close to the water. He is attended by his 
chamberlains and officers of State, his janissaries, pages, 
Body and inferior Guards parading around their Sovereign 
in different Barges according to their respective ranks. 
The Sultan is seated under a superb canopy till he arrives 
at his kiosk. He is soon followed by the Grand Vizier, 
who takes his station close to the Wharf in his Barge. 
On this occasion the harbour is covered with boats 
belonging to the different noblemen, with their women, 
come in the greatest pomp to be spectators of this 
beautiful sight. 

The Capitan Pasha on his side embarks with great 
solemnity at Casum Pasha,i the place where the ships 
are stationed and where he has a Palace, in a galley of 
fifty oars rowed by slaves. He is attended by three 
whole and three half galleys, and by a vast number of 
boats, in which people of the first consequence come to 
pay their respects to him. 

This procession is conducted with so much solemnity 
and deliberation, that they are two hours rowing to the 
Grand Signior's kiosk, though but a mile's distance. 
The Pasha's galley being arrived abreast of the Wharf, 
he goes on shore attended by the Captains of the different 
ships under his command, and there he is received by 
one of the Officers of State, who invests him with a 
garment, the insignia of his office. He is then conducted 
by two cauci into the presence of the Grand Signior, who 
wishes him success in his enterprize, and a happy and 
safe return. He then takes leave and returns to his 
Barge, where he is received with a general salute from all 
the galleys, all the ships in the harbour, and afterwards 

^ i.e.y Kassim Pasha. 


by the batteries of Top-Hanna. He next proceeds along 
the Canal to the village of Besci Jacci, near the Black 
Sea, on the European side of the Canal, where he receives 
a grand entertainment from the Prime Vizier. This last 
ceremony over, he departs for his station. 

December the zyd. 

Having heard much said respecting the ceremonies of 
the Dervishes, I proposed to my companion to pay them 
a visit this morning. As they wish to make the 
bystanders believe that they are actuated by inspiration 
and religious zeal to the horrid deeds they commit on 
themselves, they are always pleased to see strangers, 
particularly Giaours, Christian dogs, witness their cere- 
monies, in hopes of obtaining the reward which is 
reserved for them if they convert any one by so great a 
display of faith to the Mahometan religion. And so 
much are weak minds enslaved by the blind bigotry of 
the Greek Church, that I have been informed from good 
authority that it is forbidden by their priests, under pain 
of non-absolution, to visit these assemblies of Dervishes, 
from an apprehension that the sufferings which they 
voluntarily undergo and inflict on themselves for the 
honour of their religion might have so forcible an effect 
upon the understanding of the greatest part as to shake 
their Catholic faith and convert them to Mahometanism. 

At nine o'clock we were conducted by our janissaries 
to the hall where these Dervishes were assembled, to the 
number of a dozen, and attended by upwards of one 
hundred spectators. The scene was opened by a dance 
of a most ridiculous nature : three of the Dervishes stood 
up at a time in a most curious dress, one part of which 
was a sort of petticoat fastened very high upon their 


waist, with a short jacket open before and their arms 
bare. They began by turning themselves round for 
upwards of half an hour, till quite overcome with a 
vertigo they all three fell senseless on the ground, amidst 
the acclamations of the spectators. The next object that 
presented itself to our view was a man pinching the 
flesh on his arm with a broad pair of pincers made for 
the purpose, till there was not a spot on his left arm and 
shoulder that was not bursting forth with extravasated 
blood. This fellow wished to impress the bystanders 
with the belief that his religious zeal prevented his 
suffering any pain from this dreadful operation. And 
though, to do him justice, his countenance did not betray 
the whole extent of his sufferings, yet could he not 
succeed in persuading any rational being that God would 
deaden a man's feelings, and prevent him from suffering 
the pain that he voluntarily inflicted on himself through 
his folly or fanaticism. 

I afterwards witnessed many similar sights, all equally 
disgusting ; but what shocked me the most was a 
Dervish, who first held a red-hot bar of iron in his teeth 
till they were nearly burnt out of his head ; and after- 
wards held it in his hands, till the flesh was almost 
entirely burnt off his fingers. This rendered the place 
so offensive with the smell of his broiling flesh that I 
was obliged to take my departure. 

There is another ceremony among these poor deluded 
wretches which I did not want to see — it is their 
devouring serpents alive. They accomplish this by first 
laying hold of the animal by the neck and beginning 
their repast on the head, while the tortured animal 
writhes itself round their arm, to the very great enter- 
tainment of the ignorant spectators, who shout ap- 


plause and ever after consider these miserable fanatics as 

Leaving this disgusting spectacle, we went to Top- 
Hanna and embarked in a boat to cross the Canal, 
with an intention of taking a stroll about the town of 
Constantinople, and particularly to examine as much of 
the Seraglio as may be viewed without much danger 
or inconvenience. 

This Palace occupies the place where anciently stood 
Byzantium, on the point of the Peninsula of Thracia, 
near the Bosphorus. It was erected by Mahomed II., 
and is three miles in circuit. Its form is triangular: 
the buildings are on the top and declivity of the hill, and 
the gardens extend as far as the sea. The exterior has 
nothing striking or remarkable ; and if we are to judge 
of the beauty of the gardens by the quantity of cypress- 
trees they contain, we may fairly conclude that they are 
not better cultivated or more curiously laid out than 
those of other individuals in Constantinople. The only 
particular care that appeared to have been taken, was to 
overload the grounds with shrubs and evergreens in order 
to conceal from the inhabitants of Galata and the other 
neighbouring places the sight of the Sultanas while they 
are walking in them. On going into the first court ot 
the Seraglio, we were shewn a kind of wall with niches 
for exposing the heads of great state criminals. The first 
court of the Seraglio is immense, and is guarded by fifty 
capigis, who are only armed with a small stick. It 
contains the infirmary, the bake-houses and other offices, 
as well as barracks for the Baliondgis. On the left hand 
of this square is the ancient church of St. Irene, which 
was built by Constantine the Great, and is now converted 
into a storehouse for arms. In this court is also a fountain 


to which the Greeks come on certain festivals to drink of 
its waters, for which they pay very handsomely to the 
Grand Signior. Everybody is allowed to enter this court, 
where a most profound silence reigns ; for if anyone was 
to make the least noise, it would be construed into a want 
of respect to the Master, and the delinquent would be 
bastinadoed on the spot. 

The second court is more regular and much more 
agreeable than the first. It is likewise guarded by fifty 
capigis, and has two towers, near which is the Hall of 
Execution, where the viziers are tried and beheaded. 
This explains a Turkish common expression, which is 
applied to those who are checked in their career : " to 
be stopt between the two doors," as there is one at each 
side of this place of execution. Here is still to be seen 
the mortar and pestle that were kept for pounding the 
Muftis and Mamas when guilty of treason or other 
offences. The property of these people not [.?] being sub- 
ject to confiscation, they were certain of carrying nothing 
out of this world with them ; not even whole bones. 

There are three passages leading out of this great court. 
The first to the right leads to the Divan, which is the 
highest tower of the Seraglio. It is a large square 
building, in which the councils of state are held. The 
second passage is in the centre of the court, and leads to 
the Gate of Felicity ; it also conducts you to the 
presence chamber where the Grand Signior receives the 
foreign ambassadors. Between this gate and the square 
is a small kiosk where the Kislar Agha holds his Divan, 
and woe unto those who come under the cognizance of 
this court of inquiry. The third passage leads to the 
kitchens, nine in number, and other offices. The 
remaining buildings on the same line are the Treasury, 


the Treasurer's House, a Mosque, two kiosks and a 
beautiful bath. 

The buildings at the back of the Divan are the apart- 
ments of the Grand Signior, and near them the great 
Haram. The interior of these apartments displays the 
highest degree of richness and sumptuous magnificence. 
I have not been enabled to ascertain the number of 
beauties they contain. I understood that those only were 
called Sultanas who had been honoured with a peculiar 
preference by the Grand Signior, and could add to that 
distinction the far more envious title of " mother." 

The Seraglio contains two distinct orders of favourites. 
Those who have been honoured but once with the 
gracious embraces of the Sultan are called odalisks, and 
the asakis are those who can boast of having been noticed 
several times. Unhappy victims ! who are obliged to 
solicit and pine after the embraces of a surly, debauched, 
and enervated tyrant. With all his riches and power, he 
can command only sensual enjoyments ; and has perhaps 
never felt or communicated that heavenly enchantment, 
which is the result of the close union of two congenial 

The strictest policy is observed in the Haram : the 
women can enjoy, and are promoted to, places of rank 
and emolument. Crimes are punished with death : the 
guilty are tied up and thrown into the sea. But what- 
ever riches or dignities they enjoy, they are nevertheless 
subservient to the control and caprice of eunuchs. 
They are allowed a physician when sick, who must, 
however, feel their pulse thro' a gauze. The eunuchs 
mount guard in the interior of the apartments ; their chief 
is called Capiaga. The black eunuchs, and of them the 
most hideous, alone approach the odalisks. The ichoglans 


are the pages of the Grand Signior ; they are very 
handsome young boys, and were formerly selected from 
among the captives : but now many families among the 
Turks solicit that honour for their children, and often 
pay a sum of money to obtain it. The Mutes are a 
particular class of servants, always at hand and ready to 
execute the secret orders of the Prince. They express 
their meaning by signs with an astonishing perspicacity. 
When the Emperor walks in the gardens with his 
women a bell is rung, and the gardeners and labourers 
are obliged to retreat precipitately under pain of death. 


Constantinople, continued — Pera — ■ Its Antiquities — Obelisks — Cistern 
of Basilica — The Slave IVIarket — The Coffee Manufactory — The 
Watch-Tower — The Seven Towers — Ramaden — A Bath for the 
Ladies — Character of the Turks — Dress — The Ladies — Their Food 
— Their Diversions — Arts and Sciences — A Turkish Billet-Doux — 
The Plague — The Police — The Grand Signior — Public Buildings — 
Marriages — Janissaries. 

On going from the Seraglio a foreigner is much 
pleased with the beautiful front of St. Sophia, close to 
which stands one of the finest fountains in Constantinople, 
built by the Grand Signior and richly ornamented with 
gold and Turkish characters. We afterwards went to see 
a Mosque built by Sultan Achmet ; it is a very beautiful 
building and in its interior far exceeds that of St. 
Sophia, having six lofty minarets and three galleries. 
The immense square, in the middle of which it stands, 
was begun by the Emperor Severus and finished by 
Constantine. Proceeding on the right, you enter the 
largest street or Constantinople, called Divan Tole Dgiami. 
All the amabadgis, guards of the highest order of the 
Grand Signior, have their houses here. At the bottom 
of this street are still seen some ruins of superb arcades, 
which formerly belonged to the Palaces of the Emperors, 
and the famous staircase by which the princes ascended to 
the celebrated place At-meidan, which under the Greek 
Emperors was called Hippodrome. It was a Circus in 
which the public spectacles of horse-racing, bull-fighting 


etc., were represented. It is more than twelve hundred 
feet long and three hundred broad. The few antiquities 
to be seen at Constantinople are chiefly in this square, 
and reduced to two obelisks and a few columns. 

The first obelisk is about thirty-five feet high : it 
consists of two pieces of red oriental granite, which are 
in high preservation ; as well as the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics, which cover it almost from top to bottom. It 
stands on a pedestal of white marble, and on the side 
fronting the Mosque are seen Latin hexameters, still 
legible ; by which it appears that it was erected by the 
Emperor Theodosius. On the base are several figures 
in basso relievo ; but mostly effaced by the ravages of 
time. Theodosius is represented on one side, with a 
palm and a crown in his hand, and on the other is the 
representation of a battle. There is another obelisk at 
the extremity of this great place, of fifty feet height. 
It has four sides, and is built of large square stones which 
are crowded with figures in basso relievo. It is erected 
on a pedestal, on which is a Greek inscription almost 
obliterated. A little farther on, an immense pillar of 
bronze, resembling three large serpents entwined together, 
presents itself to view. These serpents have lost their 
heads, and their bodies are nearly [? defaced by the] 
stones which children are incessantly throwing into them. 
It is supposed that this pillar served as one of the tripods 
in the temple of Delphi, which was consecrated to Apollo, 
and that it was removed to this city by Constantine the 

From this place we went to examine a very great 
Cistern, anciently called the Cistern of Basilica, which, 
though the Turks have curtailed more than two thirds, 
is still immense. It is now quite dry, and contains 


several hundred persons preparing and winding silk for 
the manufactories, who fasten their skeins or hanks to 
the different pillars that support this vast reservoir. 
Some Greek inscriptions are still to be seen ; but I could 
not find any of them legible. No traveller or antiquarian 
has yet been able to ascertain the use of this reservoir. 

As it was now near our dinner hour, and we were at 
some distance from the ambassador's Palace, we hastened 
our return home, but by another road, and had the 
pleasure of viewing en passant a place called Catergha 
Limanis, or the Port of the Galleys. This is a very pretty 
part of the city, where formerly stood the Baths of Julian. 
We likewise saw a very fine Palace belonging to the 
Sultana Esma, situated towards the South and commanding 
a most beautiful prospect. 

I observed on our way a vast number of granites 
scattered here and there, half buried in the ground, 
and some of them serving as corner stones to the 
streets. We finished our course by taking a slight view 
of the Slave-market, where both men and women 
are exposed to public sale : and thanks to the Jews and 
pirates, this commodity is most abundant at Constan- 
tinople. The Turks come here to purchase men, 
women and children, as they happen to be in want of 
them. I saw a beautiful young Georgian bargained for, 
and examined by several connoisseurs, and owing to the 
very extravagant demand of her owner, she was some 
time before she could get a purchaser, though the poor 
girl did everything in her power to engage notice and 
command attention, thinking, no doubt, any kind of 
slavery preferable to the horrid idea of being thus daily 
exposed to public view, and belonging to a cruel and 
avaricious dealer in human flesh. The buying and selling 



of slaves form a considerable branch of commerce : nor do 
the ladies of the first distinction among the Turks think it 
beneath their notice. They often purchase pretty little 
girls, whom they educate with the greatest care and 
fondness, and engage masters to instruct them in music, 
dancing and singing. They bestow so much care in 
perfecting them in all external accomplishments, and 
particularly in the art of attracting men, and inspiring 
violent passions, that it is not uncommon to see young 
women thus educated rise from the humble sphere in 
which fortune had placed them to a more elevated station, 
and become the favourites, and often the wives, of men of 
the first rank and consequence. 

December the li^h. 

We began our excursion this morning by taking a 
view of a kiosk called Kirdeb Kioski, which is a kind of 
state prison, in which the viziers are confined till the time 
of their exile. Near it we saw another fine building, 
which was a House of Justice : and passed an immense 
iron gate commanding a subterranean passage extending 
under the city as far as the Mosque of St. Sophia. I was 
also shewn here some remains of brick-work in the wall 
of the Seraglio, said to have formed a part of the ancient 
Church of our Saviour. 

As we were in the neighbourhood, we paid a visit to 
the coffee manufactory called Belick Jaamizi, where all 
the coffee consumed in Constantinople is burnt and 
ground. More than three hundred persons are employed 
in it, and near four thousand pounds of coffee are daily 
;sold. This may appear immense to persons who do not 
know, or consider, that the Turks are accustomed to 
drink coffee, perhaps, a dozen times in the day ; as it is, 
the quantity appears rather small in proportion to the 


daily consumption ; for the common people here, of the 
lowest order, live on coffee as the poor in Ireland do on 
potatoes. No person ever thinks of stirring out till he 
has first drank his coffee. In the poorest habitation you 
enter, a cup of coffee is offered you ; nor are you suffered 
to drink it alone, as the owner of the house is sure to 
pledge you, though he may have already done the same 
with a dozen prior visitors. This, together with the 
offer of a pipe, is the most common way of shewing 
their hospitality : if you refuse either, you are sure of 
offending, or at least, of giving them a very unfavourable 
opinion of your taste and manners. 

We had been previously provided with an order, or 
permission to enter all mosques, otherwise we should 
have been prevented from examining many beautiful 
buildings of this kind ; nor should we have been allowed 
to see the place where Constantine the Great was buried. 
He is interred in the mosque called Osmanie Dgiamissi. 
It is a very fine building, both for its architecture and 
internal workmanship. The tomb of the Emperor is 
in the dome of the Church ; it is made of one solid block 
of porphyry, excavated with the chisel, and close to it 
lies the lid. This beautiful piece of marble is nine feet 
in length, by three and a half in breadth. Its excava- 
tion, which has been the effect of skill and labour, is 
three feet deep. The thickness of its sides is four inches. 

From this we passed through the street called the 
Street of the Burnt Column, so named from the column 
that stands at the north end of it, which had suffered 
materially by a dreadful fire. It is of porphyry and 
surrounded with bars of iron ; its ornament consists of a 
beautiful foliage, and it is crowned with a capital of 
white marble. On its top stood the statue of the founder 

K 2 


of this city. The column itself is formed of several 
pieces of porphyry, the parts of which are so admirably 
well fitted, and the joints so effectually concealed by 
wreaths of laurel, that till lately they could not be 
discerned, and it was supposed to be an entire piece 
of porphyry ; but time, that great developer of things, 
having defaced its ornaments, the joints are now visible in 
many places. 

The Emperor Manuel Comnenus imagined that by 
diminishing the height of this celebrated column, he 
would save it from the ravages of time and weather ; 
but instead of replacing the statue of Constantine, he 
crowned the column with a capital of white marble, 
of the Doric order, and had an inscription engraved on it, 
which at this time is scarcely legible, importing that this 
admirable work had been restored by the very pious 
Emperor Comnenus. 

We passed afterwards thro' a very long covered street, 
in which live all the librarians, book-binders and Turkish 
clerks. The latter amount to many thousands, as there 
are no printing offices in Constantinople. On expressing 
my astonishment at this to Sir R — A — he assured me 
that the very attempt to introduce printing would occasion 
a rebellion ; as the clerks would consider it as a deprivation 
of their only means of support or livelihood ; and they 
would be seconded by the mob of Constantinople, which 
is a very formidable body when assembled. 

The Watch-tower of Constantinople next attracted 
our notice. From its top you can almost see the whole 
city ; and guards are here continually on the watch, that 
they may give the alarm on the first appearance of fire, 
which is done in the following manner. Three of them 
are always on the look-out, who are provided with drums 


and trumpets of different forms and sizes. When all 
these are sounded at once, the fire is supposed to be 
general over Constantinople ; and every one, let whatever 
be his rank or situation, is by these signals ordered to give 
assistance. When any of the smaller drums are beaten, 
the fire is in some particular quarter ; and when the 
trumpets are sounded, it is known to be in Pera. By 
this means every one knows to what quarter, and even to 
what street he is to direct his assistance on such an occa- 
sion. This is a most excellent institution, and without it 
the whole city would be consumed a dozen times in the 
year, supposing it could be rebuilt as often. During my 
short stay of about three months,^ there were about 
twenty fires in the city and suburbs. 

From this place we directed our steps to Mahomet's 
Bath, the most famous in Constantinople. It is built on 
the spot where once stood the Cistern of Arcadius and 
Modestus ; and the traveller still meets with some frag- 
ments of masonry belonging to this once celebrated 
basin. There are in many places pieces of broken 
pillars, and at the door of the bath two very beautiful 
marble capitals. This bath is by far the finest I ever 
saw, and the interior of it is finished in the highest style 
of eastern elegance. 

We afterwards went through a gate built by the 
Emperor Theodosius, surrounded on one side with walls 
in arcades and flanked by towers. In ascending to the 
Mosque of Hassakei,'' or the Mosque of the women, we 
were struck with the noble appearance of the pedestal on 
which formerly stood the Pillar of Arcadius : there remain 
only three feet and an half of the column, which is of verd 

^ Obviously an error. He reached Constantinople 14 Dec. (p. 102), 
and left 21st Jan. following (p. 155)- ^ ^•'■^ Khasseki Jami'. 


antique :i and the pedestal on which it stands ten feet 
in height, is of red granite. We arrived afterwards 
at a fountain called Balukli, which is highly venerated by 
the superstitious Turks, who often come here to cast 
their nativity and consult future events, according to the 
form and appearance of a number of little fishes with 
which this fountain is well stocked. 

The next day at ten o'clock I set out once more for 
Constantinople, to see some inscriptions to which I was 
induced to direct my attention by the advice of the Abbe 
S — , a very sensible, facetious man, and a great antiquary, 
who resides in the Ambassador's Palace. In viewing the 
walls of Constantinople, traces of antiquity may every- 
where be discovered well worth the notice of a traveller. 
The ancient walls of Byzantium have in some places, 
braved the destructive hand of the Turks as well as of 
time. Superb columns are still to be seen, and some 
gateways are still existing. Inscriptions, the laboured 
monuments of Grecian art, are to be met with in many 
places on the walls and gateways, both in the Greek and 
Latin languages ; but the greatest part have suffered so 
much by time that they are scarcely legible. They in 
general announce the different repairs that have been 
made by different Emperors. At the end of the wall, 
which extends to the west along the sea-shore, are two 
towers, on one of which the inscription engraved on two 
two long slabs of white marble is still legible, and informs 
us that these towers had been repaired under Constantine 
and Bassilei \sic\? You then pass the Gate Top-Capoussi,^ 
or Gate of Cannon, so called from Mahomet II. having 

1 Verde antico — the green breccia used for ornamental sculpture by the 
ancients, sometimes marked with small red or black spots. 

2 /.f., Constantine IX. and Basil II., who reigned together from a.d. 
969 to 1025. ' Kapusi. 


pointed his artillery against it. It was in that attack the 
unfortunate Constantine Paleologus lost both the empire 
and his life. The ruins of the Palace of Constantine the 
Great are still to be seen. 

The remains of the Tower of Belisarius, who lived to 
experience Justinian's ingratitude, are almost entirely 

We were not permitted to enter the Castle of the 
Seven Towers ; nor did we venture to approach very 
near, as our janissary apprehended that, being Christians, 
we might be fired upon from some of the windows. The 
castle is flanked by seven towers, from which it takes its 
name, and is surrounded by a very high wall. Two of 
the towers are of white marble. The treasures of the 
empire were formerly deposited here ; but it is now used 
as a place of confinement for state prisoners, and particu- 
larly for the foreign ministers whose Court is at war with 
the Porte. While I was at Constantinople, the Russian 
Ambassador was confined here ; but the Turks allowed 
him one thousand pounds per month during the time he 
was deprived of his liberty. I beg leave, for the infor- 
mation of my younger class of readers, to mention here 
that the Mahometan era takes its date from the time 
Mahomet fled from Mecca to Medina, on account of the 
persecutions he experienced from the Government of that 
city. This is called hegira, which signifies " flight," and 
commenced on Friday, July the sixteenth. Anno Domini 
622, the day on which he effected his escape and began 
to preach his doctrines and propagate his religion. On 
that day commences the first of their year, which con- 
sists of 354 days, and Muharrem, which answers to our 
July, is their first month. 

The ceremonies of the Ramaden, month of March, 


when the Turkish Lent begins, are performed in the 
following manner. 

As soon as the first moon of that month is perceived, 
information of it is immediately given to the cadi or 
whatever judge resides in each place. He immediately 
passes an act in his court for the commencement of the 
Fast. In garrison towns the people are acquainted of it 
by the firing of guns. Their mode of observing this fast 
is neither to eat, drink or smoke from sunrise till after 
sunset ; so that during that month they usually turn day 
into night and night into day. Pregnant women, inva- 
lids and travellers, or the military when encamped in time 
of war, are not compelled to a rigid observance of this 
fast ; but they are expected to perform it as soon as these 
legal impediments are removed. Having accomplished 
half of it, should these impediments again occur, so as to 
cause a second interruption of the fast, whatever number 
of days were wanting of the appointed term, they are 
afterwards obliged to complete. But these obligations 
are not incumbent on children till they have entered into 
their eleventh year. 

Previous to this fast, it is a principle invariably ob- 
served, that all private enmities should subside. When 
two persons meet, between whom some animosity has 
subsisted, they both immediately manifest their inclination 
to forgive and forget what is past, by a mutual embrace. 

The ancient monastery of St. John next attracted our 
attention. There only remain of this ancient building 
one range of columns, of the aisle of the church, a Cistern 
supported by twenty-four columns, and a beautiful bath, 
which, as I have been informed, is solely consecrated to 
the use of the fair sex. It is forbidden, under pain of 
death, to pry into this sanctuary. But I prevailed on a 


Grecian beauty of fashion, with whom I had formed an 
acquaintance during my stay here, to give me the follow- 
ing particulars. 

The baths for the ladies are constructed in the same 
manner as those for men. When a lady intends to go to 
the bath, an indulgence which a husband of a certain 
rank and fortune who has these conveniences in his own 
house seldom will grant, she covers herself with a double 
veil and is always accompanied by a female slave. As 
soon as they arrive they throw off their whole apparel, 
and in the simple and, it is to be hoped, the innocent 
attire of nature they pass three or four hours in various 
amusements. They are sometimes two hundred in 
number, some in the bath, others negligently lying on 
couches, while their young and beautiful slaves, disen- 
cumbered like their mistresses of all artificial covering, 
perfume and plait their hair. The news of the town and 
the daily petty occurrences, as may easily be imagined, 
furnish ample materials for mirth and conjectures of 
various kinds. This is a real relaxation for these poor 
women, who are deprived of all rational amusements, and 
are continually kept in a state of dependence and slavery. 
They laugh, sing and dance, and sometimes form plans of 
future pleasures and happiness, in the execution of which 
the Turkish ladies, in spite of their walls, slaves, matrons, 
eunuchs and mutes, are much more expert than our 
European women of fashion — as if it were the happy 
provision of human nature, that our spirit of intrigue 
should increase in proportion to the danger and difficulties 
we meet with in obtaining the enjoyment of a dear and 
beloved object. 

I was very a propos diverted from these philosophical 
reflections, which otherwise might have carried me to 


an elaborate treatise on the subject, by Pauolo rushing 
into my apartment, to inform me that a spectacle of a 
most striking nature was to be seen — the Grand Signior's 
going to the chase — nor was I disappointed in my 
expectation, for the scene was very grand. The march 
began with four thousand janissaries on foot, in two 
lines, and armed with sticks only. They were followed 
by three hundred chiaour or carriers of the sublime 
commands, covered with gold and silver stuffs, and 
mounted on beautiful horses richly caparisoned. Next 
came fifteen horses for the use of the Grand Signior, 
led in hand and preceded by two hundred officers of 
the court in their respective gala dresses. The Grand 
Signior immediately followed, mounted on a beautiful 
Arabian, covered with gold brocade spangled with 
pearls and diamonds. He was surrounded by five hundred 
soulaces, body-guards. The viziers, grandees of the court, 
and first officers of the Seraglio marched in the rear. 

We followed him into the fields, where he was only 
attended by his principal officers and two hundred 
falconers, each carrying a falcon in his hand. In a 
moment the plain was covered with these birds. I was 
sorry that I could not follow the party, for the sport 
seemed really delightful ; and this is the chase which 
the Turks prefer to all others. Being engaged to dine 
at the French Ambassador's, the Count De C — } where 
there was to be a ball in the evening, I took my leave 
of the Grand Signior with reluctance. 

I had this day, also, for the first time, to try on my 

Turkish dress, which I had got made preparatory to 

my voyage to Syria, and I found myself so much at my 

ease in it that I could not be prevailed on to leave it 

^ Choiseul-GouiEer. 


oiF. I therefore went, dressed like an Arab, to Monsieur 
De Ch — , and prevailed on my friends to do the same. 
The whole company was in a high flow of spirits, and 
my Jerusalem expedition was the general topic of 
conversation, as it was my intention to set off on the 
Monday following. His Excellency asked me if it was 
a fact that I had a considerable wager depending on it. 
I answered in the affirmative. The ladies were curious 
to know the amount of the sum, some pretending it 
to be fifteen or twenty, others thirty thousand pounds. 
As I had good reasons for not making it known that 
I had such a large sum depending on it, I evaded 
answering their questions. In the evening the company 
assembled to the number of one hundred persons ; and 
as there were more ladies than gentlemen, I was induced 
to dance, in spite of my Arabian dress ; and during the 
dance, which was English, I am convinced that my figure 
and movements were truly awkward and ridiculous. 

My departure from Constantinople was delayed by 
a very dangerous illness, which I caught by going on 
a hunting party, when the intense cold of the morning 
and the heat of the meridian sun, together with the 
fatigue of walking for several days in the snow, brought 
on a fever of the most malignant kind, which left no 
hopes of my recovery to my friends or physicians. 1 My 
strong constitution resisted the violence of the disorder, 
and notwithstanding a severe relapse, occasioned by my 
own imprudence, I was sufficiently recovered in the 
course of a month to be able to proceed on my 

But before I leave this city, may I be permitted to 
give a short sketch of some of the prevailing customs, 

^ See Appendix, extract from Moore's Journal. 


manners, dress and religion of the Turks, such as they 
appeared to me from my own observations ? 

The Turks of Europe and those of Asia are not alike. 
The former are valiant, industrious and laborious ; the 
latter idle, cowardly, and effeminate, totally ignorant of 
the arts and sciences. Hypocrisy is their distinguishing 
characteristic ; they are avaricious in the extreme ; but 
ostentatious, and so incontinent that their seraglio cannot 
satisfy their libidinous passions. Practices the most 
abominable, as well as the most unnatural, are added to the 
long catalogue of Turkish sensual gratifications. * * * 
Their avarice does not stop at any [sic] the most criminal 
means of acquiring riches, and yet they are equally 
prodigal of that ill-gotten wealth in purchasing dress and 
procuring sensual enjoyments. They are in general 
about the middle stature ; their features are regular and 
expressive ; their eyes and hair black. But owing to 
their manner of living they scarcely retain any traces 
of beauty after they have passed the prime of youth. 

The inhabitants of Turkey are a mixture of different 
nations. No less than seventy-two different denomina- 
tions of people, nations, religions, and sects are to be 
found among them, such as natural Turks, Arabs, 
Tartars, Moors of Africa, Wandering Tribes, Jews and 
Christians of all denominations. 

The dress of the men consists of trousers, a long shirt 
cut in the same manner as those of the European ladies ; 
a doliman, or sort of robe, which reaches to their ankles, 
has short and narrow sleeves, and is fastened by a girdle, 
which is of the greatest use to the Turks, as they carry 
their handkerchief, dagger and pistols in it, and place in 
its folds their money, tobacco and papers. Over the 
doliman they wear a larger robe, with long and wide 


sleeves : this is called feredge. It is made of fine stuffs 
for summer, and in winter is lined with furs. They put 
on cloth stockings over their leather socks, in the form 
of buskins. Their shoes, called babouches, resemble 
slippers. Their head-dress is very ample ; no less stuff 
being used in making their turbans than their robes, 
which renders them extremely heavy. 

It is by the size and shape of the turban every man's 
rank and occupation is known. The variety of them is 
great, as the distinctions are so numerous. The emirs 
are supposed to be descended from the Prophet, and are 
always permitted to wear the green turban. I have 
[been] told that thirty yards of muslin are frequently 
used in this part of their dress. 

The Rayacks wear the kalpac instead of the turban ; 
it is made of lambskin of a white, black or grey colour, 
and is not near so becoming as the turban. The Turks 
are very particular in these distinctions of dress ; and 
should a Christian or Jew venture to appear in a green 
turban, he would be torn to pieces. In Turkey, as well 
as throughout all parts of Greece, smoking is a prevailing 
habit in both sexes. By the length and beauty of the 
pipe you may judge the rank of the smoker. The 
mouthpiece is usually made of polished amber, the stem 
of jessamine, covered with scarlet or green cloth, richly 
embroidered ; the bowl is made of red clay, beautifully 
gilt. They mix with their tobacco, musk, aloes-wood, 
frankincense, etc., etc. This they manufacture with a 
white gum into small lozenges, one of which is put with 
the tobacco into the pipe. This composition improves 
the tobacco and diffuses a fragrance thro' the room. 
These lozenges are said to possess other virtues, but I 
never experienced any. There is another sort made in 


the Seraglio at Constantinople, which the grandees eat 
as well as smoke. These are very costly and used only 
in their harams, where it has other effects besides that 
of improving their tobacco. 

The women are, in general, fat and lusty. Their 
dress resembles that of the man, except in its tightness, 
by which they endeavour to improve their shape. A 
gold or silver buckle, set in precious stones, fastens their 
girdle. Their drawers are of an extraordinary fulness. 
They wear Morocco slippers, and a little iron plate, like 
a crescent, forms the heel of their little boots, which 
they put on to walk. They have a kind of corslet under 
their robe, which leaves their neck uncovered, or merely 
veiled with a gauze. Diamonds form their principal 
riches ; they have bracelets of them ; aigrets, ear-rings, 
necklaces, watches, snuff-boxes, and pin-cases of different 
sizes, to a very great value : nor is the propriety of 
wearing or possessing these jewels ever disputed with the 
women, in whatever circumstances their husbands may 
find themselves. When they walk out, they wrap them- 
selves up in another long robe. 

The dress of a woman of quality, tho' never seen in 
public, is far more costly than those worn in Europe. 
They wear a profusion of pearls, diamonds and other 
precious stones, with the richest stuffs and furs the most 
costly. That part of their dress next their skin is of the 
most extravagant price. . 

To sing in their houses is considered a mark of ill- 
breeding, but to fall asleep in company incurs no such 

Their bath is the most fashionable place ot amuse- 
ment, and it is considered as high a compliment to take 
your friend there as it would be in London to accompany 


her to the Opera. Their carriages scarcely deserve the 
name, being Httle better than carts. They are not on 
springs, and are closely shut up. 

All the ladies in Turkey, of whatever religion they 
may be, keep themselves constantly veiled : which led 
an ill-natured cynic to make this observation, " that in 
Turkey alone vice is not barefaced." A large triangular 
handkerchief constitutes their veil ; it covers the whole 
face, and the ends are tied behind ; so that nothing of 
their face is to be seen but the eyes and the tip of the 
nose. They usually paint their nails and eyebrows with 
a plant called kene^ which gives them a yellowish-red 
colour. They sometimes paint the hands and feet, de- 
scribing thereon flowers, etc. They are great coquettes, 
and possess in a superior degree the art of deceiving their 
husbands and lovers. For this reason they are not 
allowed to walk out often, and are obliged to remain 
confined at home, passing the tedious hours in embroider- 
ing or conversing with their female attendants. The 
ladies of some Bashaws who are absent may be excepted 
from this restriction, as they are generally very fond of 
strangers ; but such intrigues are not always carried on 
without danger. They are generally commenced at the 
Bezistan, where the jewellers, silversmiths and merchants 
keep their shops. When a lady meets a gentleman to 
whom she wishes to disclose her partiality, she gives him 
a gentle push with her elbow. If a lover wishes to 
insinuate himself into the good graces of a mistress, he 
approaches her window and indicates his passion by 
striking to his breast. 

Jewish women are very expert in the art of favouring 
the Turkish ladies in their amours. They introduce into 

' i.e.. Henna. 


their apartments beautiful young men, under the disguise 
of female slaves, carrying various kinds of merchandize. 
Grecian and Armenian ladies enjoy more liberty ; yet 
they do not often go out. I was told that a young man, 
a violet-soap merchant, had so turned the heads of all 
the ladies at Constantinople that the Grand Signior was 
entreated by several Bashaws to send him into exile. 
Every man of wit, talents, or an agreeable figure, is sure to 
incur the displeasure and hatred of all the married part ot 
the male community. In the country I have seen women 
bathing in a stream, who took no care to conceal themselves 
on perceiving that we were Christians. Our janissaries, 
however, advised us to act the part of Joseph ; else in 
case of a surprise, we might be accused of a capital 
crime : and, to my shame, I must confess that it was 
with much reluctance I followed so perfect an example. 

The manner of salutation among the Turks is to lay 
the right hand on the heart and make a small inclination. 
If you approach a man of consequence, that is to say, 
a very rich man, or a man holding a place under the 
government — for in Turkey, as is the case in many other 
places, a man meets with outward respect in proportion to 
his reputed riches, or the importance of his office — you 
take the end of his robe and kiss it with apparent respect. 
It would be an insult to take off your turban to anyone. 

Their common nourishment consists of mutton, rice, 
peas and cucumbers. After their repast, they drink 
either water or whey. The sherbet, composed of lemon- 
juice, cherries and other fruits is reserved for the table 
of the affluent. They are not so abstemious at their 
feasts, and seldom leave the festive board before they 
are intoxicated with narcotic draughts. They do not 
often eat at each others' houses ; and pay but few 


ceremonial visits. The ladies are never admitted into 
company. The men, when together, devote the greatest 
part of their time to smoking. The master of the 
house himself presents to each of his guests a lighted 
pipe : perfumes are afterwards introduced, with coffee 
and sherbet. The company wash their hands in rose- 
water and dry them in the smoke of perfumes. The 
Turks are seen smoking everywhere, even in the streets 
and public walks. 

Their only amusements are, to draw the bow, to go to 
the chase with falcons, and to play at chess, but 'tis 
considered a great sin to play for money. I once saw a 
young Turk launching a falcon against a wild duck, which 
immediately plunged into the water : the falcon followed 
it on the surface of the water, beating its wings whenever 
it lost sight of its prey. Another Turk, thinking that one 
falcon was not sufficient, sent his own to its assistance. 
This excited such a jealousy between the two birds that 
instead of offering mutual assistance they rushed furiously 
against each other, and had they not been separated the 
scuffle would have ended in the death of one or the 

They likewise amuse themselves with equestrian 
exercises, for which purpose they often assemble at the 
Hippodrome, the large square which I have already 
noticed. There they separate in two bands and range 
themselves at the extremities. At each signal two riders 
armed with long lances start, and, rushing forward with 
the utmost violence, meet in their mid-career and parry 
with much skill the blows they aim at each other. I have 
seen several of them leap on and off their horses with as 
much adroitness as those at Astley's. Quoits also, and 
wrestling, constitute part of their diversions. 



They are fond of cultivating flowers, particularly 
tulips. The highest compliment a Turk can pay you is 
to send you one of his tulips as a present. They have 
even instituted a festival in honour of this flower. 

They have made some proficiency in the mechanical 
arts in general, and have manufactories of silk and cotton. 
Their watchmakers are all Armenians, Jews or Franks. 
They begin to think the Koran is not the only good book 
in the world, for they now apply themselves a little to 
history, and are very fond of absurd tales related of their 
own people. I had the curiosity to have the history 
of an inn-keeper of Constantinople translated. Love 
filled up two-thirds of this whimsical composition. He 
had been a pirate in his youth, and enriched himself by 
the capture of several Maltese vessels. His battles and 
victories over both sexes had rendered him famous. He 
then turned physician, and his skill in that profession 
procured him the honour and advantage of being employed 
in the Seraglio at Ispahan. He was afterwards sold as a 
slave, and in that state filled the office of steward and inn- 
keeper. He mentions the various love-letters he wrote. 
A Turkish billet-doux is both simple and ingenious, of which 
the Turkish ladies often avail themselves, as they can 
without much danger of discovery communicate their 
wishes, and carry on their intrigues, by means of this 
species of hieroglyphics, in which they use neither pen, 
ink or paper ; but put into a purse bits of straw, a few 
grains of wheat, some salt, a bit of wood, a bit of cord, a 
grape-stone, or the like trifles, each of which has its 
separate signification, and this composition answers all the 
purposes of our best-written love-letters. 

I took a copy of one of these curious letters, which I 
shall transcribe. 


He sent, in a purse, a grape-stone, a straw, a jonquil, 
a match, some paper, and gold thread, which have the 
following signification : — 

The grape-stone.. 


.. My eyes. 

The straw 


. . Suffer that I be your slave. 

The jonquil 


Be sensible to my love. 

The match 


.. I burn, I burn, my flame consumes me. 

The paper 


My senses are bewildered. 

The gold thread.. 


I am dying, come to my relief. 

Most of these words are taken from the Arabic, which 
is the richest language in the world. 

The Turkish ladies affect the most favourable opinion 
of their husbands in every respect, so that when they are 
not blessed with those fruits of love so much wished for 
in the married state, they always ascribe it to a defect in 
themselves, and to atone for their supposed sterility they 
introduce into their haram the most beautiful young girls 
they can procure. A child is generally the issue of this 
truly condescending kindness, which is considered legiti- 
mate and inherits as if so in reality. 

It is not more strange than true that the opulent 
eunuchs frequently have women in their seraglios, and 
these the most beautiful. These poor creatures become 
free on the decease of their patrons, when they make up 
for their lost time during their slavery. 

The plague is not more dangerous in Turkey than a 
fever is in London or Paris. But physicians are not to be 
had there as in France or England. The most malignant 
kind is said to be generated in Egypt. It is supposed to 
be wafted to Constantinople by the winds that prevail for 
months together at the summer solstice; and never fails to 
take its leave upon the arrival of the autumnal equinox, 
when the winds blow strongly from the north. It seems 



to be the general opinion that those who have been once 
afflicted with this dreadful disorder are never known to 
take it a second time. But this I must, from good 
authority, take the Hberty of contradicting. My servant 
Pauolo assured me that he had been three times afflicted 
with the plague ; and shewed me the marks of its venom, 
by the cicatrices on all parts of his body. Persons of a 
strong constitution are more liable to take the infection 
than those of a delicate frame. The first symptom of this 
disorder is a violent headache accompanied with a burning 
thirst, which is followed by a weakness and almost total 
loss of [? the use of] the limbs, and people in the last 
stage of it are seen staggering about the streets as if 
violently intoxicated; and tho' it is so universally known 
that the disorder can be taken by the touch only, yet so 
inconsiderate are the Turks, that they take no precaution 
to keep out of the way of persons infected ; nor indeed 
would a good Mussulman think himself justifiable in 
leaving his house, tho' every individual in it were 
infected, such is the force of predestination : no wonder, 
then, this disorder should make such ravages among this 
barbarous and ignorant race. But how much must the 
reader's indignation be kindled, and every sentiment of 
pity for such insensate barbarians be suppressed, when he 
is told that the very clothes and cushions on which the 
afflicted had died are sold the day after in a public place 
appointed for that purpose, and immediately worn by the 
purchaser, without even the precaution of fumigation or 
airing. From all the information I have been able to 
collect on this subject, I have no doubt that the plague is 
neither more or less than a violent fever, of the malignant 
putrid kind, which, if treated at Constantinople as such 
disorders are treated in London, would in all probability 


be as easily cured. But I have already observed that they 
have no physicians among them, nor can they, consistently 
with their absurd tenets and doctrine, admit of medical 
assistance even in extreme cases. In the Plague of 1785, 
the most destructive that has happened this century, no 
less than 5,000 died every day. Prayers are never otFered 
to the deity to stop its ravages till the mortality arrives to 
such a height that only one less than a thousand are carried 
out at the same gate to the Burying-ground. It is then 
deemed advisable to invoke the Prophet, and the Turks 
assemble for this purpose in their Mosques. 

Sir Robert A — assured me that during his residence 
at Constantinople, for twelve years, he knew but few 
instances of Europeans dying of the plague : to their 
manner of living in respect to diet, but more especially 
to a strict attention to cleanliness, may be ascribed their 
escaping this dreadful disorder. 

During the time the plague is thought to rage, which 
is only when two or three hundred persons die daily, the 
Franks shut up their houses, and all intercourse outward 
is at an end till such time as the disorder ceases. 

There are persons who for a fixed salary attend the 
palaces of the ministers and respectable merchants' houses, 
and furnish them with provisions of all kinds in the 
following manner. A large tub or cistern of water is 
placed under the most convenient window in the house, 
into which is plunged all the butcher's-meat that is 
intended for the consumption of those within, where, 
after it has lain a sufficient time to wash away any 
infection it may have caught, a bell is rung by the 
caterer, when a basket is suspended from the window and 
the provisions are drawn up, by which means all danger 
is avoided. 


The police of Constantinople is very vigilant. The 
shops must be shut with the setting sun, and the patrols, 
during the night, stop every person they meet in the 

When a Vizier, Bashaw, or great officer of the empire 
is doomed to die, the Emperor sends him a cord by one of 
his mutes, and the criminal has the privilege of being his 
own executioner. Private individuals do not enjoy such 
an enviable prerogative : they are either hanged or 
empaled alive : the latter is one of the most cruel 
tortures. The criminal is stript naked, and laid on the 
ground. The executioner then opens the lower part of 
his body with a razor and by repeated strokes drives a 
sharp pointed stake, eight feet long and very thick, into 
the lacerated passage till it comes out at the extremity of 
the shoulder. The sufferer is then set upright, his hands 
are tied to the stake, and the mob are suffered to load 
him with abuse and execrations. 

When the Grand Signior appears in public, if any 
subject has a complaint to make, he places a lighted 
flambeau, or some burning coals in an earthen pot, on his 
head, and thus presents himself to the Emperor, who is 
obliged to hear his petition. 

This prince in summer and winter dines at ten in the 
morning, and sups at six in the afternoon. He sits cross- 
legged on cushions, a napkin is placed on his knees, and 
another on his left arm, for the purpose of wiping his 
hands. A piece of morocco serves him for a table, on 
which are placed three or four different sorts of excellent 
new bread, quite warm, suitable to the general taste of 
the Turks. He uses neither knives or forks, and such is 
the plainness and simplicity of the sideboard that two 
wooden spoons compose the whole apparatus of the table. 


one for the soup and the other for the syrups, for by the 
laws of his Prophet he is not allowed to use any other at 
his meals. He seldom drinks more than once at each 
repast, and he has always before him a number of mutes 
and dwarfs, who endeavour to amuse him by their 

The Turks shew their taste for magnificence in their 
public buildings only. Their houses are very simple, and 
are but two stories high. It is customary to have some 
passages selected from the Koran written on the doors 
and windows. In the yard of every house stands a little 
fountain, surrounded with verdure. The staircase is a 
kind of ladder, with a roof over it. The furniture of 
their rooms consists of mats and carpets along the walls, 
with large sofas instead of chairs. They always sit cross- 
legged leaning on cushions. No beds are to be seen, 
being put up into presses constructed for the purpose. 
When the Turks lie down they put on a small turban 
instead of a night-cap. They always keep a lamp 
burning in their bed-room, and sometimes two heated 
stoves, one on each side. If they awake during the 
night, they order coffee to be brought, smoke a pipe, and 
eat some pastry. The house of a nobleman generally 
occupies a large space of ground, and is surrounded by very 
high walls. The apartments of the women are secured 
by double doors and guarded by eunuchs or matrons. 
The ceilings are either gilt or painted, and the floor is of 
marble or china. 

When a Turk wishes to marry he sends to the 
parents of the intended bride, to demand their conditions. 
If they agree, they join hands and the bargain is con- 
cluded. This ceremony is finished by a prayer from the 
Koran. Afterwards the bride, covered with a red veil, is 


led to her spouse, who for that evening is obUged to dis- 
charge the oiEce of chambermaid and put her to bed. 
It is usual on these occasions for the lady to have the 
strings of her dress tied with double knots, which the 
impatient lover is eager to loose, and by that means time 
is given to the young woman to say her prayers ; some- 
times to laugh at the awkwardness and precipitate 
impatience of her lover, and to make serious reflections 
or entertain fantastic notions of the new state of life into 
which she is just going to enter. A Turk is allowed to 
marry four wives, and keep as many concubines as his 
circumstances will allow. A wife has a right to institute 
an action in several cases, particularly if he is not obser- 
vant of his conjugal duties, a tribute which is commonly 
fixed on Thursday evening or Friday morning, the time of 
the week usually consecrated to this purpose. 

Their interments do not materially differ from ours. 
The loud lamentations of the women is the principal 
ceremony at the death of a Turk, which they continue 
till the corpse is laid under ground. The men carry the 
bier on their shoulders, and the women scatter flowers on 
the tomb every Monday and Friday, and with much 
importunity inquire of the dead why he chose to die ! 
They wear black for mourning, and leave off their jewels. 

The janissaries amount to one hundred thousand. 
They sometimes render themselves formidable to the 
nation, and even to the Emperor himself. Five thousand 
of them mount guard every day at the Palace. The 
Emperor orders provisions to be distributed among them. 
If they are dissatisfied, they shew it on that occasion by 
overturning the dishes with their feet, in which case 
every attempt is made to pacify them. Their first insti- 
tution was under Morad 2nd, and [? they] were composed 


of young Bulgarians and Macedonians, sent in tribute to 
Constantinople. They were originally called hadgini, 
which in the Turkish language signifies " strangers ; " 
afterwards janissaries or " new soldiers." Most of them 
have some trade, are allowed many privileges and exempt 
from duties to which the rest of the army are subject. 
Corporal punishment is not inflicted on them where death 
is not merited. In such cases they are allowed the 
privilege of being strangled, whilst others for similar 
offences are empaled or decapitated. 

The janissaries are looked upon as the finest troops of 
the empire, and are styled infantry ; yet those who are 
sufficiently wealthy to purchase horses, are allowed to do 
so, and are therefore a confused body of horse and foot 
without order or discipline. Their cavalry is divided 
into twenty legions, and are totally ignorant of tactics. 
They are commanded by the chief of the artillery. Their 
cannon are enormously heavy, and are generally drawn by 

There are many corps of volunteers, who choose their 
own officers. Their sole motive for embodying them- 
selves arises from the hope of plunder. They receive no 
pay till they arrive at their quarters ; and to defray the 
expenses of their journey they generally plunder the 
traveller. On their arrival at the camp, they receive the 
same pay as the janissaries. 

They get no clothing from government, and there- 
fore have no kind of uniform, so that every individual 
dresses as he pleases. 

The arms of the wealthy are highly ornamented with 
silver. They consist of a gun slung over the shoulder ; a 
long case of pistols which they carry under a belt ; like- 
wise a dagger and sabre, the " cutter," as sharp as a razor 


and very crooked. They charge with great impetuosity, 
the sabre in the form of tierce over the head, and aim at 
the throat of their enemy ; but they are soon broke by 
the German Horse, owing to their steady coolness and 

The army is divided into three encampments, none of 
which they ever take the precaution or advantage of 
entrenching. They pitch their tents, without any order, 
near the most convenient watering place. In the centre 
is the Grand Vizier's camp. On the right the Agha's, 
who is second in command ; and on the left is the artillery. 
Their tents are very magnificent. I was told that in the 
late war the Grand Vizier's cost no less a sum than 
1 00,000 piastres. A retreat is always followed by a total 
defeat, as they never take any steps to secure themselves 
from surprise. On these occasions they grow quite out- 
rageous, and frequently rob and murder each other. In 
one of their campaigns they attacked the Grand Vizier's 
tent, which contained the military chest, in which much 
treasure was deposited. They carried it off, and at the 
same time destroyed his beautiful pavilion. So much for 
their order and discipline in 1789. Since that period, I 
have heard that some considerable improvement has taken 
place, and that the present Sultan Selim ' has introduced 
French tactics, and employs many engineers, all of whom 
are French. 

1 I.e., Selim III., 1789— 1807. 


Departure from Constantinople — The Dardanelles — Ancient Troy — 
Return to Smyrna — Homer's Cavern — Population o. Smyrna — 
Ephesus — The River Meander — Fogia Nova — Scio — Patmos — A 
Greeic Seminary — St. John the Evangelist — St. John of Acre — 
Nazareth — The Church of the Annunciation — The Governor of 

Everything being ready for my voyage, having 
engaged the sloop Constantinople to convey me to Smyrna, 
and taken leave of my friends, we went on board, the 
2 1 St of January. But we were detained so long by the 
custom-house officers, that we were obliged to shew our 
letter from the Captain Bashaw and the. Jirman from the 
Grand Signior, before we could prevail on those impudent 
miscreants to let us depart. As it was calm, Mr. B — ^ 
first lieutenant of the Pearl, offered us his boats to tow 
us out of the harbour, and being extremely impatient to 
get to Smyrna, where I expected a great number of 
letters, not having received any since I left England, I 
accepted his kind offer. We were soon towed beyond 
the Seraglio point, when a light breeze springing up, we 
set all the sail we could carry and soon found ourselves 
in the Sea of Marmora (so called from the island of that 
name), through which we had a very tedious navigation. 

It was not till the twenty-fourth in the evening that 
we anchored off the Castle of the Dardanelles, on the 
Asiatic side. The English vice-consul, for whom we 
had dispatches from our Ambassador, on hoisting our 

' 1st Lieut. George Ball. 


colours, came off to us. He gave us to understand that 
we could not possibly procure the necessary clearance 
from the Castle before the next day. We were therefore 
obliged to submit patiently, though the wind was fair all 
that night. About twelve o'clock the next day we got 
under way. 

The Castle on the Asiatic side appears to the best 
advantage in point of strength. The batteries are almost 
on a level with the water. The cannon is fixed, and 
some of them throw balls of two and three hundred- 
weight quite across the Strait. These castles are con- 
sidered by the Turks as the chief defence of Constantinople: 
nor has this city any other on the side of the Sea of 
Marmora. Their batteries may very well answer the 
purpose of preventing merchants' ships from sailing up 
the Strait before they be visited by the officers of the 
customs, as they do not choose to expose themselves to 
the dangers of an attack. But, the idea of their obstruct- 
ing or preventing the passage of an armed naval force ! 
In case a fleet were determined to pass, they might do it 
very easily without receiving the least injury, according 
as the winds and currents favoured them. Or they 
might, in a very short time, not only silence the artillery 
of the Turks but reduce the castles to a heap of ruins. 

We stood this evening with a fair but light wind, 
close off the Hellespont, weathered the Cape of the 
Janissaries, formerly called Sigeum, and sailed along the 
coast of ancient Troy, of whose proud walls and stately 
edifices not one stone remains, or vestige to point out to 
the curious traveller where this once renowned city stood ! 
And nothing appears but a few villages scattered along 
the coast. 

One of these villages is called Ghiam Kioz, or the 


" Village of the Infidels," from its being entirely 
inhabited by Greeks, who on account of their working in 
the mines belonging to the Grand Signior, are exempted 
from the karragio, or capitation tax, which is annually 
levied on all the subjects of his dominions. We stood on 
with a fair wind, and passed the islands of Lemnos and 
Tenedos, and in the evening made the island of Mitylene, 
the ancient Lesbos. Here the wind veered round to the 
north-east, and the captain persisting in his intention ot 
sailing between the island of Mitylene and the continent, 
instead of keeping to the westward of it, we lost much 
time in fruitless attempts to effect that purpose, so that 
we did not make the Gulf of Smyrna before the morning 
of the 27th of January. 

When we were off the small islands, let Isles Angloises 
(for what reason so called, I know not),' the wind quite 
died away, and tho' above five leagues from Smyrna, 
yet such was our impatience to hear news from England 
that we took the boat. Off the castle we fell in with 
our old friend the London, Capt. N — ,* with whom I had 
sailed to Smyrna. He had waited for us till that morning, 
and we felt ourselves severely disappointed on finding 
that he could not wait a moment longer for us, though 
I offered him five hundred pounds. 

We were received in the most friendly manner by 
Messrs. Lees,^ and the female part of the family, who 
seriously reprimanded us for having made so long a stay at 
Constantinople. But my anxiety and mortification can 
neither be imagined or described, when, on enquiring for 

^ " By Clazomene is a cluster of islets, all once cultivated. . . . One 
is called Long Island, and by some the English Island." R. Chandler's 
Travels in Ana Minor (in 1764-65), vol. i., loi, 3rd ed., Lond. 1718. 

■^ Capt. Neil. ' See antt, p. 71. 


my letters, I was told there were none for me, tho' 
three packets had arrived from England since I left 
Smyrna. My fortitude was not equal to this severe 
disappointment, which brought on a violent fever. My 
kind and attentive friend did not leave me one moment 
during my illness, but had his bed made on the floor in 
my room. In about a fortnight every alarming symptom 
of my illness was removed, and with the assistance of a 
great deal of bark, and the agreeable company of the 
ladies, who did me the favour to come and sit in my 
room every evening, I soon recovered my health, strength 
and spirits. 

As there were at Smyrna several interesting objects, 
which I had not an opportunity of viewing before, I 
therefore took advantage of the first moments of con- 
valescence to perambulate the city and examine several 
beautiful buildings, the most remarkable of which is an 
immense and majestic Caravansary, which contains a vast 
number of apartments very well distributed. 

We continued our walk to the ancient Circus or 
Stadium, where a kind of portico is still to be seen, under 
which, as tradition will have it, the statue of Homer had 
been placed. This city claims the honour of having given 
birth to the prince of poets, and to this day the very spot 
is shewn, on the banks of the Meles, where Critheis his 
mother gave him birth, and the cavern where he is 
supposed to have retired to compose his immortal 

Its inhabitants still amount to one hundred thousand, 
sixty thousand of whom are Turks, twenty thousand 
Greeks, ten thousand Jews, and the rest Armenians, 
or Franks. The latter denomination is applied to 
Europeans. They all inhabit the Street of the Franks, 


which much resembles a Christian city, and Hve very 

Here are spoken Italian, French, English and Dutch. 
All religions are tolerated ; and the different churches, 
mosques and temples which present themselves to the 
view make a very singular appearance. 

Difference of religion does not interrupt the harmony 
which subsists among them. Commerce, that leveller 
of all ranks and source of all our enjoyments, triumphs 
over the despotism of Eastern tyrants, and over the still 
more destructive scourge of fanaticism. All their pur- 
suits are directed towards amassing, with as little labour 
as possible, an easy and competent fortune, and enjoying 
all the comforts and conveniences of life that a happy 
climate and a pleasant neighbourhood can afford. Thus 
the merchants receive all strangers with affability, and 
vie with each other in shewing every mark of polite 
attention and hospitality. They all have country-houses, 
keep dogs and racers, and in short, live in a style of 
elegance little inferior to that of an English nobleman. 

I did not wish to leave Smyrna before I had visited 
Ephesus, about forty miles south of this town, so famous 
for its temple of Diana. It is called by the Turks Aja 
Saluk. It had likewise been the asylum of St. Paul and 
the Virgin Mary, after the death of our Saviour. Pro- 
digious heaps of marble, columns, capitals and broken 
statues, scattered through a most beautiful and fertile 
plain, seem to attest its ancient splendour. It is now a 
miserable village, inhabited by thirty or forty Greek 
families. The fortress, which is upon an eminence, 
seems to have been the work of the Greek emperors. 
The Eastern Gate, called the Gate of Persecution, has 
still three beautiful basso-relievos. The temple of Diana 


had been turned into a church by the primitive 
Christians, but nothing now remains of it except the 
foundations and five or six marble columns, all of one 
entire piece, sixty feet in length and seven in diameter. 
Near it, at the foot of the mountain, we saw the Grotto 
of the Seven Sleepers, so called because it served as 
a refuge for seven knights persecuted by Diocletian. 
About four miles further on, we saw the prison of St. Paul, 
a small building on an eminence, where four rooms are 
still distinguishable. 

From hence we had a delightful view of the sur- 
rounding plain and the river Meander, whose fantastic 
serpentine windings, it is supposed, gave Daedalus the 
idea of building his Labyrinth in Crete. 

This recalled to my remembrance the beautiful lines 
of Ovid.i 

" Non secus ac liquidus Phrygiis Maeander in arvis 

Ludit, et ambiguo lapsu refluitque fluitque, 

Occurrensque sibi Venturas aspicit undas ; 

Et nunc ad fontes, nunc ad mare versus apertum, 

Incertas exercet aquas. Ita Daedalus implet 

Innumeras errore vias ; vixque ipse reverti 

Ad limen potuit, tanta est fallacia tecti.'* 

Our departure from Smyrna was fixed for the third ot 
February. The captain of the Heureuse Marie was to 
send his boat for us at midnight. I could not help 
expressing and really feeling much regret at being 
obliged to make so short a stay with Messrs. L — and 
their worthy family, from whom I experienced every 
kindness and attention that sincere friendship could 
dictate. After supper we went on board, and by day- 
break found ourselves only off the Castle of Smyrna, 
as the wind had been contrary all night ; nor did we 
^ Metamorphoseon, lib. viii., 162. 


clear the bay, which is only fifteen leagues in length, 
till the evening of the fifth, and during the time we were 
obliged to come twice to an anchor and go on shore, 
where we found much diversion in shooting swans ; of 
which thousands are to be seen on the northern side of 
this gulf 

Towards evening we were forced into the harbour 
of Fogia^ Nova, at the mouth of the Gulf of Smyrna. 
Here [we] were detained by a storm until the ninth. 
On anchoring here we were the only ship in the 
harbour, but before the next morning sixteen sail more 
were driven in by the violence of a southerly gale. This 
town was formerly called Phocia [Phokaia] ; it was 
destroyed last year by the Russians, and exhibits now 
a mere heap of ruins, with only a few scattered houses 
remaining. The harbour has sufficient water to float 
the largest ship of the line ; but the entrance is very 
narrow. On the south side stands a Castle which had 
been likewise destroyed by the enemy, but the Turks, 
considering it of much importance, have since rebuilt it. 

During our stay here we went out every day to 
shoot, and though we had no pointers we met with 
more partridges in one hour than I had ever seen in any 
one day of my life. We also shot some hares, pheasants 
and quails. 

In returning from one of our shooting parties, we 
were accosted by a very respectable looking Mussulman, 
who testified a desire of accompanying us on board to 
see our ship. As we intended to return on shore after 
dinner, we complied with his request. He seemed much 
pleased with our attention to him, and highly praised 
the flavour of our bottled porter, to which the Turks 

^ l.e., Fotcha. 



in general show no dislike. He approved much of our 
English cookery, but when a knife and fork were pre- 
sented to him, he appeared a good deal surprised, and 
in attempting to use them as we did he betrayed his 
awkwardness by evident marks on his mouth and fingers. 
He then had recourse to his old method, which he found 
the best, and made a pretty good use of those means of 
attack which nature has provided ; the only weapons, in 
that kind of warfare, used by the first men in the country 
and even by the Grand Signior himself. 

When dinner was over we offered him some wine, 
which he refused ; but he drank off a whole bottle of 
rum, and was scarcely satisfied with it. However, as 
it was scarce with us, I proposed that we should give 
him some lavender-water : having read in de Tott's 
Memoirs, that the Turks sometimes drink large quantities 
of this violent spirit. A bottle was brought, accord- 
ingly, of which he partook very plentifully : and I really 
think he would have finished the bottle, if I had not 
prevented him, by strongly representing the dangerous 
consequences of an immoderate use of such liquids. As 
the rum and lavender began to operate, I could not help 
giving way to very serious apprehensions ; for when a 
Turk gets intoxicated he makes no scruple of killing the 
first Greek or giaour he meets, and for this offence he 
only receives a slight bastinado. I was glad, however, 
that our guest kept himself quiet, and never attempted to 
draw his sabre or pistols. We took him on shore and 
then left him to take care of himself. 

February the qth. 
We set sail from this place. - The wind continued 
fair till we had wcHthered Cape Callaburne [Kara Burnu], 


and made the island of Spelmadore.i when it shifted to 
the east. We were, however, enabled to sail along the 
coast of Scio, a beautiful and fertile island. By twelve 
we were abreast of the town, which is very large and 
handsome. Much trade is carried on here, particularly 
in cotton and corn. The former article is exported to 
Smyrna, for the European markets; and the latter to 
Constantinople, for the consumption of that metropolis. 
Scio is reckoned the richest island in the Archipelago. 

For two successive days we experienced contrary 
winds, and it was with the greatest difficulty we could 
keep the sea. By the eleventh we were off the island 
of Nicaria, and in the evening we made the islands of 
Samos and Fournis.'' At ten at night, the gale increased 
to a such a degree that the captain thought it prudent to 
run for the island of Patmos. Scarcely had we made the 
harbour when it blew such a hurricane as would 
probably have proved fatal had we kept at sea, encircled 
as we should have been by land on every side. We 
therefore congratulated each other on being snug in 
a good harbour, and among the prettiest women of the 
Archipelago. This is a most beautiful little harbour, in 
the shape of a horse-shoe and sheltered against every wind. 

We walked up to the town, which is built on the 
highest part of the island, about a mile from the beach. 
Here, at the door of a mean-looking house, I saw the 
most beautiful woman I ever set my eyes on, and as her 
husband was a silversmith we had frequent opportunities, 
under various pretences, of seeing and admiring this 
exquisitely-finished piece of nature's handywork. 

I bought several gold and silver medals of the 
husband, and finding that the mother-in-law had a 

' /.;., Spalmatori (ancient CEnoussae). ' /.;., Corsca (Phurni). 

M 2 


particular liking for them, we each of us were favoured 
with an opportunity of mutual gratification ; I in 
complying with my spirit of generosity, and she in 
testifying her sense of gratitude. 

We went to see a kind of seminary which is estab- 
lished here. It is the only college but one in the 
Archipelago or the Levant ; and to this college or 
university all the Grecian youths are sent for their 
education ! What a difference between this and the 
School of Athens ! Here nothing is acquired but 
bigotry and effeminacy. Nothing now remains of the 
manly virtues of ancient heroes, so energetically recorded 
by cotemporary authors, and justly admired by succeeding 
generations. The present inhabitants are only distin- 
guished for meanness, poverty and ignorance. 

One of the youths educated here formed an acquain- 
tance with Pauolo, for the purpose of procuring some 
bread from me, as the poor lad was nearly starving. I 
ordered him five hundred biscuits, which he said would 
last him during his stay in the island, as he intended to 
return to Cyprus, his own country, as soon as he had 
finished his studies. 

Near this college is a cavern in the rock, now con- 
verted into a chapel. You are told that St. John wrote 
his gospel in this cave ; and you are shown the place 
where he slept ; the iron hooks driven into the roof, 
which the superstitious visitors, who in general frequent 
this place, believe to be really those from which the bed 
of this man had been suspended. 

We afterwards ascended the hill and paid our respects 
to the Superior of the Convent of St. John, which, as we 
were informed by the friars, had been founded by St. 
John the Evangelist. There is a very ancient chapel 


within the cloister, in which the saint is buried. They 
shewed us the coffin which contains his bones. It is 
placed in one of the niches of the wall, and covered with 
embroidered purple velvet, fastened on with many silver 
clasps. This piece of finery was very carefully locked, 
and I was informed that on particular festivals the coffin 
was opened and mass celebrated in the chapel in honour 
of St. John. 

I wished to have the coffin opened, to satisfy my 
doubts whether bones could remain after so many ages. 
But my curiosity could not be gratified without a liberal 
donation on my part. I therefore opened my purse- 
strings, and a lusty friar opened the coffin ; but not till 
after he had sprinkled a proper quantity of holy water, 
crossed himself several times, and prayed upwards of 
twenty minutes. He then presented to my view a most 
disgusting spectacle : but most of the bystanders, after 
uttering a short prayer, kissed these precious relics with 
the greatest fervour. I was fully convinced that these 
could not be the bones of St. John, but the skeleton of 
some other person, placed there as his representative, 
for on some parts of the head, the hair was still remaining. 
There is no doubt, however, but that this is the spot 
where St. John wrote his gospel, and that he died in this 

Both the monastery and chapel are very old. They 
were repaired by Constantine the Great, in the begin- 
ning of his reign. There are some very ancient paint- 
ings in the chapel, which I suppose were done by a 
Russian artist, as they appear to have the characteristics 
of those described by Mr. Cox in his Travels, who 
asserts that painting was first attempted in Russia, and 
from thence brought into Italy. They are finished on 


a yellow ground, are gilt, and the outlines very strong 
and prominent. 

The inhabitants of this little island are all Greeks. 
There is not one Turk resident in Patmos. 

The Capitan Bashaw keeps one of his vessels stationed 
here, for the purpose of collecting the carragio} or capita- 
tion tax. The taxes laid on the inhabitants are really in- 
tolerable, as every individual pays nearly one half of what 
he possesses. This vessel is also supposed to protect the 
island from pirates : but the day before we arrived a vessel 
was plundered in the harbour, and other outrages com- 
mitted on the inhabitants, without any attempt being 
made by the Bashaw's men to prevent them. I was 
assured that, when an opportunity offered, those very 
protectors turned pirates and plundered with impunity. 

We were introduced to a French gentleman who 
practised physic.^ We found him truly obliging, and his 
politeness and friendly attention contributed much to 
render our situation here agreeable during our stay. He 
engaged to give us a dance the Sunday following and intro- 
duce us to all the prettiest women of this island. To con- 
ciliate this useful man's friendship still more, I made him 
a present of my medicine-chest, with which he had fallen 
in love : and in return I met, at the doctor's dance, the 
silversmith's charming wife, dressed out in all her finery. 

They have in this island a dance peculiar to themselves, 
which I did not admire, as it is wholly destitute of 
meaning. The men take each their particular partners, 
under the arm, and making a rondeau, they sing as they 
pursue this circle, in an uninterrupted rotation, while the 
musician remains standing in the middle. This often 

^ I.e., the haratch. 

^ " A certain Venetian doctor (Giuseppe Gilly)." — Moore's Journal. 


continues two hours together. They have another extra- 
ordinary custom : there is a large hole in the fiddler's 
instrument, and as the dance is going on, if a gentleman 
wishes to show any particular respect to his fair one, he 
drops some money into this opening as he passes the 
musician, which is considered as a mark of profound 
esteem and admiration. Our complaisant doctor after- 
wards favoured us with several other pleasant parties, so 
that we could not help feeling some degree of regret 
when, on the seventeenth, a propitious gale suggested the 
expediency of our departure from this friendly island. 

We were but six days on our passage from Patmos to 
the coast of Syria. The weather being very rough, we 
were obliged to run for the port of St. John De Acre 
instead of Jaffa, preferring to travel from Acre to 
Jerusalem by land to remaining any longer at the mercy 
of the waves. We entered CaifFa Bay and immediately 
anchored. This is the winter road for ships trading to 
the coast of Syria, and is about three leagues distant from 
the town of St. John of Acre, which forms the north- 
eastern extremity of this vast bay, whilst Mount Carmel 
forms that to the south-west; and immediately at the foot 
of this mountain stands the small town of CaifFa Nova, 
from which the bay takes its name. 

A Moor, who lives here and is employed by the vice- 
consul of Acre in visiting the English ships, very politely 
offered us his services : we were soon joined by the consul 
himself, who very civilly introduced us to his family, by 
whom we were most graciously received. As we 
approached the town, on the southern side of which there 
is a very fine sandy beach, we observed upwards of two 
hundred of the Bashaw's soldiers exercising on horse-back, 
and throwing the gerite with wonderful dexterity. 


A dinner was prepared for us at the consul's. We 
did not sit long at table, being desirous to make our 
respects to Jedzar Bashaw,' who holds his Court here, and 
governs with the most despotic sway. Indeed, we were 
told that our waiting on him was a duty indispensable 
with regard to our safety ; as providing ourselves with 
passports from this powerful Turk would much facilitate 
our progress, and protect us from thence to Jerusalem. 
We had scarcely dined when a message was brought us 
from the Bashaw, intimating his desire to see us at his 
Palace, by the vice-consul, who served us as dragoman 
on the occasion. 

On our arrival at the Palace, we were conducted 
thro' several spacious apartments, and thence to a 
gallery of immense length, from whence we descended 
by a flight of one hundred steps, when we found ourselves 
in a delightful garden, laid out with much taste, at the 
end of which we perceived the Bashaw seated under a 
monstrous magnolia, which with several other ever- 
greens was at that time in full blow. As we entered the 
garden, he sent part of the attendants that surrounded him 
to meet and conduct us to the spot where he chose to give 
us an audience. He ordered me to be seated on his right 
hand, my fellow traveller on his left, while the humiliating 
posture of the vice-consul shocked me. He kneeled 
before him, and trembled [in] every limb. I was happy, 
however, to find that he was only the British consul's 
deputy, at that time on business at Aleppo. 

After the usual compliments, we were served with 
refreshments of various kinds, differing little from what I 
had seen at Constantinople. I did not, however, feel so 
much at ease and was much at a loss how to account for 

^ In modern times more usually called Jezzar Pasha. 


the evident marks of terror in the countenance of the 
kneeling consul. 

After partaking of fifty different sorts of sweetmeats, 
etc., Jedzar began the conversation by asking me if I had 
not heard of his great power and warlike exploits ? I told 
him I had often heard his name mentioned at Constanti- 
nople in terms highly honourable ; and could I then 
foresee that I should land at St. John of Acre, I should 
have provided myself with letters of introduction to his 
highness. He said these were by no means necessary ; 
that the stranger had always a protector in him, particu- 
larly those of my nation, whom he held in much higher 
estimation than those of any other country in Europe. 
He continued the conversation by giving me a full account 
of his life and adventures, particularly his wars against 
the unfortunate Ali Bey, a Calif of Egypt, whom he 
conquered and afterwards put to death. Volney is very 
accurate in his History of Egypt,^ and relates in a most 
affecting manner the misfortunes of this unhappy prince. 
But the greatest barbarity exercised by Jedzar, in all his 
conquests, happened some years after he had the command 
of the district of Acre and Nazareth, when his oppression 
and cruelties became so intolerable to the inhabitants that 
they were obliged to revolt against the Porte. Jedzar 
was ordered by the Sultan to march against the insurgents, 
and tho' in the first campaign he was rather worsted, 
owing to the number of the malcontents, yet in the second 
he so far recovered his loss that, with a force of only 
6,000, he defeated 20,000. This battle was fought near 
Damascus. The Bashaw of that town was killed by 
Jedzar, and 1,200 prisoners taken, consisting of men, 

1 Travils through Syria and Egypt, C. F. Volney ; Translated from the 
French, Lond. 1787. Reprinted, Dublin, 1796. 


women and children, who were, by his order, sent to 
Acre, and there, without distinction of age or sex, 
butchered in cold blood. Jedzar freighted three Venetian 
vessels and sent the heads of those victims, packed in 
boxes, to Constantinople — a most acceptable present to 
his Sultan. 

Among the women slaughtered on this occasion, 
there was one of exquisite beauty : she was only fifteen 
years old. The merchants of Acre, more, I fear, to give 
the Bashaw a pretext to violate an oath he had taken, 
" that all concerned in this rebellion should die," and 
that he might add this beautiful girl to his haram, than 
from motives of humanity, petitioned him to spare the 
life of this unfortunate fair one : but the monster was 
relentless. He, however, in order to shew the French 
merchants every possible consideration that could not be 
construed a violation of his oath, said he would mitigate 
her sentence, and instead of having her head cut off by 
the hands of the common executioner, he himself would 
confer that honour: and accordingly assembled the factory, 
intimating his desire that all should attend. None dared 
to disobey, and in the presence of them all, he with some 
difficulty tied the hands of this beautiful girl behind her 
back, and drawing his sabre, with one blow severed the 
head from the body. 

It was for this bloody business he was raised to the 
highest rank among the Turks; and he had the Third 
Tail sent him on this occasion, from the Porte. He 
likewise assumed the title of Jedzar, which in Arabic 
signifies " butcher " ; and surely no title could be more 

He had, at the time of our audience, upwards of three 
hundred men at work in his garden, who all appeared 


very attentive to what they were doing, and seldom 
ventured to raise their eyes from the ground. 

One unfortunate fellow, whose crime I could never 
learn, happened to displease him. He ordered him 
immediately to be brought before him, and looking at 
him with eyes inflamed with savage fury, he had him 
stripped in our presence, and drawing from behind his 
robe a silver hammer of about four pounds weight was 
preparing to inflict on the unfortunate victim that punish- 
ment I shall now describe, but which I had the heartfelt 
satisfaction, thro' my intercession, to have mitigated ; 
and a severe bastinadoing expiated his fault. And when 
the Bashaw's passion cooled a little, I ventured to express 
a desire of knowing the virtues of this tremendous 
hammer, and received the following explanation. 
When Jedzar does not choose to inflict the punishment 
of death on any of his offending slaves, he orders him to 
be laid across a bar of wood, with his hands and feet held 
to the ground ; he then, with his hammer, strikes the 
culprit on the backbone, which immediately brings on a 
palsy, that ends only with the death of the wretched 
offender, or, if the blow be very violent, destroys him in 
a few hours. 

While I reflected with indignation on the savage 
cruelty of this monster, I was suddenly roused by the 
softest music and the footsteps of many females at the 
other end of the garden. These were the Bashaw's 
women : they were two hundred in number, dressed all 
alike in white, and veiled, as usual, from top to toe. 
The Bashaw ordered them to walk slowly by him, which 
ceremony they performed with the most profound 
silence. This he meant as the greatest compliment he 
could pay us : but, for my part, I should most willingly 


have dispensed with this treat. My mind was too much 
taken up with gloomy reflections on the cruel hammer 
scene, and the wretched state of servility to which these 
unfortunate women were doomed, to be gratified with 
any mark of this Bashaw's favour or complaisance. 

I was told by the consul that it was time we should 
take our leave ; and considering that he had been a full 
hour on his knees, 'tis no wonder he should think so. I 
desired he would ask the Bashaw when he would be 
ready to receive some presents I had a wish to make him. 
He smiled, and appointed that evening. We, therefore, 
for the present took our leave. I had not arrived at the 
consul's when I received a visit from Jedzar's dragoman, 
accompanied by two slaves. The one brought me 
a rich furred pelice, the other presented a handsome 
pipe and a few pounds of coffee. In return, I waited on 
the Bashaw, and presented him with a pair of pistols, 
beautifully ornamented in gold and silver. He could not 
conceal his admiration of them : they were of the best 
workmanship and cost loo guineas. He desired to know 
if they were as good as they were handsome. I 
answered in the affirmative, and at his desire loaded 
them, and having placed a bit of paper, about the size of a 
crown piece, at twelve yards' distance, he fired and made 
a pretty good shot. But loading the pistols a second time 
himself, he put in a double charge of powder, which 
hurt his hand very much and he shot wide of the mark. 
This he could not account for, and it was with much 
difficulty I convinced him that with half the quantity of 
gunpowder he would shoot better, which, at his request, I 
proved by hitting the mark three times running, at which 
he was both pleased and astonished. At length I took my 
leave and left him in good humour and highly gratified. 


In the morning I had a most pressing invitation from 
a French merchant resident here to spend the evening at 
his house. On leaving the Bashaw's, I found this Uberal 
Frenchman wfaiting in the street, to conduct us to his 
hospitable mansion. I was met at the door by his 
Roxalana, as he styled her, who led us into a saloon 
furnished a la turque, in the centre of which was 
the tendour, covered with a magnificent Persian carpet. 
My eyes were dazzled with the assemblage of beauties 
that were seated around it. The amiable Roxalana was a 
native of Chio and did the honours of her house, in a 
manner truly graceful ; and tho' the rest of her female 
companions had the advantage [in] point of juvenility, yet 
such were her personal and mental accomplishments that 
I was not at all surprised to see her distinguished as the 
favourite Sultana. 

The ladies were twelve in number, and had been 
collected with much taste and expense in different parts of 
Asia and among the islands. They were all lively and 
good-humoured, and spoke a little Italian. Their animated 
and expressive manners made up for any deficiency that 
may appear from a want of words. The evening was spent 
in dancing and playing at blindman's buff, etc. etc. till 
supper was announced, which was served up in as elegant 
a style and consisted of as great a variety of delicacies as 
could be met with at the table of the first gourmand in 
Paris. In short, there was nothing wanting to render 
this evening's entertainment highly pleasing both to the 
gay and serious, so that the thought of retiring to rest 
never once broke in upon us till six o'clock in the morning. 
I threw myself on a sofa ; but the scenes of the past night 
were present to my imagination, and I could not help 
exclaiming " O pleasures past, never again to return ! " 


This reflection superinduced others, which entirely pre- 
cluded sleep. I arose at eight, and took my leave of this 
hospitable bon •vivant, fully determined to pass some time 
with him at my return from Jerusalem. 

The following day we were detained a considerable 
time by those who were to furnish us with mules for 
our journey ; and tho' we had saddles of our own they 
would not permit us to make use of them : we were 
forced to ride on large pack-saddles, without a bridle, and 
the only means we had of directing the animals was to 
strike them with a stick, sometimes on one side and 
sometimes on the other. We had no sooner left the 
strand than we discovered that those Turks who were 
sent with us as guides were as ignorant as ourselves of 
the road to Nazareth. 

At eleven, we stopped to breakfast, and on a sudden, 
found ourselves surrounded by Arabs, to the number of 
twenty, headed by a chief. They immediately sat them- 
selves down, and before we had time to look about us, 
devoured our breakfast, everyone seizing whatever fell in 
his way. This, however, was all the injury they did us, 
and when they heard we were going to Nazareth, the 
chief offered us one of his men as a guide. 

I acknowledge that I dreaded this man's company, 
lest he should in the night-time lead us out of our way, 
and, assisted by other wanderers, rob and plunder us. 
Pauolo soon dispelled my fears, by assuring me that these 
were friendly Arabs, and that we had nothing to appre- 
hend till we had passed Nazareth. This Arab was to 
accompany us as far as that town. As we fell into the 
right road, about sunset, we determined to stop at the 
first house that should have the hospitality to receive us. 

At nine we arrived at a small village called 


Scietamor/ only twenty miles distant from St. John de 

This neighbourhood is famous for its cotton, which is 
esteemed the best^n all Galilee. 

We knocked at many doors, but in vain. I could not 
restrain my indignation, and almost expressed a wish that 
the words of Christ might be fulfilled on this inhospitable 
people. After having rambled above an hour, we were 
at length admitted into the house of a Greek priest, in 
which we took up our lodgings for the night. 

Our landlord was married, had a large family and a 
small house, containing one room only, where we were to 
pass the night. The house could afford nothing better 
than some milk and eggs. After our frugal supper, we 
spread our mattresses on one side of the fire-place, and our 
servants lay at our feet. The cure and his wife were 
opposite to us, and the young ladies of the family lay at 
some distance. Ludicrous as this scene may appear, it 
neither discomposed our gravity or prevented us from 
passing a very comfortable night. 

At six in the morning we were again on foot ; and 
after having thanked our hospitable clergyman, we set 
forward on our journey. We arrived at Nazareth about 
two, and alighted at the Convent of the Annunciation, 
so called because the church is built on the very spot 
where the house of the Holy Virgin stood, and where she 
was visited by the angel. The country in the environs 
of Nazareth is very mountainous and wild. It does not 
answer the description given of this memorable place in 
the scriptures. The holy fathers of the Convent them- 
selves acknowledge that the entire face of the country 
must have undergone a considerable change. 
1 ? Shefa Amr. 


The Father-superior and the Procurer-general of the 
Convent received us in the most friendly and hospitable 
manner. We had very good beds and comfortable 
rooms ; and every possible attention and respect paid to 
us. These gentlemen advised us to dismiss those people 
we had brought with us from Acre, together with our 
mules ; promising that they would furnish us with good 
mules, experienced conductors and trusty guards ; which 
their intimacy with the Governor of the town would 
enable them to procure. 

Dinner being ready we were conducted by those 
worthy priests into a great hall, where we found an 
excellent repast prepared for us, tho' it was then Lent, 
which is most strictly observed by those Friars. 

After dinner they conducted us to the Church of the 
Annunciation, which fully answered the idea we had formed 
of it. St. Helena, the mother of Constantino the Great, 
had built a most magnificent temple here, which had 
been almost destroyed by the Saracens at different 
periods. It was repaired in 1620 by the Fathers of the 
Holy Land, who since that time have been constantly 
making some improvements to it. The whole convent 
is now surrounded by a thick wall, to protect it 
against any sudden attack of the Arabs. The church 
has three aisles, divided by stone pillars ; and in the 
centre is the great altar, dedicated to the angel 
Gabriel. Behind it is the choir, and underneath, the 
Grotto and Chapel of the Annunciation. The superb 
staircase, by which you descend to it, consists of fifteen 
steps of the finest marble ; at the foot of which 
is the place where the gracious message from heaven, 
announcing the birth of a Saviour, was delivered to the 
Virgin Mary. 


The Altar of the Annunciation is very beautiful ; 
being adorned with a variety of fine marbles, well inlaid. 
Over the altar is a fine painting, representing the Virgin 
Mary, and the angel saluting her. On the whole nothing 
can be more beautiful than this little church, in which 
all the numberless ceremonies of the greatest Catholic 
churches and cathedrals in Europe are strictly observed. 

From this church we were conducted to the other 
parts of this convent, which are both spacious and 
commodious. All the doors are of iron, and the walls 
are immensely thick and solid. Attached to the convent 
are the various gardens and offices, kept solely for the 
entertainment of the pilgrims on their way to and return 
from the Holy Sepulchre. Their stay is limited to three 
days, and no longer, during which time they are treated 
in the most hospitable manner without the least expense 
on their part. There are but fifteen Friars in this 
convent, though sufficiently endowed, in every respect, 
for ten times that number. After we had viewed the 
convent we went to see a Grotto, in which is shewn a 
stone of an oval form ; three feet in height by four in 
breadth and seven in length; on which Jesus Christ is 
said to have dined with his disciples. 

We then visited a church which is said to have been 
formerly the Synagogue in which our Saviour proved, that 
in his person was fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah relating 
to his mission. 

On our return to the convent the Superior proposed 
that we should visit the Deputy-governor, who resides 
here. He is under the Bashaw of St. John De Acre, 
collects his revenues, has the care of all his concerns, and 
the control over all his subjects in the vast district of 
Nazareth. Though a Greek he possesses both the legis- 


lative and executive power, and holds the inhabitants of 
this wild country in the most abject subjection, and is by 
them honoured as their prince. 

On entering his palace we were a little disappointed 
in our expectations, as it had the appearance of a house 
falling into ruins. This circumstance, however, when the 
cause was explained to us, raised him in our estimation, 
and served as a strong proof of his good sense; as it is this 
uninviting appearance of wretchedness alone, that saves 
both his head and wealth from the cruelty and avarice of 
his prince. 

We ascended by a stone staircase to an apartment 
furnished a la turque, with cushions and carpets, where we 
were presented to Ibrahim Calcussi,^ who received us very 
politely. After we were seated, sweetmeats and coffee 
were introduced; frankincense and perfumes of different 
kinds succeeded. I was next presented with a large pipe, 
which I readily accepted, being by this time become an 
expert smoker. 

Our conversation turned chiefly on horses. Ibrahim 
informed me that the finest horses in all Arabia were bred 
in this part of the country. I expressed a wish to pur- 
chase one to take with me to Europe; but he could not 
assist me from a dread of incurring the anger of the 
Bashaw, should it be discovered that he had been instru- 
mental in procuring me one. He accepted a spy-glass 
which I offered him, and in return gave me a large phial 
of otto of roses. He regretted that we could not make a 
longer stay at Nazareth, as he would give us an escort of 
twenty soldiers, who were then absent on a different 
service ; however, he spared us one of his guards, who, 
he had no doubt, would prove a sufficient protection till 
' Caloussc in Moore's Journal. 


we arrived at Napolosa, the Governor of which town 
would give us a proper guard, in case of necessity. 

Having now returned to the convent, one of the 
Friars showed us a very excellent collection of medals and 
antiques which he was forming for the Prince of Asturias. 
He examined the few I had, and promised me that at my 
return from Jerusalem he would part with any of those 
he had to oblige me. 

February the ztth. 

We were on horseback by five o'clock. Our little 
caravan consisted of a dozen, including Ibrahim's soldier,' 
who was well armed, and equally well mounted. His 
master had given him letters to the diiFerent Governors, 
both of Genia'' and Napolosa, where pilgrims pay tribute 
to the Jaffars, or Arabs, who farm, or take at a certain rate, 
this branch of the revenue. We were recommended to 
them in a particular manner, with a request that we 
should not be detained at either place, or required to pay 
the tax. 

^ *' Whose name was Mustapha.^' — Moore's Journal. 
2 ? Jenin. 

N 2 






in 1788. 




T W , Esq. 



DUBLIN, 1797. 




Departure from Nazareth — Genia — Its Governor — Napolosa — Its 
Ruins — ^Jerusalem — Its History — Conquered by King David — 
By Nebuchadnezzar — By Cyrus — By Pompey — By Titus — 
Demolished by Adrian — Who Lays the Foundation of a New 
City — Jerusalem taken by Omar .... [185] 


Jerusalem continued — The Temple of the Resurrection — The Holy 
Sepulchre — The House of Pontius Pilate — The House of 
Herod — The Armenian Convent — Mount of Olives — Foun- 
tain of Silva — Journey to Bethlehem — The Valley of the 
Giants — Fans Signatus — The Convent of Terra Sancta — 
Basilica di Santa Maria — The Street of the Cross . . [^97] 


Departure from Jerusalem — Attacked by Arabs — Napolosa — Its 
Governor — its Various Names and Revolutions — Origin of 
the Samaritans — Difficulties in leaving Napolosa — Character 
of the Arabs — Arrival at St. John of Acre— Caiffa . [225] 


Departure from Acre — Cyprus — Its General History — Character of 

its present Inhabitants, etc. ...... [238] 


Departure from Cyprus — Character and Manners of the Modern 
Greeks — Crete — Arrival at Marseilles — The Lazaretto — Paris 
— Dublin — Brighton — English Blacklegs — A Scuffle with 
Opposition — The French Revolution, etc. — A French 
Gambling-house — King's Return from Varennes, etc. — 
Reflections on Gaming, etc. [264] 



A Journey to Switzerland — Lausanne— The Glaciers — Mr. B. — 
Some Observations on the Swiss — Their Candour — Their 
Bravery — Their Honesty — National Honour — Public Justice 
Geneva — Milan — Florence — Rome — Some Reflections on 
Italy [291] 


My Return to Paris— The Valois Club— The King's Trial— His 
Death — The Duke of Orleans — A Duel — fegalite — Lisle — 
Brussels — The Theatre — Calais — A Journey to Ostend — to 
Dover — to London — Conclusion ..... [309] 


Departure from Nazareth — Genia' — Its Governor — Napolosa — Its Ruins 
— Jerusalem — Its History — Conquered by King David — By 
Nebuchadnezzar — By Cyrus — By Pompey — By Titus — Demolished 
by Adrian — Who Lays the Foundation of a new City — Jerusalem 
taken by Omar. 

On leaving Nazareth we travelled over an immense 
plain, the chief product of which was corn and cotton ; 
after which we passed several hills that were rocky and 
barren. We were astonished at the number of partridges, 
which appeared like domestic fowl, running quite near 
us, without shewing the least sign of fear. We also met 
many foxes and numerous herds of goats ; and passed 
several encampments of wandering Arabs, who seemed to 
be employed in cultivating the ground and tending their 

Before we arrived at Genia,^ we desired Ibrahim's 
soldier to proceed before us and settle everything with 
the JafFars before we came up, in order to prevent any 
unnecessary delay. 

On our entering the town, we found him engaged in 
a debate with the Chief of the JafFars ; who insisted on 
our paying fifteen piastres per head before we were 
oermitted to pass. Our soldier, with whose conduct we 
had every reason to be well satisfied, espoused our cause 
very warmly, notwithstanding the virulent abuse to which 

' ? Jenin. 


he exposed himself, by thus taking the part of infidels. 
I begged of him to comply with their demands : but he 
was determined in his resolution of not submitting to this 
exaction, declaring that his compliance would be a 
direct insult to Ibrahim, his master, whose authority he 
would maintain at the hazard of his life. 

The debate still continued without any hope of an 
accommodation, or concession on either side, when at last 
we were obliged to have recourse to the Governor's inter- 
ference. But before we could see him, we found 
ourselves surrounded by some hundreds of the savage 
inhabitants, who were now become so violent and 
determined in their demands, and accompanied them 
with menaces of such horrid import, as filled us with 
the most serious apprehensions for our safety : and thus 
did this soldier, in order to preserve his master's honour 
from insult, expose us to the danger of losing our lives. 

On our producing the Grand Signior's firman, the 
JafFars did not scruple to say that they totally disregarded 
it ; and we soon perceived that this Governor enjoyed his 
title without any degree of influence or authority being 
attached to it. He could not prevail on the people to 
give up their demands ; but they, at last, consented to 
reduce them to one fourth of the sum they first insisted 
on : and the Governor resigned, with pleasure, his share 
of the tribute, out of respect to Ibrahim's letter. The 
people of the town soon became our friends when we 
paid the money. They persuaded us to proceed no farther 
this day, lest we should be stopped on the road ; and 
our conductors expressing the same apprehensions, we 
determined, though reluctantly, to spend the night here. 

We had just sat down to supper when a message was 
brought from the Governor, intimating that he would do 


us the honour of drinking some wine with us ; and soon 
after his excellency made his appearance. After a few 
compliments he sat down ; and though he declared that 
he had already supped, he devoured a chicken in a 
moment and eat the best part of a leg of mutton which 
we intended to reserve for our breakfast the next day. 

Seeing some silver forks, he desired, with earnest 
curiosity, to know their use, which being explained to 
him he could not help admiring both the ingenuity and 
assiduity of Christians in promoting whatever tends to 
the comforts and conveniences of life. This was a very 
uncommon compliment from a Mahometan : but, how- 
ever deficient he might have been in respect to these 
accomplishments he so much admired in Christians, he 
shewed, at least, by his zeal in libations to the rosy god, 
that he had a taste for the sweets of life. However, 
feeling the powerful effects of repeated bumpers, and 
fearing a discovery of the breach of his Prophet's prohibi- 
tion, he at last got up, and with some difficulty withdrew 
to his seraglio, which was close to our habitation. 

He had not been long gone, when we were alarmed 
with an unusual outcry and screaming ; which we were 
soon informed was the eff'ect of his excellency's intem- 
perance ; for by this time the fumes of the wine he had 
so copiously swallowed, began to manifest their full 
power in stimulating him to acts of violence and cruelty 
towards his unfortunate wives. 

The next day we were on horseback by five, and 
having proceeded a few miles we found ourselves in the 
midst of the wildest country imaginable. Soon after- 
wards we passed a castle, built on an eminence, which is 
said to have been erected by King David. We stopped 
near a spring to breakfast ; but before we had done, our 


soldier, whose vigilance and impatience we had observed 
while we were eating, advised us to make no longer stay 
as the place was inhabited by hordes of Arabs, who had 
sworn vengeance against those of Nazareth ; because one 
of their tribe had been taken in the act of committing a 
robbery beyond the limits of their district, and was be- 
headed by the Governor of Nazareth for this encroach- 
ment on his exclusive privilege. In such cases blood for 
blood is the only atonement, and as we did [not] wish that 
ours should expiate their crimes we instantly mounted 
and set forward with all speed. 

About one we arrived in safety at Napolosa,^ the 
ancient capital of Samaria, mentioned by Herodotus, 
which we found crowded with people assembled for the 
purpose of celebrating a victory that the Bashaw of 
Damascus, just returned from Mecca, had obtained over 
another Bashaw who had usurped his government during 
his absence. Knowing that on those occasions the Turks 
are very insolent, we [went] immediately to the house of a 
Greek Catholic to whom we had been recommended by 
the Superior of the Convent of Nazareth ; and at the 
same time determined not to leave the house until we 
had made our arrival known to the Governor. We there- 
fore sent our soldier to him, and received a very friendly 
answer, assuring us we might rely on his protection, and 
at the same time [he] appointed one of his Guards to 
accompany us through the town. We then walked out 
to see the different curiosities that might naturally be 
expected in this city, once the seat of the kings of 
Samaria, then called Sichem, the capital of this celebrated 

There are but a few ruins to attract the notice of the 

' Neapolis, or Nablous. 


traveller. The most remarkable is a mosque, formerly a 
magnificent church built by St. Helena, and still in some 
repair. The gateway is of Gothic architecture, supported 
on beautiful pillars of white marble : [it] was never 
decorated with figures of any kind, and though very 
ancient, is in good preservation, having yet escaped the 
destructive hands of the Turks. Ruins of temples, 
numbers of capitals, and fragments of columns lay scat- 
tered in different places. 

Here our faithful soldier, whom Ibrahim had given 
us, was to take his leave ; and as the most dangerous road 
was in this neighbourhood, it became necessary for us to 
strengthen our guard. We therefore applied to the 
Governor, who directed us to the Sheik, or Chief, of the 
Arabs. This man was a brave, enterprising fellow, who, 
on our request being made to him, offered to accompany 
us himself ; but to this the Governor would not consent. 
He allowed us two of his captains and two other soldiers. 
When we expressed some uneasiness at the apparent 
insufBciency of the number, he laid hold of his beard and 
swore he would be answerable for our safety. This sacred 
appeal satisfied us, and we determined to set off at sunset, 
as we were assured by the landlord and other Christians 
in the town that our surest way to avoid the danger of 
being attacked in a wood at some leagues' distance was to 
pass it in the night-time. 

At the close of the evening we left the town as silently 
as possible. Our guides and guards opened the march ; 
M — 1 and I followed next, and our servants and baggage 
brought up the rear. By five in the morning of the twenty- 
eighth of February we found ourselves one mile beyond the 
dangerous wood. Our entire escort consisted of fourteen 
men, which I considered equal to double that number of 

1 Hugh Moore. 


Arabs, as we were all well armed with guns, blunder- 
busses, and pistols. We had nothing more to fear, and 
as we ascended to the top of a very high mountain our 
guards showed us, at some distance behind, the tents of 
the tribe with whom they were at war, whose custom it 
is to fall upon their enemies from some ambuscade in the 
wood through which we had passed an hour before. 

We met several other tribes of these wanderers, and 
though all well armed they did not attempt in the least 
to molest us. At nine we came to a fountain hewn out of 
the solid rock, where we halted to breakfast and refreshed 
our tired mules, after having rode eight hours without 
stopping, at the rate of four miles an hour, over a most 
rocky country where scarcely a blade of grass could be 
seen. The hills in this country have a most singular 
appearance, being formed of strata of rock so regularly 
arranged that were it not for their magnitude one might 
be induced to suppose them the work of art. 

About one we arrived at some ruins which we were 
informed had been one of the country seats of King 
Solomon. Soon after we passed a very high mountain, 
from whose summit we saw the Levant near Jaffa. Being 
informed by some Arabs that we were but a short way 
from Jerusalem M — ^ and I pushed on as fast as our tired 
mules would permit us, impatient to get a sight of this 
memorable city, which had been so long the constant 
subject of our thoughts. All our anxiety and apprehen- 
sions now vanished at the transporting prospect of so 
soon finishing this expedition and again turning our faces 

We were now in sight of the Holy City, which 
excited in our breasts emotions not to be described ; but 
these soon gave place to a most lively sense of gratitude 

' Hugh Moore. 


to that Providence which had protected us from all those 
dangers incident to the undertaking we had now accom- 
plished. While thus our minds were filled with a 
mixture of gratitude and pious exultation, the recollection 
of our European friends crowded on our thoughts, and 
we would that moment give half the world to have 
been able to communicate to them a knowledge of our 

At half-past three we arrived, and entered Jerusalem 
by the Gate of Nazareth, and proceeded immediately to 
the Convent of the Terra Sancta, where we delivered our 
letters from the Spanish ambassador at Constantinople. 
The Superior and Procurator of the Convent received 
us in the politest manner, and showed us into very 
comfortable apartments, which, thirty years before, had 
been occupied by a countryman of mine, Mr. Smith 
Barrey [sic]. 

We afterwards paid our respects to the Mushelim, or 
governor of the town, to whom we had letters of recom- 
mendation from the Captain Bashaw, obtained by means 
of our good friend Sir R. A — .^ The Bashaw was the 
intimate friend and protector of the Mushelim of 
Jerusalem, who held this important office through his 
interest ; and, indeed, the politeness with which he 
received us, and the friendship he, on every occasion, 
manifested towards us, may be justly considered strong 
proofs of his gratitude and high esteem for his benefactor. 
He even offered us apartments in his palace, an honour, 
however, we declined, as we were much better a /a Chretienne 
qua la Turque : but he insisted on our accepting the use 
of his horses during our stay, and a guard of Janissaries to 
attend us. We promised to wait on him the following 
1 Sir Robert Ainslie. 


day, when we should be determined with respect to our 
future plans, and accordingly, portion out our time to 
the best advantage. 

Having intimated a desire of visiting Bethlehem and 
Sodom we were advised by him not to think of going to 
Sodom with less than fifty soldiers well armed, as the 
whole road was infested by robbers, who plundered indis- 
criminately everyone who fell in their way, and even 
quarrelled among themselves. We therefore consulted 
our honest Superior, who confirmed the truth of these 
terrifying accounts by declaring that though he had been 
in the Convent upwards of forty years he had never yet 
ventured to go to Sodom, though but eight hours' ride 
from Jerusalem. He acknowledged indeed that the place, 
by all accounts, was well worth seeing ; but at the same 
time would deem it the highest degree of temerity to 
encounter the many dangers and difficulties that stood in 
the way to this gratification. We therefore thought it 
prudent to yield to these reasonings, and rest satisfied with 
such curiosities as we should find at Jerusalem and at 

We set out with the dragoman of the Convent and 
two Janissaries, and first stopped at the Temple of Solomon, 
which through so many ages has been celebrated for its 
grandeur and magnificence. As no Christian, since the 
Turks came into the possession of Jerusalem, has ever 
been admitted into it, we could not expect to be peculiarly 
favoured in this respect, except on condition of abjuring 
our faith and being banished for ever from our country 
and friends. We therefore contented ourselves with 
viewing the outside only of this stupendous and almost 
divinely magnificent monument of art. 

I shall not enter into a circumstantial account of 


events or long historical detail, but merely confine myself 
to the principal revolutions it has undergone since its 
first foundation. 

King David, after he had conquered Jerusalem, a.m. 
2988,1 and built many superb edifices, formed the design 
of erecting a magnificent temple to the Lord, in which 
he proposed to place the Ark. The prophet Nathan 
told him that his intentions were acceptable in the sight 
of God, but that his son Solomon was the person whom 
the Lord had chosen to fulfil them.^ David, however, 
began to collect materials, in order to facilitate the work 
for Solomon, but was interrupted by one of his sons, 
Absalom, who took the city in the year 3009. Absalom 
being killed by Joab the city became again subject to 
David, who died in the year 3021.^ 

Solomon soon rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, and filled 
up with what remained of the rubbish the little valley 
between the hills Bozeta and Moria that he might have 
a proper place for the Temple. He began this great 
building in the twentieth year of his age, four years after 
the death of his father, and in seven years completed this 
stupendous work, which for its structure and the riches 
it contained became the admiration of surrounding 

The Temple being ready for the Ark it was brought 
from Mount Sion, then called the City of David, where 
it had remained under a magnificent Tabernacle, and was 
deposited in this Sanctuary. Solomon consecrated the 
Temple at the same time, and on this occasion offered 

1 This and other dates in the next few pages are not always 

2 2nd Book of Samuel, Chap. 7. (Marginal note in MS.) 
' 1st Book of Kings, Chap. 2. (Marginal note in MS.) 

• 1st Book of Kings, Chap. 6. (Marginal note in MS.) 


a peace-ofFering of twenty-two thousand oxen and one 
hundred and twenty thousand sheep. This happened at 
the time of the Jewish Festival, which commonly lasted 
seven days ; but on account of this solemnization the 
tabernacles were kept open fourteen days, and on the 
fifteenth the people, who had assembled to the number 
of several hundred thousand, left the city. Solomon 
reigned peaceably forty years after, and died in the sixtieth 
year of his age, a.m. 3061. The wealth and splendour 
of Solomon's court, as mentioned in the Bible, exceeds 
everything of the kind ever known or recorded. He 
likewise built a palace for himself, which was the work 
of fourteen years, not having the materials collected 
beforehand as his father had for the Temple. 

About the year 3436 Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem 
for the third time. It is from this period we may date 
the seventy years' captivity. He sent the king, his 
mother, wives and children, all the great men of his court, 
and ten thousand men captives into Babylon. He pillaged 
the Temple of all its treasures, and carried with him the 
sacred vessels which Solomon had made in the Temple 
of the Lord.' 

About a century after, Cyrus, king of Persia, con- 
quered the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. He 
restored to the Jews the sacred vases of the Temple, 
which they were permitted to rebuild as the foundations 
only remained. This memorable event was foretold by 
Jeremiah the prophet. The Jews returned in crowds to 
Jerusalem and began to rebuild the Temple in the year 
3517, according to certain dimensions given by Cyrus and 
afterwards by Darius the son of Hystaspes. They met 

' 2nd Book of Kings, Chap. 24. (Marginal note in MS.) 


with many impediments which were thrown in their way 
by the Samaritans, their neighbours and enemies. 

In 3991 Pompey laid siege to Jerusalem, on the 
inhabitants refusing to pay a certain tribute which he 
demanded. He took the city and entered the Temple — 
even the Holy of Holies — but did not touch any of its 
treasures. This event took place in the consulship of 
Caius Antonius and M. T. Cicero. 

In 4045, Herod the Great, who had considerably 
repaired and improved the city, added greatly to the 
Temple, which had been erected after the return of the 
Jews from captivity ; and this he completed in eight 

In the year of our Lord 70, Titus, who was the 
emperor Vespasian's Lieutenant in Syria, besieged Jeru- 
salem at a time when it was rent by various desperate 
factions. The partisans of the two adverse factions 
meeting in the Temple a dreadful conflict ensued, in 
which the sacred place was defiled with the blood of the 
inhabitants. After an obstinate resistance, from the 
fourteenth of April to the tenth of August, during which 
time the besieged underwent the severest hardships, the 
Romans entered the city, but met with such determined 
opposition that the Jews were not finally subdued till the 
second of September, in the seventy-first year of our 
Lord, and thirty-eight years after his crucifixion. The 
city was sacked by the Roman soldiery and the Temple 
a second time destroyed, an event which furnishes an 
awful attestation of the divine mission of our Saviour, as 
the actual accomplishment of his solemn prediction of 
those miseries which were to befall that ungrateful city, 
and the destruction of the Temple. The walls were 
entirely demolished, except at the western side, which 

o 2 


Titus suffered to remain as a monument of the power 
of the Roman arms. The massy golden ornaments of 
the Temple were conveyed to Rome to grace the triumph 
of Titus, who entered the city in great pomp, and on 
that occasion received the title of Csesar. 

Many Jews, however, still remained in Jerusalem, 
who in the year one hundred and eighteen rebelled under 
the reign of the emperor Trajan, and again under Adrian, 
who entirely destroyed the town and thus finally verified 
what the Lord had said ^ " There shall not be left here 
one stone upon another that shall not be thrown down."i 

In one hundred and nineteen Adrian laid the founda- 
tions of a new city, which he called JElia, from his name 
of /Elius Adrianus. On the spot Vvfhere the Temple 
formerly stood he caused another to be built, dedicated 
to Jupiter Capitolinus. Thence the city was called jElia 
Capitolina. The Jews were not allowed to enter it till 
the year 363, when Julian allowed them to rebuild the 
Temple. They crowded from all places to engage in this 
pleasing enterprise ; but scarcely had they began it than 
all their materials were destroyed by an earthquake, which 
made them abandon the attempt, and give some credit 
to the prophecy of Daniel : " He shall make it desolate, 
even unto the Consummation." ^ 

However, in the year 643, Omar, Caliph of the 
Saracens and one of the successors of Mahomet, after 
having taken Jerusalem, began to build a superb mosque 
on the very spot where the Temple of Solomon once 
stood, and erected his building over the foundations 
of the other. 

' Cf. St. Mathew, Chap. 24, v. 2. (Marginal note in MS.) 
^ Daniel, Chap. 9, v. 27. (Marginal note in MS.) 


Jerusalem continued — The Temple of the Resurrection — The Holy 
Sepulchre — The House of Pontius Pilate — The House of Herod — 
The Armenian Convent — Mount of Olives — The Fountain of Silva — 
Journey to Bethlehem — The Valley of the Giants — Fans Signatus — 
The Convent of Terra Sancta — Basilica di Santa Maria — ^The 
Street of the Cross. 

From the Temple of Solomon we returned to the 
Convent, and, accompanied by one of the friars, visited 
the Temple of the Resurrection, in the centre of which 
is the Holy Sepulchre of our Saviour. 

This temple is a magnificent building, founded by the 
emperor Constantine, who delivered this sacred spot from 
the hands of the infidels. He wrote to all the Eastern 
Provinces to demand contributions ; sent a priest from 
Constantinople to act as architect, and St. Helena, his 
mother, undertook the journey to superintend this pious 
work. This great fabric was finished in nine years. 
The prodigious quantities of gold and silver ornaments 
which the emperor sent were the wonder of those times. 

Many and various are the vicissitudes which this 
church has undergone from the different governments to 
which the city has been subjected since that time. 
When the Saracens under Saladin took Jerusalem, the 
Temple of the Resurrection was plundered of all its 
riches, but the building received no damage. On 
examining its walls they are found to be of white 
calcareous stone, which abounds throughout Palestine, 
and is capable of a polish little inferior to marble. 


In that part of the church called the Chapel of Adam 
are two very ancient tombs of bad workmanship. The 
inscriptions are in ancient characters and scarcely legible : 
they set forth that Godfrey and Baldwin, two brothers 
and kings of Jerusalem, were buried there. I copied the 
writing exactly as it was on the stone : — ^ 




AQyismrr t&iiimik' 


XP 1AT\ c V I Mt^ I/^^A 

It was under this Prince's reign that the order of 
the Knights Templars was first instituted, as well as that 
of the Knights Hospitallers. The latter, whose number 
rapidly increased, took up arms, as much to escort and 
protect the pilgrims who came from all parts to visit 
the holy places as to assist the Christian kings in the 

^ " Here lies the famous captain Godfrey de Bouillon, who won all this 
land for the Chrisiianfaith. May his soul reign with Christ. Amen" 

This inscription and that relating to King Baldwin on p. 199, no longer 
exist. After the conflagration of 1808 the monuments on which they 
were cut were removed by the Greeks, with the intention of destroying 
the evidence which they furnished that the Holy Sephulchre had once 
belonged to the Latins. 

See Quaresmius, TerrtE Nanette Elucidatio, ^639, lib. v., cap. ii., and 
Pierotti, Jerusalem Explored-^ Translated by T. G. Bonney, London, 


wars against the infidels. The success of the Hospitallers 
encouraged some French gentlemen to enrol themselves 
under their banner. The chief of these were Hugues de 
Payan and Godfrey of St. Admer, or St. Omer. 

King Godfrey died Anno Domini 1 100, and his brother 
in 1 1 1 8, the former at Jerusalem and the latter at Larissa,i 
where he was embalmed and afterwards sent to Jerusalem 
to be interred. 


C e EA^ J/ eQ,yvr^, Ij o- 
MlciPA Damascvs.'cS' 9uoK 


hoc TvMVLo.' 

1 " At Laris, a city of Egypt."— Moore's Journal. 
^ This inscription is in reality in rude hexameters, ending in a penta- 
meter, as follows : — 

Rex Baldewinus, Judas alter Machabeus, 
Spes patriae, vigor ecclesiae, virtus utriusque, 
Quern formidabant, cui dona tributa ferebant 
Cedar et Egyptus, Dan ac homicida Damascus. 
Proh dolor, in modico clauditur hoc tumulo. 
King Baldwin, a second Judm Machahaeus, the hope of his country, the 


The following inscription, in characters of the twelfth 
century, is under a picture of St. Paul, and now almost 
illegible : — 



•f-TVE VA 



Ego gratia Dei sum id quod sum, et gratia ejus in me 
vacua non fuit} 

After having seen the remainder of the church, which 
is divided into four different chapels — the Catholic, Greek, 
Armenian, and Copt — we were conducted to the Holy 
Sepulchre, built in the centre of the church, immediately 
under the great cupola, and though, as the Scripture says, 
" hewn out of a rock," is itself a church in miniature, 
having a cupola and all the external appearance of a 
chapel. The entrance to it is by a very small door, 
from which you descend by a few steps, and first enter a 
narrow apartment, at the bottom of which are two 
perpendicular holes that lead to a small cavern in the 
rock, on which the little chapel is erected : this is the 

strength of the Church, the pride of both, to whom Kedar and Egypt, Dan 
and man-slnying Damascus in terror brought gifts of tribute, is enclosed, 
alas ! within this narrow tomb. 

The curious epithet " homicida," applied to Damascus, probably refers 
to the manufacture of swords, for which that place has long been 

' / by the grace of God am that which I am, and His grace was not 
found wanting in me. 


burial place of two of our Saviour's disciples. Proceeding 
a little further you pass, by a very small door, into the 
Holy Sepulchre itself. 

It is nine feet in length, by about six feet and a half 
wide. On one side is the Tomb of our Saviour, raised 
about foor feet from the floor ; it is of white marble and 
fixed against the wall. This little cavern is lighted by a 
number of silver lamps suspended from the ceiling, which 
cause so great a heat that it is difficult to remain long in 
this awful place. 

Though we remained here near a quarter of an hour 
yet we were so wrapt up in meditation that not a word 
was uttered. On entering this Holy Shrine I was struck 
with reverential awe, and felt a kind of pleasing agitation 
of mind which no language can express ; nor do I think 
it possible for even the most hardy freethinker to set his 
foot on this hallowed spot without feeling at least a 
momentary conviction of his dangerous error. As there 
were many people waiting to succeed us, we withdrew 
and went to see the place of crucifixion. 

I shall not attempt to describe all the remarkable 
places in this church. The annexed plan,^ with the 
following references, will convey a much clearer idea of 
the whole and give more satisfaction than the most 
elaborate description. 

A. A Square before the Temple of Jerusalem. 

B. That part of the Church which was [built] by Constantine 

the Great. 

C. Spherical Edilice of Constantius. 

D. Church of Mount Calvary. 

E. Church of St. Helena. 

F. A Chapel of one of the IVIarys. 

' This plan seems to have shared the fate of the sketches, as it does 
not appear in the MS. 


No. I . Marks where two Martyrs died. 

2. The Chapel of the Lamentations of the Virgin. 

3. The Campanali [sic]. 

4. Four doors by which you enter the Church, one of 

which is stopped up. 

5. The Stone of Unction, on which the Body of our 

Saviour was laid when taken from the Cross. 

6. The Chapel of the Unclean, so called from the Jews 

having there crowned our Saviour with Thorns. 

7. The Chapel where they divided his Garments. 

8. The Chapel of the Cross. 

9. The Altar where Service is not performed. 

10. A Chapel called the Prison of our Lord. 

11. A place now useless, formerly an Entrance. 

12. The place where our Saviour appeared to the Virgin 

Mary after the Resurrection : the Northern Mark 
shews where He stood, and the other where the 
Virgin stood when she turned round and saw 
Him. (St. John, chap. 20, v. 11, 12, etc.) 

1 3. The Altar of Mary Magdalen. 

14. The Chapel of the Copts and Armenians, called also 

of the Abyssinian Christians. 

15. The Chapel of Joseph of Arimathea, who had begged 

the Body of Jesus from Pilate, and laid [it] in his 
own new Tomb, which he had hewn out in the 
Rock. (St. Math. chap. 27, v. 58, 59 and 60.) 

16. The place where Peter and John stopped in going 

towards the Sepulchre after the Resurrection. 

17. The place where St. John was allowed to pass, leaving 

St. Peter behind. (St. John, chap. 20, v. 3 and 4.) 

18. The place where the Marys stayed at the Burial of 

our Saviour, sitting over against the Sepulchre. 
(St. Math. chap. 27, v. 61.) 
1 9. The Stairs which lead to the Armenian Church. 

20. The Chamber of the Sexton, or Keeper, of the 

Armenian Church. 

21. A flat piece of Marble, on which a number of Silver 

Lamps are always kept burning. This is shewn as 


the place where the pious Women, and the friends 
of our Saviour stood looking on at what passed on 
Mount Calvary, at the time of the Crucifixion. 
(St. Luke, chap. 23, v. 49.) 

22. The Altar where the Armenian Priests officiate. 

23. The place of the Latins. 

24. The place of the Greeks. 

25. A Marble flag, on which you are made to stand : 'tis 

said to be the centre of the Globe. 

26. The Sconstasion.' 

27. The Seat of the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

28. The Seat of the Vicar of the Patriarch. 

29. Sancta Sanctorum of the Greeks. 

30. Tribunal. 

31. Sepulchres of the Latin Kings of Jerusalem. 

32. Stairs by which you ascend to the Church of Calvary, 

where you are shown the Spot on which our Saviour 
was crucified. 

33. The Chapel of the Crucifixion, the place where our 

Saviour was laid on the ground, and stretched on the 
Cross : this Floor is inlaid with the most beautiful 

34. The Altar of the Crucifixion. 

35. An exterior Chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 

and called the Chapel of Grief; because through a 
small entrance she saw the Crucifixion of our Lord. 

36. The Chapel of the Elevation of the Cross, after the 

Body was fastened to it. 

37. A Pedestal on which the Cross was placed erect. 

38. The place where the Robber was crucified, on the 

Right Hand of Jesus, called the Happy Robber, 

from his having prayed to Him on the Cross, while 

the other mocked Him. (St. Luke, chap. 23.) 

This is called by the Arabs, Leuis el Jemin, or 

Right-hand Robber. 

' The Iconastasis, or high and solid screen, reaching about half-way 

to the roof in Eastern churches, and covered with icons, or sacred 

pictures. It separated the Bema, or Holy of Holies, from the more 

public part of the temple. 


39. The place where the Left-hand Robber was crucified. 

40. A fissure in Mount Calvary, occasioned by the Earth- 

quake when our Saviour gave up the Ghost. (St. 
Luke, chap. 23.) 

41. The place where the Virgin Mary is said to have 

stood with St. John the Evangelist at the time of 
the Elevation of the Cross. (St. John, chap. 19, 
V. 26 and 27.) 

In the Chapel of the Erection of the Cross are the 
Remains of two Pictures, which are of the twelfth 
Century ; they have the following Inscriptions, which 
are so efi^aced that their meaning should for ever 
remain a secret, if one of the Friars of the Greek 
Church had not taken a copy of them some years 
ago. The figures were in Mosaik [j«c] work. 

42. The Seat of the Latin Patriarch. 

43. The Altar at which the Latin Priests officiate. 

44. The Chapel of Adam, formerly the burial place t f the 

Kings of Jerusalem : in which are seen, besides the 
two Tombs already mentioned, six other Tombs : 
one without an Inscription, said to belong to 
Melchisidech. The others have the names of 
Baldwin 2, 3, 4, and j, and of Almerian ' the ist. 
These were the only Kings who reigned in the City 
of Jerusalem, except Foler dArogio," from the 
year 1099 to 1 186. 

45. Sepulchre of Godfrey of Bouillon. 

46. Sepulchre of Baldwin. 

47. The Altar of this Chapel. 

48. The fissure which is seen in the Chapel of the 

^ ? Amauri. Moore's Journal reads " Almericus." 

^ This is evidently intended to represent Foulques d'Anjou. 


Elevation of the Cross, immediately over the Chapel 
of Adam, which fissure comes down through the 
Rock, and has an Iron Grating. 

49. A Recess in the Rock, in which the Ignorant believe 

that the Skull of Adam is actually deposited. I 
could not find out the origin of this tradition. 

50. A Chapel which is kept for the Superior of the Greek 


51. Stairs by which you descend to the Church of St. 


52. Altar of St. Helena. 

53. Altar dedicated to the Good Robber. 

54. The Episcopal Seat. 

55. A Window, from which you are shown the Place 

where St Helena found the Cross. 
j6. Stairs by [which] you descend to the Place where the 
Cross was found. 

57. The Spot where the Cross was dug out, which, with 

the other two Crosses and the Instruments made use 
of at the Crucifixion, are said to have been hidden 
here : all of which St. Helena dug out. Nicodemus 
is supposed to have buried them here. 

58. The Altar of the Cross, where the Latin Priests 


59. The Altar where the Armenian Priests officiate. 

60. The Chapel of Mary Magdalen. 

61. The Altar of the Holy Sacrament. It receives this 

denomination from the Eucharistical Bread being 
kept there. 

62. The Altar of the Cross, on which there is part of the 

Wood on which our Saviour died. 

63. The Altar of the Flagellation, surrounded by an Iron 

Grating. It contains a part of the Column to which 
our Saviour was tied to be scourged. This is under 
the aforementioned Altar, and takes its name also 
from having been the Place where Prater Bonifacius 
of Ragusa was scourged. He was Guardian of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and repaired it in 1555, as appears 


from an Inscription near it on a Slab of Ash- 
coloured Marble. 

i-NSTATvrv.AN^S. mCAK. 

, DbRagvsio.G.S'.M.SION. 


And a little lower down : 


64. A Cistern. 

65. Convent's Offices and Quarters of the Greeks. 

66. Ten Columns of the Corinthian Order, the Pedestals 

of some of which are formed of the solid Rock, and 
have received their present shape without being 
separated from it. 

67. Six Square Pillars which support the Gallery. 

68. Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre. 

69. Chapel of the Christian Copts. 

' This inscription is amongst those given by Elzearius Horn, 
Icomgraphia^ etc.^ ed. P. H. Golubovich^ Romey 1902. 

In his version which he has copied inaccurately from Quaresmius, 
Elucidatio Terra Sanctis^ Lib. v., the third word is Sepul. . . Whaley*s 
reading agrees with Moore's MS. The Sepulchre [Seputtura) of our Lord 
Jeiui was thoroughly {a fundamento) restored in the year 1555 of the Holy 
Incarnation by and at the expense of Brother Boniface of Ragusa, guardian 
of the Holy Mount Sion. 

2 This is only a portion of the full inscription as set out by Horn 
(see above), and also as given in Moore's Journal. The rest is as 
follows : 


D . O . M . L . 
and he erected this altar to the honour of Christy who was bour.d and scourgea 
at this very pillar which we see here, in the Prestorium of Pilate. Deo 
Optimo Adaximo laus. The word " Columnam *' is found in Moore's 
reading though omitted by Horn and Quaresmius. 


70. Chapel of the Angel. 

71. A Stone which is fixed in the Rock, and is said to 

have been a support to the Great Stone which was 
placed at the Mouth of the Sepulchre, when the 
Body of our Saviour was laid in it ; and on which 
the Priests and Pharisees put their Seals. (St. Math, 
chap. 27.) 

72. Door of the Holy Sepulchre. 

73. The Holy Sepulchre, on entering which you see an 

Excavation made with the Chisel in the solid Rock, 
the Work of Joseph of Arimathea, which he intended 
for his own burying-place. (St. Math. chap. 27, etc.) 
On the right hand in the Holy Sepulchre you observe 
a Tomb, formed of two Slabs of white Marble, one 
in the front, placed perpendicularly on its Side ; the 
other on the top in an horizontal position, as a Lid. 
These are fastened to the Rock, and form what is 
now called the Tomb of our Saviour. Over this 
was a Representation of his Resurrection : but this 
is entirely spoiled by the smoke of the Lamps, which 
have not been extinguished for Centuries. About 
the year 155 J, the Tomb was opened, and it is said 
that some bloody Linen was found. The length of 
this place is about nine feet, and the vacant space 
before the Tomb three feet and an half. Not more 
than two people can enter it at a time. 
74. The Tomb in which was placed the Body of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ. 

It may be necessary also to remark, that this 
magnificent church has, at different periods, been 
known under various denominations. It was first called 
" Basilica Constantiniana," evidently from the name of 
its founder ; afterwards " New Jerusalem," the " Church 
of the Cross," the " Church of the Holy Sepulchre," 
the " Golgothan Church," and last of all the " Temple 
of the Resurrection." 


Probably it still retains the form in which it was first 
built by Constantine, as the toundations must have been 
originally dug at a vast expense and labour. Though 
the temple has been exposed at different periods to the 
violent attacks of man, the most positive orders having 
been issued for its demolition by Chorac," king of Persia, 
in 614, and by Kakem, Calif of Egypt, four hundred 
years afterwards ; yet some parts resisted their barbarous 
efforts and survived the general devastation which their 
soldiery spread through the city. Those parts which are 
coeval with Constantine may be easily distinguished from 
those of a later date. 

The different parts of this church are splendidly 
lighted by tapers and an amazing number of silver lamps, 
and at particular times there are several lamps of solid 
gold used in the Holy Sepulchre. These are all presents 
from the different Roman Catholic princes ; and I have 
been assured that the plate belonging to the Temple of 
the Resurrection was worth upwards of one hundred 
thousand pounds. 

While we were in the Greek Church a priest was 
delivering a sermon. He spoke with much vehemence 
and energy, and seemed to command the attention of a 
very large assembly, composed mostly of women ; they 
were all veiled, as the Turks will not permit even the Greek 
women to appear abroad with their faces uncovered. The 
concourse of people, always formed at this church, gives 
it more the appearance of a court of justice than the 
sacred place of divine worship. The number of different 
sects, too, which we saw here is really surprising ; the 
Jews only are forbidden to enter the Temple. A little 

^ Intended for Chosroes. 


before my arrival a Jew was found secreting himself in 
the church during the procession of the pilgrims : he 
was instantly dragged into the square before the Temple 
and in a few moments torn to pieces. 

The Porte receives so great a revenue from the taxes 
laid on the pilgrims visiting the Holy Sepulchre that [it] 
is deemed expedient to preserve them from every kind of 
molestation and interruption. The Turks of Jerusalem, 
whenever they enter the Temple conduct themselves 
with the greatest propriety, being convinced that the 
slightest ofFence on their part, being represented by any 
of the priests, would subject them to the severest 

From the Temple of the Resurrection, we went to 
see the Seraglio of the Governor, who resides in the same 
house where Pontius Pilate dwelt when our Saviour was 
crucified. The small room where the crown of thorns 
was platted is now the chamber where the Governor's 
soldiers mount guard. The great council-chamber was 
also shewn us, in which Pilate, to appease the multitude, 
passed sentence on our Lord ; and also the great hall in 
which the soldiers afterwards took him, and mocked him by 
putting on him the scarlet robe and the crown of thorns. 1 

We afterwards went to the house in which Herod 
resided when Pilate sent our Saviour to him,' and passed 
under a very large arch called " Ecce Homo Arch," from 
Pilate having stood there when Jesus came forth with the 
purple robe and crown of thorns, and said to the people, 
Ecce Homo? 

There is a pillar yet standing in the town from which 
it is said that the sentence was made public after being 

1 St. Matt. ch. 27 (marginal note in MS.) 
' St. Luke, ch. 23 (marginal note). ' St. John, ch. 19 (marginal note). 



passed on Jesus. We were also shewn the house of Jairus, 
and many other memorable places, where our Saviour 
performed those miracles recorded in the sacred writings. 

From thence we went to the Armenian Convent, and 
were politely received. This is the richest and most 
extensive in Jerusalem. Its Superior is a bishop and 
vested with great powers. 

He informed me that he had at times lodged one 
thousand pilgrims in the Convent ; but that of late years, 
the impositions, to which they were subjected on the 
roads thro' Arabia, were such, that many had been 
obliged to relinquish their pious intentions of visiting the 
Holy Sepulchre, and consequently that the number of 
pilgrims was greatly diminished. 

There are many ill-executed paintings in the church 
of this convent ; among which is one representing the 
Devil, with our Saviour, on a pinnacle of the Temple, 
tempting him, and another frightful piece, of an extra- 
ordinary size, representing the Day of Judgment. 

We were also shewn within a white marble sepulchre, 
in a glass case, the head or skull of St. John the Baptist. 
This is held as the greatest curiosity of the Holy Land, 
and in a manner worshipped by the CathoHcs. 

I shall leave to those gentlemen, whose pursuits give 
them a peculiar claim to the character of a natural 
philosopher, to determine, how far it may be possible to 
preserve a skull, for a period little short of eighteen 
hundred years : for my own part, I would rather subject 
myself, for ever, to the imputation of weakness, or even 
superstition, than for a moment to lose sight of those 
exalted views, and pleasing hopes, with which faith, or a 
belief of the revealed truths of religion, fill the mind of 


In the evening we walked out of the town, by the 
Gate of St. Stephen and viewed with admiration its ancient 
walls. At a little distance we were shewn the Sepulchres 
of Absalom and King Manasseh, which are close to each 
other in the valley of Jehoshaphat. Absalom died one 
thousand [and] twenty three years before Christ ; and 
though the City, since that period, has been destroyed 
more than fifty times, yet his tomb remains still un- 
molested, and may be considered the oldest piece of 
masonry in the world. 

A little further on we saw the memorable Mount of 
Olives, mentioned in the gospel ; and the spot on which 
Jesus kneeled and prayed, when the angel appeared to 
strengthen him, is distinguished by a kind of building 
erected over it. 

About a stone's throw from hence is Gethsemane, 
where Jesus, after rising from prayer, found his disciples 
asleep ; and you are also shewn the place where Jesus 
was taken by the high priests and elders ; and where 
Peter, drawing the sword, cut off the ear of the servant 
of the high priest. 

Returning another way to the City, we were shown 
the Fountain of Silva, where the blind received their 
sight, and a natural grotto where the disciples concealed 
themselves after Jesus was taken ; another grotto to 
which Peter retired to weep, after he had denied our 
Saviour ; and the place where St. Stephen was stoned. 

From this place, we went to the Chapel of the 
Virgin Mary. To the right you see the Sepulchre of 
Joseph, and opposite to it, that of Anna, the mother of 
the Holy Virgin. Lower down in a little chapel, is the 
sepulchre of the Virgin Mary, which has an altar hung 
with lamps and richly decorated. At the bottom of the 


stairs to the left, there is a very fine well, the water of 
which is said to cure all diseases and work many miracles. 

On returning to the City by the Valley of Jehosha- 
phat, you are shown the ruins of the palace where 
Solomon kept his concubines ; and which you are taught 
to believe was once surrounded by extensive gardens, 
displaying all the beauties of exquisite taste and luxuriant 
fertility ; but at present, this place, as well as the whole 
country round Jerusalem, exhibits nothing but sterility 
and indigence. 

On entering the City we examined a castle where 
the Turks regularly mount guard ; and which, on account 
of its antiquity (being erected by King David), is well 
worth seeing. It is almost the only building that has 
escaped the ravages of the successive wars that have taken 
place. It was from a window in this castle, that King 
David first saw [the] fair Bathsheba, as she was bathing 
in a fountain, which is overlooked by the tower. There 
is a terrace on the top with embrazures ; but it has only 
a few dismounted and useless guns which have remained 
here since the time of the Crusades. 

In an apartment at the top of the castle we saw a 
great number of coats of mail, helmets, breast- and 
shoulder-plates, old spears and some shields, brought 
hither by Richard Coeur de Lion, at the time he under- 
took to take the City from the Saracens, and reduce it 
under the power of the Christians. 

This tower is surrounded by a very deep ditch, has a 
draw-bridge, and is defended below by a few pieces of 
ordnance. And were it not for local disadvantages it 
might, from the thickness and strength of its walls, be a 
safe place of retreat in time of danger. 

Night coming on we returned to the Convent, where 


our friend the Governor always had a good bowl of 
punch a FAngloise ready for us. We acquainted him 
with our intention of visiting Bethlehem the following 
day, in consequence of which he gave orders to have 
mules and Janissaries ready for the journey. 

Accordingly, we set out at six in the morning and 
our guides shewed us the most remarkable places on our 
way to Bethlehem. 

On the south-west of Jerusalem there is a valley, 
called the Valley of the Giants, or of Raphaim, famous 
for the defeat of the Philistines, who were twice over- 
thrown here by David. At a little distance to the left 
is a small eminence with some ruins on it. It is called 
Moris Mali Consilii from the first council having met here 
to deliberate on taking and putting to death our Saviour. 
Near this is the valley where the angel of the Lord slew, 
in one night, one hundred and eighty-five thousand 
soldiers of the army of Sennacherib King of Assyria, 
who came in the reign of Hezekiah to take the City of 

In this valley are still the ruins of the tower in which 
Simon lived, who received Jesus when a child from the 
arms of the Virgin Mary, in the Temple of Jerusalem. 
We passed the valley called Terebinthus ; and were shown 
the spot, where Mary sat down under the Terebinthus 
tree, when she was carrying Jesus from Bethlehem to 
the Temple. We saw in the environs the ruins of the 
house where Joseph was warned by the angel, to 
" arise and take the young child and his mother and flee 
into Egypt." 

Being now within a mile of Bethlehem, we deter- 
mined on examining its environs before we went to the 
Convent. We therefore turned to the right, and stopped 


at a place called Fons Signatus, the entrance to which is 
a narrow cave, through which a man can with diiEculty 
make his way. After having descended, you find two 
chambers in the rock, vaulted over with square stones. 
One of them is forty-eight by twenty-seven feet ; the 
other forty-two by twenty-seven. On the western side 
are three grottos, from each of which runs a small stream 
of pure water, which unite in one channel of about six 
feet wide and six feet deep : they again separate, and one 
flows into a fountain ; the second follows the inclination to 
the Fishponds or Cisterns erected by Solomon, and the 
third is conveyed by an aqueduct to the City of Jerusalem. 

Not far from the Fons Signatus is a castle, the lower 
part of the walls of which are of Solomon's time ; but 
the superstructure is of a much later date. Close to it is 
the first of the Cisterns, one hundred and ninety yards 
long, and one hundred and eight broad. The second, 
somewhat lower, is two hundred and twenty-nine yards 
in length, and one hundred and thirty-nine in breadth. 
And the third, which is still lower, measures two hundred 
and eighty-six by one hundred [and] twenty-three yards. 
These were, formerly, constantly full, but the Fons 
Signatus, from which they were supplied, does not at 
present yield sufficient water. Their depth is from forty 
to fifty feet. They have been cut out of the solid rock, 
and their sides are covered with a cement of a substance 
so hard, that it has withstood the force of water for so 
many centuries. 

These extraordinary basins are situated in the centre 
of a valley one below the other ; so that the overflowings 
of the first are received by the second, and afterwards by the 
third successively. They are not level at the bottom, but 
cut out or indented like steps from the sides to the centre. 


This wonderful work is reckoned among those great 
undertakings which distinguish the reign of the richest 
and wisest of monarchs : and the Ponds are the same that 
are mentioned in Eccles. Ch. 2. V. 5 & 6. 

After a quarter of an hour's ride from the Ponds, in 
the same valley, you arrive at a place called Hortus 
Conclusus, mentioned in the Psalms. Near the Cisterns 
is the source of an aqueduct, which receiving a part of 
the waters of Fom Signafus conveys it for upwards of ten 
miles, through various winding passages, to the City of 

About eleven o'clock we arrived at the ancient town 
of Bethlehem of Judea : so called to distinguish it from 
another Bethlehem in Galilee, in the tribe of Zebulon. 

It first came into the hands of the Christians in the 
year 1099, when Tancred was detached from the army of 
Godfroy de Bouillon to take it. After the loss of 
Jerusalem in 1 1 87 it was again abandoned by them, and 
has since been under the Saracen or Turkish government, 
but has always been inhabited by Christians. 

We alighted at the Convent of the Terra Sancta, and 
the Padre Guardiano^ received us with politeness and paid 
us the most friendly attention. 

As you approach the town, the Convent presents the 
appearance of a most venerable ruin. You pass through 
a gate-way, which is at present in its last stage of ruin, 
though originally of immense thickness. From this 
gate-way, you go along a large terrace, on which formerly 
stood a magnificent piazza supported by marble columns. 

You afterwards arrive at the church, which has three 
doors, chiefly built as a security against the Arabs. In 

1 " A Venetian His name was Serafino di Chiavari." — Hugh 

Moore's Journal. 


the centre, or middle door, is an aperture, through which 
one person only can enter at a time. This opening is 
secured by an iron door of great thickness, capable of 
resisting any force but that of gunpowder. It leads you 
to a great hall with two doors, one opening to the 
Armenian Convent, and the other to the church called 
Basilica di Santa Maria. On entering this church the 
traveller is struck with surprise to find himself in a noble 
edifice of exquisite workmanship. 

It is divided into five aisles, by four rows of superb 
columns of white marble with red veins, the produce of 
the neighbouring hills of Judea. Their capitals are of 
statuary marble, of the Corinthian order, executed in the 
most masterly manner. The beams which rest on the 
columns and support the superstructure, are of the cedar 
of Mount Lebanus, of immense dimensions, and astonish- 
ingly well preserved. The roof has suffered much at 
different periods ; but most of the cedar beams have 
remained entire since the death of our Lord, and the 
whole roof is now covered with lead. The altar is in 
the centre, and raised some steps above the floor of 
the church : behind the altar you descend by semi- 
circular steps to the grotto where our Saviour was born. 
There are three altars in this cavern, now a church, the 
Great Altar, the Altar of the Wise Men, and the Altar of 
the Circumcision of our Lord. 

The walls were formerly ornamented with inlaid 
slabs of the finest marble ; but a Sultan of Egypt tore them 
down and carried them to Cairo to adorn his seraglio. 
The floor was Hkewise finished with the same ornamental 
slabs as the sides ; but now consists only of the uneven 
rock. At the eastern extremity is a small grotto, the 
spot where our Saviour was born. 


This place, which was once a stable, is now superbly 
ornamented with different coloured marbles. In the 
centre is the Table of the Altar, and under it you are 
shewed the spot where the child was found, which still 
resembles a manger or stone basin. There is a star in it, 
whose centre is porphyry, surrounded with rays of silver, 
and studded with precious stones as a memorial of the 
star which conducted the Wise Men to the place where 
Jesus lay. Under it is written the following motto. 

Hie de Virgine Maria 
Jesus Christus natus est. 


The surface of the altar is an ancient table represent- 
ing the birth of our Saviour. Joseph and the Virgin 
are in the attitude of kneeling and worshipping him, 
while he lies smiling on a bundle of straw. In the 
clouds is seen a group of angels, holding a scroll in their 
hands, on which is written " Gloria in excelsis Deo." In 
the back ground is the angel announcing the birth to the 

The religionists of the Holy Land had the exclusive 
right of resorting to this sanctuary, but for some years 
past the Greeks have been allowed the same privilege. 
Near the Altar of the Manger is a painting representing 
the Magi offering their gifts. This grotto is of an 
irregular form, and is about ten feet every way. The 
length of the other from the eastern extremity to the 
western door is upwards of fifty feet. In the centre of 
the ceiling are hung a row of lamps, the gifts of different 
European Catholic princes. This place is held in very 
high estimation by the Mahommetans, who profess the 


greatest veneration for our Saviour and for the Virgin 
Mary. And though they do not acknowledge Jesus 
Christ to be the Son of God, yet they allow him to be 
the greatest Prophet of all prophets, conceived by the 
breath of God in the womb of the Virgin Mary. They 
acknowledge his miracles ; adding that he foretold the 
coming of Mahomet. 

They believe that in the day of the resurrection we 
shall be judged in the presence of God, by three persons, 
namely, Moses, Jesus Christ and Mahomet ; and that 
each of them will judge his own sectaries. 

The Mahommetans are permitted to come here to 
pray, which they have been known to do in cases of 
extreme distress, or in times of public calamity. When 
they enter the sanctuary they uncover their heads and 
proceed barefooted, with apparent awe and veneration. 

The Emperor Adrian, when he had reduced Judea 
to a Roman Province, placed images of the heathen gods 
in all those places which the Christians held most sacred ; 
supposing that after having been polluted by idols, they 
never would renew their worship there. He placed the 
image of Venus in the spot where our Saviour was born. 

These subterraneous grottos branch out into different 
parts which have been dedicated to various persons 
buried here. You descend by five steps into the Cave 
of the Innocents, from whence there is a narrow passage 
leading to a chasm in the rock, into which it is said the 
bodies of the children were thrown after they had been 
put to death by order of Herod. 

There is a very large terrace on the top of the 
Convent, from which you have a most extensive view 
of the surrounding country. On a clear day the Dead 
Sea may be discovered. I expressed my desire to the 


Superior of visiting it, and other places in the neighbour- 
hood, but he only corroborated the opinion of the Holy 
Fathers of Jerusalem, by pointing out the insurmountable 
difficulties that stood in the way. All which I should 
have braved, were I not circumscribed in respect to time. 
I was bound, by my contract with the captain of our ship 
at St. John De Acre, to be back in twelve days from the 
day I left the ship, under a very heavy penalty. I assured 
the Superior, that ere long I would pay him another 
visit, and should then be prepared, with a strong guard 
to proceed to Sodom and Gomorrah, which is only 
twenty miles from Bethlehem. 

There are some very large Cisterns under the Convent, 
constructed by King David, and the whole monastery is 
surrounded by a very strong wall. From the manner in 
which it is built, it resembles a fortified place, and in 
certain cases might hold out a long siege. 

The town of Bethlehem is built on the southern side 
of a most barren mountain ; and at present only consists 
of a few houses. 

The inhabitants are all Christians or at least call them- 
selves so. They are supposed to be the bravest race of 
people in the Holy Land, and have twice repulsed the 

A few years ago the Bashaw of Acre having sent a 
little army to carry off the heads of all the inhabitants, 
the people of the town assembled to the number of about 
five hundred and made so brave a defence that the greater 
part of the Bashaw's soldiers were cut to pieces. 

These people are very poor, and the country is nothing 
but rocks and stones : so that they could not possibly sub- 
sist, were it not for a manufactory of beads and crosses, 
which they sell as relics to the Catholic countries of 


Europe. These relics are made of mother-of-pearl, which 
is found in great quantities in the sea near Acre, and of a 
sort of hard red wood. 

We were attended all the morning by these innocent 
men ; and at one an excellent dinner was prepared for us, 
consisting of at least thirty dishes. These good friars left 
us to enjoy it, and retired to sing hymns before they sat 
down to their scanty meal ; it being Lent time, which 
they observe very strictly. After dinner we went to see 
the different cells and other inhabited parts of the 
Convent, all which are kept very neat and in excellent 

Before we returned to Jerusalem, I promised my spy- 
glass to the Superior, as a small token of the high sense I 
entertained of his politeness and attention ; and though 
he at first refused it, it was evident that he felt happier in 
accepting it than if I had given him the finest Arabian 

In two hours we found ourselves back again at 
Jerusalem, and heartily thanked the Superior for the 
friendly reception he had procured for us at Bethlehem. 

The next day we had several remarkable places to 
examine. On leaving the Convent, we were shewn the 
spot where the house of Zebedee, the father of St. John, 
once stood. It is now a Greek church. The Virgin 
Mary and St. John the Evangelist remained here during 
the Crucifixion of our Saviour. 

We afterwards went to the Church of St. James, 
which belongs to the Armenians. It is lighted by a 
very beautiful dome, and is said to be the place where 
St. James was beheaded. Three very remarkable stones 
are seen here. The first is that against which Moses 
broke the twelve [.? two] Tables, the second, that which was 


on Mount Tabor at the Transfiguration of Jesus Christ, 
and the third was in the River Jordan at the place where 
John baptized our Lord. 

We passed through the Gate of Mount Sion, or Gate 
of David, where we saw the foundations of the house 
where the Virgin Mary died, after having lived there four- 
teen years. The two venerable priests who accompanied 
us spoke of those places with such profound veneration 
as shewed how implicitly they believed what they had 
related of them to us. 

Near it is the Church of Mount Sion, now a mosque, 
built before the place where the Holy Ghost descended 
on the apostles ; and where Jesus Christ administered the 
sacrament to his disciples and washed their feet. 

At a little distance is the house of Caiaphas, where 
St. Peter denied his Master. Part of the pedestal on 
which the cock crew is still remaining, and a marble 
cock placed on it. 

We re-entered the City and went to see the Temple 
of the Dedication, so called because it was here our Lord 
was dedicated to God, and Simon took him up in his 
arms, and said " Lord now lettest thou thy Servant 
depart in peace, according to thy word, etc."i There is 
here a column of vast dimensions in full preservation, 
which, I think, is one of the most curious pieces of 
antiquity in Jerusalem. 

From thence we went to see the Hospital of 
St. Helena, which has been preserved entire, and is still 
used [as] an hospital for the poor Turks. 

The following day we began our excursion through 
the Street of the Cross. We saw the spot where our 

1 St. Luke, ch. ii., v. 29, 30 (marginal note). 


Saviour was whipt, which formerly was part of the 
House of Pilate. 

Near this is the arch where Pilate produced Jesus to 
the people with his body lacerated, saying Ecce Homo. 
This arch extends from one side of the street to the 
other, under which are written these words, " Tolle, Tolle, 
Crucifige Eum." 

Farther on is a little door, thro' which the Virgin 
Mary saw her Son pass, carrying the cross, and the place 
where he fell under its weight, when it was placed on 
the shoulders of Simon the Cyrenean. 

The place was afterwards shewed us where the house 
of the poor man Lazarus stood ; as also the palace of 
the rich man. We were likewise shewed the spot where 
stood the house of Veronica, on whose handkerchief the 
image of Christ was imprinted when she wiped the 
sweat from his brow. Lastly we saw the Door of Con- 
demnation, through which Christ was led to Mount 
Calvary to be crucified. In the middle of this door the 
column still remains on which his sentence was stuck up. 
Here ends the Street of the Cross, which is about one 
thousand paces from the House of Pilate. 

Having now seen and examined all the antiquities 
and curiosities of Jerusalem, we did not wish to delay 
our departure one moment. The Superior was much 
affected, and actually shed tears on hearing our determi- 
nation to set out for St. John De Acre that very night, 
nor did he give up his arguments and entreaties to induce 
us to spend a few days more with him, until I explained 
to him the agreement between me and the captain of our 
ship. Upon which he immediately gave orders that we 
should be furnished with a sufficiency of provisions for 
our journey. 


He had heard, he said, that I was making a collection 
of medals, and at the same time shewed me several, 
which excited my admiration ; and [I] felt a mixture of 
pleasure and surprise, when he insisted that I should 
accept them. They consisted of ten gold ones, and 
several of silver and brass. He assured me that he had 
been thirty years collecting his medals, and that these he 
gave me were the best he met with. In return for 
which, I presented him with a very costly spy-glass, and 
a curious case of pistols, which with much difficulty I 
persuaded him to accept. 

I had now some very material business to settle with 
this good gentleman before I took my final leave ; and 
therefore took this opportunity of requesting that he 
would give me a certificate, properly drawn up, signed 
and witnessed, stating the time of our arrival at Jerusalem; 
as a proof of my having visited that celebrated City, to 
be produced to my friends in Ireland. 

This innocent man never inquired further into the 
motives of this particular request, but soon after delivered 
me a paper which contained a certificate, that I had 
visited Jerusalem,^ religionis gratia : I really was pleased at 
the opinion this worthy man entertained of us ; and felt 
a little inward shame, from a consciousness of demerit in 
this respect. He wished us every happiness this world 
could bestow ; and hoped that the Almighty would 
further strengthen our pious resolution of revisiting the 
Holy Land. We received the Reverend Father's bene- 
diction with becoming humility and gratitude ; and two 
hours after sunset began to proceed on our way to 
Napolosa,^ which is fifteen hours' ride from Jerusalem. 

^ See note next page. 
^ Neapolts. 



Ego infrascriptus Guardianus hujus Conventns S. Mariae fidem facio 
omnibus et singulis has literas inspecturis, D. D. Thomasum Whaley et 
Hugh Moore fuisse, et habitasse duabus vicibus in hac Civitate 
Nazareh spatio trium dierum. in quorum fide etc. 

Datum in eadem Civitate Nazareh. 

Die 5'°. Martis, A.D. 1789. 

F. Archangelus ab Interaq. guar^ et sup^ 


/, the undersigned Guardian of this Convent of St. Afary, certify to all 
and singular who may read these presents^ that Messrs. Thomas Whaley and 
Hugh Moore have^ on two occasions, been present and resided in this City of 
Nazareth for the space of three days^ in witness whereof- — 

Given in the ^ City of Nazareth 
Sth March 1789. 
Brother Archangel of Entraigues^ Guardian and Superior. 

^ The document as here set out is taken from the original which, with 
its seal attached, is pasted into Hugh Moore's MS. (see Reproduction). It 
is probable that both Whaley and Moore received separate certificates, as 
the copy given in Whaley's MS. differs in some unimportant particulars 
from the form printed above. See Appendix. 

2 I am informed by Rev. Thos. A. O'Reilly, O.S.F., Dublin, that it 
was the custom for Franciscans to drop their family names and adopt 
instead the names of their places of birth ; and that under the rule of the 
Order different nationalities were represented in the government of the 
convents of the Holy Land. The Guardian who signed the Certificate 
was born apparently at Entraigues in France — Latin, Interaquiae — although 
he is described in Hugh Moore's Journal as an Italian. 



Inifauun^q -ffK COrtff^na/ iUiarMi a,-fy^l„fy , 



Departure from Jerusalem — Attacked by Arabs — Napolosa' — Its Governor 
— Its Various Names and Revolutions — Origin of the Samaritans — 
Difficulties in Leaving Napolosa — Character of the Arabs — Arrival 
at St. John of Acre — CaifFa. 

He only, who has encountered dangers and difficulties, 
and groaned under the pressure of hunger and fatigue, 
may be said to know the inestimable blessings of personal 
security, ease and comfort. This, and the like reflections, 
filled my mind for a considerable time after I had turned 
my back to Jerusalem. The idea of having now accom- 
plished what appeared to most of my friends insuperable, 
gave an unusual flow to my spirits, which was still 
encreased by the cheerfulness and vivacity of my friend 

and fellow traveller, Mr. M ,'' whose sympathizing 

soul participated my felicity. 

The day was remarkably warm, the country around us 
delightful and the road good, and we travelled at our ease, 
without interruption till we got within six miles of 
Napolosa. It was about two in the afternoon, and not 

supposing we had anything to fear at this hour, M ' 

and I had advanced with our two Arabian chiefs ; leaving 
servants and conductors, six in number, behind together 
with our baggage. 

We had not proceeded half a mile farther, when we 
were saluted by twenty Arabs, who appeared much better 
armed than they usually are. We did not suspect them 
for any hostile intentions towards us ; but in less than 
ten minutes after they had passed us, we had reason to 

1 Neapolis, modern NabWs. ^ Hugh Moore. 



alter our opinion of them. For on hearing Pauolo 
suddenly set up his Persian warwhoop, we looked about, 
and to our astonishment saw, at the distance of half a 
mile, some of the Arabs leading our two camels away, 
while others were beating our guides most unmercifully. 
Pauolo, armed with a blunderbuss and a case of pistols, 
wisely contented himself with acting on the defensive till 
we came up. 

We made all possible haste to his assistance. Our 

two Arabs, who were better mounted than M 1 or 

myself, arrived first, and rushed into the middle of the 
band, desiring us on no account to fire, or advance 
nearer to the robbers, who, when they saw us approach- 
ing, sent ten of their gang to surround us. 

This they did so effectually, as to leave us no way of 
escaping. They still continued advancing till they were 
within four yards of us ; when the Chief ordered us to 
lay down our arms, menacing instant death to every 
individual of us, in case of refusal or hesitation. Thus 
situated, opposition on our part would bespeak the 
highest degree of temerity. For, though we might, in 
case of a rencounter, kill and wound many of them, and 
even make our escape from the field ; yet, from the 
great superiority of their number to ours, we must have 
fallen a sacrifice to them in the end. Therefore, with 
hearts burning with stifled indignation, we submitted to 
our fate and obeyed the imperious command. 

The advanced party still kept us closely hemmed. I 

had three guns levelled at my breast and M ^ as 

;many ; all the rest of our party, except our two chiefs, 
were severely bastinadoed. At length, our chiefs, after 
isome altercation with the captain of the robbers, pre- 
vailed on him to restore us one of our camels ; and 
' Moore. 


fortunately for us, the robber chose for himself the one 
that was heavier laden, which carried only our provisions 
and kitchen utensils. 

Having thus escaped without personal injury, or the 
loss of our valuables, we proceeded to Napolosa ^ as fast 
as we could, in hopes that the Governor would send a 
party of soldiers after the robbers, and take them before 
they got at too great a distance. 

This city, now called Napolosa,^ was the ancient and 
celebrated city of Sichem, which is particularly noticed 
in Holy Writ. It was here [Simeon] and Levi, sons of 
Jacob, massacred in one night all the male inhabitants of 
the city, with Emer their King and Sichem his son, at 
a time when they were all suffering under a severe indis- 
position, from circumcision. This they did to be 
revenged on Sichem for having violated their sister 
Dinah. Some centuries after, this city was totally 
destroyed by Abimelech the natural son of Gideon. It 
was afterwards rebuilt by Jeroboam, and called Mamorta,^ 
afterwards Naples, and since Napolosa. It is situated in 
the Province of Samaria, which took its name from the 
Assyrian colonies [? colonists] which Sennacherib, a king 
of the Chaldeans [? Assyrians] sent thither to keep the 
Jews in subjection. 

These tribes were afterwards called Samaritans, which 
signifies guardians ; and the Jews, ignorant of the true 
meaning of the word, when they wished to calumniate 
Jesus Christ, called him Samaritan, not knowing that it 
implied " guardian " or " keeper." Our Saviour replied, 
that he did not deny he was a Samaritan and the true 
keeper of the faithful. 

1 See p. 225 anti, n. 

* The native name in the time of Josephus was Mabortha. Pliny uses 
the form Mamortha. 

Q 2 


The gallop we had given our mules had so tired 
them, that we did not reach the town in less than two 
hours. We immediately waited on the Governor, told 
him our disaster, and sued for redress. He seemed 
struck with astonishment ; changed colour several times, 
and instantly ordered all the Shaiks and Chiefs of the 
different tribes to be called together ; and addressed 
them in our presence, in a short, but energetic speech, 
pointing out the enormity of the crime ; emphatically 
observing that we were Englishmen, the best of the 
Christian race, the only men of that persuasion who 
kept their word, and did not worship images. He said 
that we were the friends of the Grand Signior, and that 
our king wished well to the Turks. He concluded by 
assuring the Shaiks that total destruction awaited their 
town if our goods were [not] found and restored before 
sunset ; adding that the Bashaw of St. John of Acre 
would be glad of this pretext to send an army of twenty 
thousand men to pillage and lay waste the town and 

This speech had the desired effect ; for one of the 
Shaiks advanced and informed the Governor that the 
people who robbed us belonged to him ; and pledged his 
beard that he would have our effects restored in a few 
hours, at the same time swearing by Mahomet, that if 
they did not he would destroy every man, woman, and 
child in the village. After this he ordered several of his 
followers to prepare themselves, and almost in an instant 
appeared on horseback, at the head of a little troop, well 
armed with lances and pistols. 

As we were in great haste, we proposed to leave some 
of our conductors behind, to wait for the camel, while we 
went on in the cool of the evening. But the Governor 
advised us by no means to attempt it ; observing, that 


these people were so much afraid of our complaining to 
Jedzar Bashaw of Acre, that in order to prevent it, they 
would follow us, and put every man of us to death. 

This information alarmed us very much ; so that we 
now wished, from our hearts, that we had tacitly 
submitted to the trifling loss we had sustained, rather 
than by seeking redress to excite the malignity of our 
enemies. But if the Governor's remonstrance had 
alarmed us, what must be our consternation, when, at 
our return to our lodging, we were informed by our host, 
that the people of the town, who had heard of our being 
robbed, and [ofj the vast treasure contained in the hampers 
we had lost, now, finding that all were to be restored to 
us, felt so much disappointed and chagrined at the loss 
of such a booty, that they had vowed vengeance against 
us, and sworn that they would waylay us, and that 
nothing but our lives and property should satisfy them. 

We were still more alarmed at this intelligence on 
recollecting that in the year 1785 a Dutch gentleman 
and his suite had been cut to pieces in this very 
neighbourhood, after being robbed of every species of 
property he had then on him, which was of immense 
value : and we were given to understand, that in the 
general opinion of those plunderers, our treasure fell 
little short of the unfortunate Dutch gentleman's. 

We expressed our apprehensions to the Governor, 
assuring him that we had no treasure ; but at the same 
time declared, that in case of a second attack, we should 
prove to our enemies, that no Arab regarded less his 
life than we did, and that we were determined to sell 
ours at the dearest rate. 

He replied that he entertained no doubt of the 
courage of the English, who, next to the Arabs, were 
the most warlike and courageous nation : and he highly 


commended the recent instance of our cool and steady 
conduct, in forbearing to fire on the robbers : for had we 
acted otherwise, and they could reach the town before 
us, it would be impossible to protect us from the fury 
of their numerous and powerful tribe. 

We were obliged to remain here till about noon the 
following day, when the Shaik returned successful from 
his expedition, having brought with him our camel 
and all our effects : even the provisions were returned 
untouched, as they found a ham among them, of which 
the Arabs are, by their doctrine, strictly forbidden to eat.^ 
Strange ! and unaccountable, that any doctrine or precept 
should influence the conduct of vile wretches who 
deemed it no crime to plunder us, or even to take away 
our lives, if they could have done it with impunity. 

Nothing remained now to be done but to deliberate 
and determine on what should appear to us the best mode 
of making our escape from this diabolical country. We 
endeavoured to convince the Governor as well as the 
Arabs, that so far from possessing a treasure, we had no 
more money about us than what was barely sufficient to 
take us to St. John of Acre ; and yet little as it was, that 
we would part with it only with our lives. To shew that 
this was our determination, we loaded our arms afresh, 
and also thought it prudent to conceal from our enemies 
the time we had fixed for our departure : to which end, 
we openly declared our intention of setting out at six the 

^ This story was told by Mr. Hugh Moore, after his return to Ireland, 
to the Bishop of Dromore, who related it shortly afterwards to his corre- 
spondent, Dr. Michael Lort, Greek Professor at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. The latter, when replying to the Bishop's letter, writes under 
date June 16, 1790 : " The bacon anecdote is quite new to me ; I did not 
know before it could occasionally prove so ^ood an amulet : but somebody 
tells me there is something similar to it in Bruce ; and if this should be one 
of the many incidents in those Travels whose authenticity is questioned, 
Mr. Whaley's authority may be brought to support it." Nichol's Illm- 
trations of Literature, vii. 510. See ibid. p. 509. 


next morning, but privately made our arrangements so as 
to depart by midnight ; which we could do unobserved, 
as it fortunately happened our lodging was close to the 
Gate of the town. 

The Governor gave us two of his men to accompany 
us ; and pledged his life that they would defend us to the 
last drop of their blood. We therefore set out at twelve 
from this inhospitable and dangerous town, expecting 
that by this plan we should give them the slip. We 
sent Pauolo before us to reconnoitre, and having met 
with no interruption we were in a few minutes beyond 
the precincts of Napolosa. 

The night, for the first two hours, was remarkably 
serene, and we made the most of our time, riding at the 
rate of about four miles an hour. Our Napolosa men 

rode in front ; next came M ^ and I, and our servants 

and guides followed us with our baggage. But at half- 
past two the night in a moment became so dark that we 
could scarcely see each other : fortunately one of our 
guides rode a grey mule, and this circumstance enabled me 
to distinguish and keep close to him. Immediately the 
rain began to pour in such torrents that we were soon 
wet to the skin. In addition to our distress and perplexity 
we found that we had lost our way and one of our guides. 

The loss or absence of our guide at this critical 
moment was not only severely felt, but also created in 
our minds the strongest suspicions of treachery on his 
part, and that he had thus absconded for the purpose of 
joining his accomplices and putting in execution some 
premeditated plan for our destruction. 

My passion, in a short time overcame my fears ; and 
riding up to the guide who spoke Italian I desired him 
1 Moore. 


to tell the Napolosa guard that as his companion had 
so shamefully deserted, I was convinced they meant to 
betray us. That should we be stopped, I was determined 
to risk my life in the contest : but that before the 
rencounter, I should certainly have the pleasure of 
blowing his brains out. 

The poor fellow declared his innocence, and that 
he would answer for his companion. He swore that 
he would sooner lose his head than betray us, and only 
wished for an opportunity of shewing me his steadiness 
and bravery in my defence in case of an attack. This 
somewhat pacified me ; but I by no means wished him 
such an opportunity of testifying his fidelity. 

The darkness seemed still to increase, and for some 
time we remained in a dreadful sort of suspense. The 
dread of losing our way, if we still continued our dreary 
march, was succeeded by apprehensions no less terrifying, 
for our safety, in case we attempted to halt. In this 
hopeless situation, what could equal our joy on hearing, 
at some distance, the barking of dogs, which naturally 
led us to conclude that we were not far from some house 
or village. 

It was unanimously agreed, that we should endeavour 
to direct our course towards the place from whence the 
cheering signal was heard ; and in order to induce a 
repetition of it, I desired Pauolo to sing one of his war 
songs. His melancholy ditty had the desired effect ; 
and the dogs thus continuing their harmonious accom- 
paniment, directed our steps to a small village, where 
we were glad to rest our weary limbs for a couple of 

We took shelter in a most miserable hut. The land- 
lord informed us, that, about a league farther on, there 


was an encampment of a wandering savage tribe, who, 
had we fallen into their hands, would have plundered us 
of everything ; and not only taken our mules, but stript 
us quite naked. In our way to Jerusalem we narrowly 
escaped those very plunderers, through the vigilance of 
the honest soldier of Ibrahim, who having previously 
informed himself of every danger incidental to the 
journey, took us by another road to avoid them ; and the 
same precaution was now, on our part, absolutely 

In less than half an hour after our arrival at this place 
we were joined by our lost guide. His disappearing 
from us was merely accidental ; he and his horse having 
fallen into a pond or pit full of water, out of which he 
with much difficulty extricated himself, and hearing the 
barking of dogs, was almost instinctively led to follow 
our steps to the village. 

We remained in the house of this friendly Arab till 
six in the morning, when we again mounted, and 
pursued our journey. I gave him three piasters for our 
two hours lodging, during which we were obliged to 
sleep in our wet cloaths, and were assailed on all sides by 
a species of Arabian vermin, resembling those on 
European sheep, and full as large. 

By nine we were in the district of Nazareth, where 
the people, owing to Ibrahim's good government, seem 
to regulate their conduct on the principles of true 
honour and integrity. Here we dismissed our Napolosa 
men, and at twelve arrived at Nazareth ; but so 
exhausted with fatigue and anxiety, that we found our- 
selves quite incapable of proceeding on our journey, and 
therefore yielded to the solicitations of the Friars, to 
spend the remainder of the day with them, and to set 


off early the next morning for St. John of Acre, whither 
the Procurator, who had some business to transact with 
the Bashaw, Jedzar, promised to accompany us. 

In the evening the Governor^ paid us a visit, and 
favoured us with his company for upwards of two hours, 
during which, the conversation turned on various sub- 
jects, on each of which he dehvered his sentiments with 
perspicuity and judgment. 

He promised me his assistance in getting the finest 
Arabian horse he knew, in respect of pedigree : but that 
his price was enormous, being set at no less than ten 
thousand piasters. He himself would willingly give 
eight, but his friend would not part [with] him for less 
than ten. I took the address of the man who possessed 
this valuable horse, who proved to be the Governor of 
Caiffa, where I resolved to go immediately after my 
arrival at Acre. 

The conversation then turned from the horses to 
their masters. Jedzar Bashaw was the principal subject. 
Ibrahim informed us that this man had more authority 
in this country than the Grand Signior had in Constanti- 
nople. Indeed, from his account, I may venture to say, 
that in ancient or modern history we do not meet with 
a more despotic prince, or one who has so unfeelingly 
exercised every species of tyranny, cruelty and injustice 
over his fellow creatures. 

Ibrahim pays the Governor of St. John, in annual 
taxes, the enormous sum of fifteen thousand purses or one 
million sterling. He spoke to us in the most open and 
unreserved manner, respecting the character of his 
countrymen ; a sketch of which may not appear wholly 
uninteresting to my readers. 

^ Ibrahim Calousse. 


The Arabs in general are by no means so ferocious or 
barbarous as they are represented to us. There are many 
very estimable characters among them. The Bedouins, 
or Arabs of Arabia Deserta, have no fixed habitation : 
they live under tents, which they carry from one place 
to another, according to the wants of their flocks, which 
consist of sheep and goats. They pride themselves so 
much on their nobility, that they hold the exercise of all 
mechanical arts in the utmost contempt, and prefer 
predatory excursions on horseback. In summer they live 
on the heights, in order to be able to discover the 
travellers, whom they intend to rob. In winter they 
direct their course towards the south as far as Cesarea. 
Their tents are made of goat's hair, woven together and 
died in black. 

Their principal chiefs are called Emirs : next in rank 
are the Shaiks, whose authority extends over a smaller 
number of Arabs. These people, though living chiefly 
by plunder, are neither cruel or wicked : on the contrary 
they are known to exercise the most generous acts of 
hospitality and benevolence to those who fall in their 
way, and whose distress seems to claim their protection. 

They follow the religion of Mahomet ; are, or at least 
affect to be, more devout than the Turks, and are much 
more superstitious. If an Arab kills another Arab, all 
friendship is at an end between the two families and their 
posterity, until the injury be expiated by the blood of one 
of the offending family, or a reconciliation obtained by 
the payment of a large sum of money. 

They respect their beards almost to adoration : the 
wives kiss those of their husbands, and the men mutually 
kiss each other's beards in token of friendship and 
esteem. They are passionately fond of horses, and 


manifest their pride and ostentation in keeping the finest 
and dearest. 

The Bedouins, as well as the Turks, are not allowed 
to wear green in any part of their apparel. They have 
in general very forbidding countenances ; and in all my 
journey through this part of Arabia, I did not meet with 
even one handsome woman. 

We felt ourselves much obliged to Ibrahim for his 
kind and instructive conversation, and took our leave, 
with professions of friendship, gratitude and esteem. The 
good Friars of the Convent kept us company till evening, 
and persuaded me to accept of several valuable presents, 
with some very curious antiques and Grecian and 
Egyptian medals. 

The following day we were very early on the road, 
accompanied by the reverend father and our guides. We 
had a most agreeable ride, and arrived at St. John of 
Acre by four in the afternoon. We took up our lodgings 
at the Chan, which is a very large square building, of 
four stories, divided into numerous apartments. The first 
story is used as warehouses ; and the second is occupied 
by Europeans, most of whom are French. 

The next day, we waited on the Governor, who 
received us with all that kind of politeness and pompous 
ceremony peculiar to Asiatic grandees. After a short 
audience we withdrew, and took a nearer view of the 
city. It was formerly called Ptolemais, from the name 
of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who is supposed to have 
been its founder. It was then one of the most con- 
siderable towns of all the East : nothing now remains 
but a few houses, and some very curious ruins. I took 
a sketch of the one that most attracted my attention ; it 
is of Gothic architecture and appears to have been once 

CAIFFA. 237 

a temple. At a distance you discover Mount Carmel, 
the Convent of the Carmelites on the opposite side, and 
the village of CaifFa near the sea-shore. 

CaifFa,^ which the Turks and Arabs know by the 
name of KafFas, being only three leagues distant from 
hence, and the time which our captain had granted us 
not being expired, I determined to go there the next day 
in order to get a view of the fine horse so much extolled 
by Ibrahim. In short I was determined, if possible, to 
purchase this admirable quadruped, not only for my own 
gratification ; but chiefly with a view of improving our 
breed of horses in Ireland. 

On our arrival at CaifFa I sent Pauolo to the 
Governor, to know if I would be permitted to see the 
horse he meant to dispose of; to which he returned me 
a very polite answer, assuring me I should have an 
opportunity of seeing and examining him as often as I 
pleased, before I had finally determined on being the 

I was accordingly conducted [to] the place where this 
rare animal stood ; and truly nothing but the pencil of 
Apelles could do him justice. His price was ten thousand 
piasters ; and it would be a kind of insult to offer less, to 
this inflexible Turk. I therefore gave him a letter of 
exchange on Smyrna, and sent the horse to Acre with 
orders to [have] him put on board my vessel there. 

CaifFa is situated to the north of Mount Carmel, and 
was once a celebrated place. The grottos cut in the solid 
rock where the Prophets Elisha and Elias used to live, are 
still shewn. This mountain is likewise distinguished for 
the many petrifications of melons and other fruits, as well 
as oysters, which have been found on it. 

1 Haifa. 


Departure from Acre — Cyprus — Its General History — Character of its 
present Inhabitants, etc. 

Immediately on our return to Acre, I told the 
captain that I was ready to go on board, and accordingly, 
on the day following, we set sail with a fair wind, and 
bid an eternal adieu to Palestine, highly gratified with 
the idea of having seen a country so eminently dis- 
tinguished above all others for memorable and truly 
interesting events. But the wind soon changing, with 
every appearance of an impending storm, I persuaded the 
captain to put in at the island of Cyprus, where accord- 
ing to Anacreontic writers, Venus took refuge, and sur- 
rounded by the Zephyrs and Graces kept her court. 

This island is about one hundred and fifty miles in 
length by sixty-six in breadth, lying in 35 degrees of 
north latitude. It is forty-one leagues from the coast of 
Syria, and next to Sicily is the largest island of the 
Mediterranean. It is of a triangular shape ; has several 
capes and promontories ; few, if any good harbours ; but 
very good anchorage, particularly in the bay of Sharnaca' 
[sic], where we landed at a small neat village of the 
same name, and were conducted by my faithful Pauolo 

to the country-house of Mr. D ^ the British Consul. 

His villa is at some distance from the town, delightfully 

situated. The house is one of the best I have seen in 

' ? Larnaca. = Mr. De Vezin. 

CYPRUS. 239 

Asia, and is shaded by a profusion of cedars and myrtles, 
which seem to vie with each other for beauty and super- 

Mr. D \ who holds the office of Consul at Acre 

and Aleppo as well as in this island, was at this time from 
home, having set out a few days before our arrival to 
settle some business of importance at Aleppo where he 
mostly resides ; though, not from choice, as I have been 
told, but because the duties of his office require his 
presence more at Aleppo than at either of the two other 
places. He has a deputy, or vice-consul at Acre, as well 
as in this island, from whom we received every mark 
of politeness and generous hospitality. We dined at 

Mr. D 's and spent the evening very pleasantly, in 

the company of some agreeable Cypriotes, whom the vice- 
consul, to contribute as much as possible to our entertain- 
ment, had invited. One of these ladies gave me a letter to 
a female friend of hers, resident at Nicosi,^ the capital of 
the [island], of whose hospitality I shall speak hereafter 

The town of Sharnaca [sic] lies low, and in the sum- 
mer months is one of the most unhealthy parts of the 
island. The town itself is neatly built and the streets are 
clean and well paved. In its vicinity there are some 
ruins, of which the foundations only are worth notice. 
These extend in large caverns under the town ; but what 
the building was originally I could not learn ; and must 
therefore trust to my own observations, which lead me to 
suppose that it was once a castle of great extent and 

Early the next day we hired mules and guides, and 
set out to visit the remains of the temple of Apollo, 
situated near the village of Piscopi,^ where there are some 

1 De Vezin. ^ Nicosia. ' /.e., Episcopi. 


ruins to be seen, and the country for many miles round 
presents every appearance of fertility and cultivation. 
The sacred wood, which we are told was dedicated to 
Apollo, appears to have been metamorphosed into a 
beautiful plain. 

We spent the day at this village and were tolerably 
well entertained at the house of a Greek priest to whom 
Pauolo had got letters of recommendation. He gave us 
some rare wine, which he averred was one hundred years 
in his family. 

Having now seen as much of the temple of Apollo, as 
deserved the attention of a philosophic traveller, and con- 
verted the temple of the Greek priest into that of 
Bacchus, we mounted our mules and proceeded on our 
journey at nine o'clock the next day, intending to visit 
the temple of Venus, situated twenty miles to the west- 
ward of the village of Piscopi. 

The day being uncommonly hot we did not arrive 
here till noon. The ruins of this temple may be justly 
considered as monuments of its ancient splendour. They 
are of vast extent, and for many miles round there are 
columns of exquisite workmanship, and fragments of 
capitals lying promiscuously. 

At six o'clock we left the temple of Venus, and pro- 
ceeded along the banks of a beautiful rivulet, on each 
side of which we observed herds of goats browsing on 
the arbutus and other flowering shrubs. At nine o'clock 
we entered the village [of] Achicis,' where we took up 
our lodging for the night. It is situated on the river 
Muosi [?], and consists of only a few straggling houses, 
inhabited by wretches whose appearance bespoke their 
poverty and inattention to cleanliness. Here, after much 

1 ? Akachi. 


importuning we procured some rice and goat's milk, on 
which having supped, we lay down on some clean straw, 
and, being fatigued with travelling and the excessive heat 
of the day, we enjoyed, under the roof of this homely 
cot that soft refreshing repose so often denied to those 
who sleep on beds of the softest down. 

Before we set out this morning for Nicosi, the capital 
of the island, we were informed that it would be abso- 
lutely necessary to provide ourselves with provisions for 
this day's ride, as no refreshment of any kind could be 
had on the way. We therefore dispatched our trusty 
Pauolo, who seldom or never failed in any expedition ; 
and my friend and I went to a cellar at some distance 
from our hotel, to purchase some Falernian. At our 
return we found Pauolo very busy, roasting a turkey and 
a couple of brace of partridges ; which when fit, were 
carefully packed up with our wine ; and having made a 
hearty breakfast on some coffee and eggs, we mounted 
our mules and proceeded on our journey towards Nicosi 
distant about seven leagues from this village. 

We stopped at a place called Tritmetusa,' which is 
about midway between Nicosi and Achici, and having 
refreshed ourselves and mules, we proceeded on our way, 
and at nine o'clock arrived at the capital. 

I had almost forgotten to mention a circumstance that 
occurred in our journey this day, which, had we time to 
delay on the road, we might have turned to some advantage. 

At the little village of Patarsa, through which 
we were about to pass without stopping, Pauolo was 
accosted by a tall elderly woman, who inquired of him 
who we were ; and being informed that we were 
Englishmen, just returning from the holy Sepulchre, she 

* ? Trimithia. 


immediately deemed us proper persons for her purpose ; 
and having next inquired if any of us understood physic 
and being answered in the affirmative she earnestly 
entreated us to accompany her to her house, to see her 
daughter who lay sick of a fever. Pauolo instantly took 
the alarm, and with evident marks of solicitude and 
serious apprehensions, entreated me not to go with her, 
swearing that nothing less dreadful than my taking the 
plague would be the consequence. But all entreaties and 
remonstrances were in vain. I had now been nine 
months in Turkey and had learned to think of infection 
with as much indifference as the best Mussulman ; and 
having about me some papers of James's Powders, I 
resolved to try their efficacy in this case ; therefore 
desired the woman to conduct me to her dwelling. I 
found the child's pulse very high, and immediately 
ordered her half a paper. She appeared to be about 
twelve years old, and was attended by all the young 
persons of her own sex in the village. I gave directions 
that this dose should be repeated, if in the course of an 
hour some change for the better did not appear ; and 
leaving a few papers with proper directions, I took my 
leave, and felt myself amply recompensed for this act of 
humanity by the grateful acknowledgments of the 
afflicted mother, and the prayers of those lovely innocent 
attendants, who surrounded the bed of the little sufferer, 
and seemed to consider me as the restorer of their dear 
companion. But in passing through the village, I found 
that we had not only acquired the character of men 
skilled in physic but also that of magicians. 

We travelled for the last six miles along the banks of 
the Pedicus, where we met plenty of all sorts of game, 
particularly the red partridge, and bevies of quails. In 


this day's ride we also observed many eagles and vultures, 
very tame and daring. I fired several shots at them ; and 
though within the common distance of a gun-shot, did 
not kill any, owing, I suppose, to the smallness of 
the shot. 

Near the village of Scurlo are still to be seen the 
remains of an arch, said to have been raised to Alexander 
the Great, near to which are several broken pillars, on 
some of which hieroglyphics are still discernible. From 
all that fell under my observations in examining these 
monuments it appeared to me that the Corinthian order 
prevailed throughout. 

On our arrival at Nicosi, we found ourselves so much 
fatigued that we held a council, whether we should dress 
or go to bed : in the meantime I sent Pauolo to inquire 
for the lady to whom I had got a letter of introduction 
from my fair friend at Sharnaca.^ I was informed that her 
residence was almost a league distant from the town. But 
in a short time, I saw, to my great surprise, this fair 
incognita, accompanied by several ladies and gentlemen, 
conducted by Pauolo to our hotel. This unexpected 
visit threw my friend and me into the greatest confusion; 
which was not much lessened, when madame, for whom 
I had the letter, expressed her regret that we should stop 
at a miserable gargette, as she called it, insisting at the 
same time that we should immediately accompany her 
to her brother's. As we saw, with extreme concern, that 
we had already given offence by setting up at this coffee- 
house, we at once determined, half-dressed as we were, 
to make some atonement by our prompt obedience to 
her commands. 

On our way to this lady's brother, she addressed 

' See ante., p. 238. 


herself to Pauolo in Greek, and endeavoured to learn 
from him the particulars of my history ; in the detail of 
which, as he afterwards informed me, he made her 
believe that I was son to the King of Ireland. 

After a quarter of an hour's walk we passed the 
eastern extremity of the town, and soon after arrived 
at the residence of Madam E — 's brother, to whom 
she most graciously introduced us. 

This gentleman appeared to be about 35 years of 
age, and had, according to his own account, seen more 
of the eastern world than any of his contemporaries. 
His principal residence was at Aleppo, and he came here 
in the summer months for his recreation, when he made 
liberal offerings at the shrine of Venus. 

His adventures were much of a piece with those of 
Sinbad, in the Arabian Nights : one time the persecuted 
victim of divine wrath ; at another the distinguished 
favourite of a most benign Providence. 

He had been taken in the early part of his life by a 
tribe of wandering Arabs, who defeated a caravan, to 
which he belonged, on their route from Aleppo to 
Damascus. Every soul was put to the sword, except 
himself; and he was spared merely on account of his 
personal beauty : and indeed it must be owned that in 
this respect he seemed the distinguished favourite of 
nature ; so that he might be justly styled the Adonis 
of the island. 

He made his escape from these Arabs and got safe 
to Tripoli, where he embarked on board a Venetian ship, 
bound for Cyprus : but unfortunately falling in with an 
Algerine corsair, he with the rest of the crew were 
carried into slavery. Shortly after he was sold to the Dey 
of Tunis, and during a captivity of six years encountered 


such a variety of dangers and difficulties as perhaps never 
fell to the lot of any man before him : and in addition to 
his wayward fate, that beauty, which was once the means 
of saving his life, now served only to increase the dangers 
of his hopeless situation. At length, having disguised 
himself in female attire, after many adventures he escaped 
to St. John of Acre, where he again embarked on board 
a Venetian ship bound for Scandaroon,^ from whence he 
got safe back to Aleppo. 

This gentleman, in addition to the beauty of his 
person, possessed, in an eminent degree, those mental 
accomplishments which distinguish the philosopher and 
the man of refined taste. His sister was also very 
handsome ; had a charming voice, which she had the 
complacency to exert, for our entertainment, in several 
fine Italian and Persian airs, whilst her brother accom- 
panied her with the German flute, or guitar, both of 
which he played admirably well. 

After supper, which was very sumptuous, we walked 
in the garden till midnight. It contained upwards of ten 
acres, planted with fruit-trees of every kind ; the mul- 
berry, the pomegranate, the date and the orange ; all in 
full blow. 

This delightful garden was laid out with great taste. 
The walks were spacious and tiled in the neatest manner. 
The mulberry trees planted on each side and kept closely 
dipt, formed a shade impenetrable even to the rays of 
the meridian sun. 

Our party consisted of half a dozen, of both sexes. 

Singing, dancing and playing at hide and seek, with a 

variety of other childish amusements, beguiled the hours 

till past midnight, when our admirable hostess proposed 

1 Alexandretta : Turkish, Iskenderum. 


that we should return to the saloon and take some 
refreshment, before we retired for the night. The 
company obeyed, I believe, with reluctance. For my 
own part, I was so delighted with our garden scene, that 
no change could afford me a higher gratification. 

Soon after twelve we were all in the saloon ; and 
having taken coffee and sweetmeats, every one retired to 
his apartment for the night. 

I found myself little disposed to rest, and therefore 
having waited impatiently for the morning, I eagerly 
returned to the garden, where I met my charming 
E — . Once more I was entertained with her 
captivating voice, which she accompanied with her 
mandoline. But, at nine, our tete a tete was interrupted 
by the appearance of the rest of the company, who now 
assembled to breakfast in the garden, and propose some 
new entertainment for the day. 

The scenes of the preceding day and night furnished 
abundant matter for conversation during breakfast, which 
consisted of a cold collation of meats and game; among 
the latter was the beca tigue^ which is reckoned the 
greatest delicacy : fruits of all kinds were likewise 
served up. 

It appeared to me that the company at this early hour 
were more inclined to drink than to eat ; and for the first 
time I saw wine supply the place of tea. It was the best 
I drank in the island, and with respect to age exceeded 
that of the priest of Piscopi's by one hundred years. 

After such a breakfast, 'tis natural to suppose our 
spirits were equal to any enterprise, and our generous 
host, finding we were fond of the chase, proposed that of 
the wild boar : but the ladies appearing terrified and 

* ? Becque figue, as ^w/, p. 258. 


disappointed at the idea of this kind of sport, it was at 
once given up, and the greyhound, pointers and guns 
were unanimously preferred. 

At ten o'clock we sallied forth, and the ladies, not- 
withstanding the heat of the day, partook of our sport, 
which ended about twelve o'clock : and short as the time 
may appear, to a keen or sanguinary sportsman, he must 
indeed carry his ideas of sporting or destroying game to a 
most unreasonable degree if he should notbe satisfied 
with the spoils which each of us brought from the field. 

Before I take my leave of Nicosi, I think it necessary 
to say something of its situation, strength and extent. It 
appears, from the most authentic records, that it has 
always been the capital of this island : and at so early a 
period as 420 years before Christ was deemed a place of 
considerable strength. It is situated near the river 
Pedicus,^ and commands an extensive prospect over a 
rich and fertile country. It is surrounded with a strong 
wall and a deep trench, and had, formerly, several towers, 
of which four only are now standing ; and even these are 
bordering on ruin. It is said to have once contained 
50,000 inhabitants ; but at present its population falls very 
short of that number. The best wine is made here, of 
which the inhabitants drink very freely. 

There is a small convent in the town, which for some 
years past has not been inhabited. The people are 
mostly employed in rolling silk, of which there is here 
great abundance, so that large quantities of the raw 
material are sent to the markets of Smyrna and Aleppo. 

The women in this part of the island are remarkable 
for their beauty and voluptuousness : they generally marry 
at the age of thirteen or fourteen, and scarcely retain any 

1 The Pedius or Pediaeus. 


vestige of their beauty after thirty. Having arrived at 
that period, they no longer play the coquet ; but 
endeavour to become the accomplished matron, and by 
their exemplary conduct to render themselves useful to 
their juvenile friends. 

Having now made our little arrangements, we took 
leave of our hospitable and truly amiable friends with 
much regret ; and at six in the evening set out on our 
journey towards Famagousta. The air was still warm to 
a degree that induced both lassitude and languor ; and we 
were much annoyed by the mosquitoes. For two hours 
we continued our ride along the banks of the Pedicus, 
and then crossed it. The country on both sides of this 
river appeared to be cultivated with much judgment ; 
and, as far as the naked eye could see, abounded mostly 
with indian corn. The mulberry tree is cultivated with 
the utmost care, for on its leaves are fed the silk-worms, 
the principal source of the wealth of the island at the 
present day. 

At half-past nine o'clock we arrived at a small neat 
village, situated on the banks of a lake where, I was told, 
salt was found in great abundance. We had procured a 
letter to a Greek, who possessed this branch of commerce 
at a certain rent : he received us with marks of polite- 
ness and friendship ; and it is but barely doing him 
justice to say, that in point of hospitality he seemed to 
possess the soul of a true Hibernian. After a good 
substantial supper, and a copious libation to the rosy god, 
we reeled to bed, and slept till eight the next morning. 

Finding now that the day was too far advanced for us 
to make any progress in our journey before the meridian 
heat came on, we accepted the kind' invitation of our 
generous host to dine with him, and in the cool of the 


evening to proceed towards the town of Famagousta. It 
was likewise necessary to send a messenger to acquaint 
the Governor of our intention of paying him a visit, and 
to provide ourselves with a firman for that purpose ; as 
strangers, particularly if they be Christians, are not per- 
mitted to enter the town without the imperial passport. 

At three o'clock p.m. we took leave of our Greek 
friend and set out, accompanied by his nephew. In our 
way we saw the ruins of a town said to have been built 
by Pompey. We observed this evening a great number 
of serpents of the green spotted kind, and many large 
lizards running among the grass. 

At five o'clock we found ourselves again on the banks 
of the Pedicus, along which we pursued our road, for 
several miles, and discovered many superb remains of 
antiquity. In this neighbourhood our young guide 
shewed us the temple of Adonis ; of whose ancient 
grandeur and magnificence there is still remaining enough 
to excite the traveller's admiration. 

There are vast subterraneous caverns here, which we 
did not enter on account of the air, at the very entrance, 
being extremely fetid, and we also had every reason to 
apprehend that they were infested with noxious animals. 

In many places I observed scattered among these 
ruins, blocks of verde antique and pillars of granite and 
porphyry, mingling with common rubbish. 

A thought instantly came into my mind, of applying 
to the Governor for leave to take some of these inestim- 
able remains to Europe: but in this I failed, as will appear 

I should willingly have remained here the rest of the 
day ; but was told by our young companion that it was 
time to pursue our journey. I followed his advice without 


inquiring his reasons; and at lo o'clock we arrived at the 
small bourg called Trapesa, where we delivered our letter, 
and were tolerably well accommodated for the night in 
this village, which is about two miles distant from Fama- 
gousta. yV'^ firman was entrusted to the care of Pauolo, 
who set off with it at daybreak, to demand permission 
from the Governor, under its authority, to enter the 
town and pay our respects to his excellency. 

He was kept waiting so long at the gates that I 
began to grow impatient and uneasy about him : but at 
length he returned with a favourable answer, and we 
immediately proceeded towards the town. 

We were met at the outer gate by some soldiers on 
horseback, who insisted on our mules being left outside 
the town ; and that we should also leave our boots 

On hearing this injunction a violent dispute arose 
between Pauolo and one of the soldiers, which probably 
would have ended very seriously, had I not prevailed on 
one of these Janissaries, by means of a small bribe, to go 
to the Governor for instructions, and this I did merely 
to satisfy Pauolo ; as it really was a matter of indifference 
to me whether I walked into town in slippers, or made 
my entrance, in the equestrian style, with my red boots. 

The Janissary returned soon after accompanied by the 
Governor's dragoman, who was instructed to grant us the 
indulgence of making our appearance in boots, leaving 
our mules and baggage behind, which he promised should 
be immediately brought after us: to this we readily com- 
plied ; and soon after were introduced to the Governor ; 
to whom I delivered my credentials, and was most 
graciously received and hospitably entertained in his 


Our dinner was sumptuous in the highest degree, and 
for variety and number of dishes far exceeded anything 
of the kind I had ever seen before : and to complete our 
felicity, we had the peculiar honour of the Governor's 
company at this splendid entertainment — a singular 
mstance of hospitality and condenscension from a proud 
Turk ! 

The Turks, as I have already observed, never use a 
fork : the Governor, therefore, laughed heartily on seeing 
our method of eating : while we inwardly reprobated his 
disgusting practice of every moment putting his hand 
into the dish ; thence to his mouth until he was satisfied. 

There is a rule strictly observed by these people, 
which is that the cook, at every entertainment, is ordered 
to taste of every dish, in the presence of the company, in 
order to satisfy the guests that they may eat of any with 
safety. Sherbet was the only beverage used at this 
entertainment ; nor did I observe any of the Turks 
drink of any kind of liquid till they had finished their 

The entertainment being now at an end, ablutions 
were again repeated, and after a short prayer the meeting 
broke up. 

I made this worthy Governor many presents, which 
he received with the most [sic] acknowledgments : and 
in return gave me a curious bow, with some poisoned 

In the evening we went,accompanied by the dragoman, 
to the most curious places in the town : but we soon 
found it necessary to return to the palace and provide 
ourselves with an escort of soldiers to protect us from 
violence or insult, as the boys had already begun to pelt 
us with stones ; which coming to the Governor's ears, he 


was filled with indignation, and vowed that the first who 
would attempt to interrupt or offer us the least injury 
should be instantly strangled. This denunciation had the 
desired effect ; for, during three days residence in this 
town, we met with no molestation or insult whatever. 

The Town of Famagousta is situated on the east of 
the island, between the capes of St. Andrew and Greek 
Cape, and is pretty much in the form of an irregular 
square. Its walls are washed by the sea, and it was 
formerly a place of great strength, having stood many 
desperate sieges in the time of the Crusades, when it was 
defended by the Christians against the Turks. It is 
surrounded by a deep ditch, of very great breadth, which 
can be occasionally filled with water. Its walls are, at 
present, in a very ruinous state. It had once thirteen 
towers and a bastion, built by Henry,' in the year 
1293 • since which time it has been well fortified by the 
Venetians, who built another bastion on the northern 
side ; but since it fell into the hands of the Turks, its 
fortifications have been entirely neglected. 

This town took its name from the famous battle of 
Actium, where Augustus Caesar triumphed over Mark 
Antony and Cleopatra ; though it is probable the name 
has been corrupted by the Greeks. It was originally 
Fama-augusta, afterwards Famagousta, and latterly Amos- 
kousta, which signifies " buried in sand," as the town 
from its situation really appears to be. 

The harbour, which is about a mile in circumference, 
is the best in the island. Vessels may ride there in perfect 
safety, let the wind blow from [what] quarter it will. The 
entrance, however, is both narrow and shallow ; so that 
none but small vessels can enter it without much diffi- 

^ Le. Henri II., one of the Lusignan Kings of Cyprus. 


culty. An iron chain across the entrance and a tower, 
on which are mounted some pieces of ordnance, are at 
present its only defence. 

About the year 1160 [? 1191J, Richard Coeur de 
Lion, returning from Palestine after the Crusades, was 
overtaken by a violent storm and his fleet dispersed. One 
of his ships and two galleys were wrecked on the western 
coast of this island. Richard, however, with the principal 
part of his fleet, had the good fortune to make the harbour 
of Rhodes, where he learned that those ships which were 
driven on shore in the island, were seized and his people 
barbarously murdered by order of Isaac Courmene,^ 
nephew to the Emperor of that name, who sent him to 
take charge of the government ; against whom Isaac 
rebelled, and usurped the government of the island. 

Richard also learned, with indignation, that Isaac had 
the barbarity even to refuse his sister Jane, wife to the 
king of Sicily, leave to land on his coast in the midst of 
the tempest ; and accordingly having refitted his fleet he 
sailed from Rhodes, fully determined to land in Cyprus 
and severely punish Isaac for his cruel barbarity. 

His descent was opposed with vigour, and many lives 
were lost on the occasion, but after many obstinate battles 
he effected a landing and took this inhuman and per- 
fidious Greek prisoner, whom he loaded with chains ; and 
although historians affirm these chains were of gold, yet 
they were not the less galling. 

Richard having now made himself master of the 
island, had himself crowned king of Cyprus ; and thus 
this island, after having remained a duchy for many ages 
under the Greek emperors, was now changed into a 

' Comnenus, 


The next thing done by this monarch, was to appoint 
a nobleman of the name of Robert Truhare [? de 
Torneham] his vice-roy : and having put the island in a 
state of defence, he sailed from Lernachai to fulfil a vow he 
had made to assist Philip of France in his wars against the 
Turks. He therefore repaired to join this Prince at 
Ptolomaise,^ which town Philip was then besieging. 
Richard arrived before this place, loaded with the glory 
of conquest and the treasures of Cyprus. Ancient 
writers mention this island under a variety of names, 
owing, I suppose, to its having fallen under the dominion 
of so many different nations, attracted by the mildness 
of the climate, the fertility of the soil, and, above all, by 
the advantages of its situation, which renders it the 
centre of communication and commerce between Asia 
Minor, Syria, Phenicia, and Egypt. 

The whole island may be very properly divided into 
three distinct parts, differing in outward appearance and 
in the quality of the soil. The iirst is composed of high 
mountains, running from Cape St. Andrew, at the east, 
to Cape Cormachiti in the west, being for the most 
part covered with wood. 

The second manifests itself in fertile hills and delightful 
vallies, at the foot of these mountains, watered with 
rivulets and four rivers which take their source from 
Mount Olympus. 

The third part of the island is a vast, beautiful plain, 
extending from the south-east to the north-west of the 
island ; and is about sixteen leagues in length, and in 
many places from eight to ten in breadth. This plain 
has, from its richness and fertility, acquired the appella- 
tion of Messaire or Egypt. It produces corn, cotton, 

' Larnaca. ^ Ptolemais. 


and the most nutritive vegetables of every kind, in 
abundance ; as also silk. 

Formerly there were fifteen large cities, besides 
several villages in this island ; of which nine cities were 
the capitals of as many distinct kingdoms, each having a 
separate government from the other. 

At the present day little more remains than the ruins 
of these cities ; whereof only a few deserve the notice of 
the traveller, as the towns of Nicosi, which is the 
capital, in the centre of the island ; Famagousta on the 
banks of the Pedicus, opposite to Syria, which is built on 
the ruins of ancient Salamis or Ceraunia [? Constantia], 
on the northern side, and Paphos on the southern : the 
two last are very inconsiderable, and only remarkable for 
being at present the episcopal seats of the Greek 

Besides these cities, there are also the ruins of many 
castles, which from their situation are almost inaccessible. 

The revolutions which have happened in this island, 
are indeed astonishing ; particularly since the time of 
Dion Cassius, who wrote the Life of the Emperor 

He tells us that at that time the Jews revolted against 
the Romans, and possessed themselves of the island, in 
the reign of this monarch ; and in the space of a few 
days massacred two hundred and forty thousand persons, 
in hopes of shaking off the Roman yoke. But Trajan 
made them pay dearly for this act of barbarity ; for 
having defeated their army in Syria, he sent one of his 
captains named Lucius into Cyprus, with a sufficient 
force to drive the Jews out of the island, and passed a 
decree that none of their race should ever after be 
allowed to settle in Cyprus : which decree was not only 


observed as long as the Romans possessed the island, but 
likewise by all those princes under whose dominion it 
has fallen : and even at this day it is observed under the 
Ottoman authority. 

The mines of gold, copper etc., which, according to 
Strabo and other ancient writers, were formerly found in 
this island, are not now to be met with. 

With respect to precious stones, which the same authors 
assert were also found here in abundance, the same [may] 
be said as of their gold mines, etc. The only gem found 
at present in any part of the island is an inferior kind of 

With respect to the salt of this island, from which 
such great revenues formerly arose, the same advantages 
may still be derived from it if duly attended to. It may 
be had in great quantities, at little expense, from a lake, 
situated near the sea, between the bourg of Lernacha, and 
Ptomolasa ' This lake is about three leagues in circum- 
ference. It is a mixture of sea and rain-water, which 
being exposed to the influence of a very hot sun, a 
coherency of the salt particles is effected. 

The sugar-cane was formerly planted in this island, 
but has been long discontinued ; and the cotton-tree and 
a mulberry are substituted : the latter furnishes food for the 
silk-worm, which is certainly preferable to the sugar-cane. 

The island also produces corn of every kind in 
abundance, of which great quantities are annually 
exported into Syria, Greece and all the islands. 

The wine of Cyprus has been justly celebrated, both 
by ancient and modern writers. Solomon himself speaks 
particularly of it. This wine is in the highest perfection 
when it is an hundred years old ; and acquires, by this 

^ ? Vromolaxi, or Dromolakxia. 


time, such smoothness and potency, as renders it a perfect 
cordial. It is even said to be an antidote against poison, 
and of wonderful efficacy in all nervous affections. 

There is a custom, handed down from time imme- 
morial, still kept up in Cyprus, according to which 
every bridegroom, on the night of his nuptials, is to fall 
a large jar of this wine and bury it under ground, where 
it is to remain till the joyful event of his first child's 
marriage: and this they very properly call vin de noce, 
the nuptial wine. As it often happens that the children 
die before the wished-for period, the wine thus buried 
has been often known to lie untouched for two or three 
generations, particularly in the wealthy families, who had 
no occasion to use it till the intended occasion offered. 
And by this means it was first discovered that Cyprus 
wine could not be too long kept. 

When in the island, I purchased a ton of this vino del 
amore, which I was assured had been made thirty' years. 
I carried it with me to Marseilles, and sent it from thence 
to England: and though I have some of it still by 
me, yet I could never prevail on myself to put it under 

The island produces two sorts of wine ; both in equal 
estimation, but one will not keep as long as the other : 
that which so wonderfully improves by age is by much 
the dearest, and costs about two shillings a bottle on 
the spot. 

The Egyptians have at all times given the preference 
to this wine: and even at the present day large quantities 
are annually exported to that country, which of itself does 
not produce wine of any kind. 

The island of Cyprus is not less remarkable for its 

' Eighty years. MS. No. 2. 


excellent olive oil ; besides rape oil, which, among the 
natives, is more in use than the former. This oil is 
certainly much better and less rancid than that made in 

This island likewise produces honey of a superior 
quality : also saffron, capers, laudanum, mandrake, 
vermilion, and a great variety of aromatic and medicinal 

The island is not so famous for its horses as its 
mules, which though not so large as those of Spain are, 
nevertheless, preferred, particularly on account of their 
gentleness and tractableness. 

Every species of domestic fowl known in Europe may 
be met with here, and with respect to game, no island 
can surpass it. There are several small birds in very high 
estimation in this island, among which may be reckoned 
the ortolan and becque Jigue ; the latter is accounted the 
greatest delicacy both in the island and in all parts of 
Europe. They are preserved in Cyprus wine mixed 
with vinegar, and sent in great quantities to Venice, 
where they are in the highest estimation among the 

The greyhounds of Cyprus are said to surpass in 
swiftness those of any other country : as to the truth of 
this assertion, I can only say, that at Nicosi I had an 
opportunity of seeing repeated trials of their agility and 
speed, and were I to form my judgment from the short- 
ness of the time in which they ran down a hare, I must 
certainly decide in their favour. The cats of this island 
are very beautiful ; and exceed in shape and size those of 
Angora. They have a peculiarity which is not to be 
found in any of the feline kind yet discovered, and that 
is their mortal hatred to serpents, which they destroy and 


persecute with the same degree of implacable fury and 
malignity which the whole race manifest towards rats 
and mice. 

Camelions are to be met with in great numbers, in 
the mulberry gardens, and vineyards. I had one of these 
inoffensive animals for many months, and carried [it] to 
Marseilles in my bosom, which place it seldom left, 
except when provoked by injury, or pinched by hunger. 
Its passion, in either case, to which it is very subject, is 
always expressed by a change of colour ; and so quick is 
the succession of these changes, that one of those curious 
creatures will display no less than fifty different colours in 
the space of a few minutes. This I had many oppor- 
tunities of observing, when I could not procure for my 
little favourite what he usually fed upon, namely flies. 
And again, after it had eaten a sufficiency, should I not 
immediately receive it into my bosom, its anger would 
instantly appear in the same variety of colours. 

This little animal, notwithstanding all my care, died 
in the lazaretto whilst I performed quarantine at 

The air, in some parts of this island, during the 
summer and part of the autumn, is rendered extremely 
unwholesome by the excessive heats which prevail at 
those seasons of the year. The grass is burnt up, and 
malignant fevers rage; particularly in the country around 
Lernacha and Famagousta. But all these inconveniences 
may be avoided by retiring at the approach of those 
baneful heats to the cantons of Soli, Nicosi, Lapatros, 
Carpasso, or Piscopi ; in all which places the air is found 
to be as temperate and salutary as in any part of France. 

And bad as the air is in those maritime places I have 
mentioned, I think the inhabitants may in some measure 

s 2 


prevent, or guard against its noxious influence, by build- 
ing their dwelling-houses at least two stories high instead 
of one. This improvement would at least secure them 
from the incessant attacks of the mosquito and other 
troublesome insects, to which they are always exposed by 
lying on the ground. 

It is asserted by most authors who have given, or 
attempted, a general history of this island, that it is 
watered only by the torrents caused by the heavy rains 
during the winter. But this is certainly a mistake, and 
shews that those writers were entirely unacquainted with 
the interior parts of the country. It must indeed be 
owned that the island cannot boast any large rivers ; but 
there are many pretty rivulets and streams that never 
dry up. 

The only river that deserves the name of one is the 
Pedicus, which I have had occasion to mention before. 
This river divides into two considerable branches, tra- 
versing all the plains of Messaria, and passes through the 
town of Nicosi. It sometimes overflows, and in this case 
produces the same happy effects on its neighbouring 
plains that the river Nile does in Egypt. 

There are also many springs of excellent water, and 
four or five rivulets gushing from Mount Olympus, and 
the neighbouring mountains. One of these waters the 
delightful country in the neighbourhood of Piscopi ; as 
also the lordship of Colossi, formerly the benefice 
belonging to the Knights Templars and Hospitallers, 
to whom this famous benefice was granted after the 
extinction of the former. 

There is another beautiful spring of limpid water 
above the hourg Chitrie [? Citria]. This source, after 
furnishing sufficient water for thirty-six miles, serves the 


inhabitants of Palecitro to water a very great extent of 
gardens. Hence it must appear that the accounts of some 
authors, respecting a want of water in this island, are 
totally unfounded. It sometimes happens, as I was in- 
formed, that there is no fall of rain in any part of the 
island for three months together : to guard against this 
calamity, the islanders sink deep wells in proper places, 
and by means of machines made for the purpose, in imita- 
tion of the Egyptians, they supply themselves from these 

I have already observed that this island produces silk 
in abundance, which in the opinion of most silk buyers, 
has more substance in it than any that is to be met with 
in other countries, and is therefore preferred to all other, 
both in France and England, for particular uses, such as 
fringe, and in stuffs where embroidery is introduced. 

Their cotton trade is not less important than their 
silk, and its superior quality is so well known that it 
always meets a preference in the European markets. 

There are still many parts of the island in a state of 
nature, which produce olives in great abundance spon- 
taneously. These uncultivated tracts are principally to 
be [found] in the cantons of Carpasso ; which from the 
fertility of the soil, if duly attended to, would yield an 
immense increase to the revenues of the island. 

Cyprus is not the only country on this part of the 
globe where, from the want of inhabitants, the finest 
soil lies uncultivated. The greater part of the Ottoman 
empire appears in this primeval state ; as their population 
bears no proportion to their extent of territory. 

The amazing fertility of this island, and the little 
labour and expense in procuring here not only the 
necessaries but also the luxuries of life in abundance. 


serves only to render the inhabitants sensual, indolent, 
and effeminate. Their whole time is devoted to adorning 
their persons, feasting, dancing and the like amusements. 

The women are in general of the middle size, and 
much inferior to the English ladies in point of figure. 
Their complexion is rather dark ; but their fine expres- 
sive black eyes and good teeth make up, in a great 
measure, for the want of those beautiful tints of fair and 
red which characterise our British and Hibernian ladies. 
They are not only warm in their attachment, but violent 
to the greatest degree ; ever ready to make any sacrifice, 
or encounter any difficulty to promote and secure the 
happiness of the object of their choice : but let the happy 
man beware of betraying any appearance of coolness or 
indifference on his part ; and above all, let him take care 
how he ventures to withdraw himself from a Cypriete. 

The men are treacherous, and so cowardly and lost to 
a sense of honour that they will not dare to smell gun- 
powder, even in defence or vindication of the honour of 
a sister or a wife. 

Before I take my final leave of this beautiful island, I 
shall take notice of the variety of names under which it 
has been known at different periods. 

The Greeks call it " Kupros," as appears from the 
works of Homer and Hesiod, as well as many other 
poets. The name or epithet " Kypris " or " Koupris " 
given to Venus is, in the opinion of many writers a proof 
that she was first worshipped in this island. The Greeks 
have not agreed upon the origin of the word " Kupros " : 
but they have endeavoured to remove the difficulty in 
their usual way, by supposing that a hero had given his 
name to the island. Others ascribe it to a plant which 


grows spontaneously in many parts of the island. This 
plant resembles the pomegranate in its branches and 
leaves, and flowers somewhat like the vine. Its blossoms 
have an odoriferous smell ; and, as Strabo relates, were 
much used for medicinal purposes by the physicians of 
his day. 

The Turkish women, and some of the inhabitants of 
the islands of Chio and Patmos, stain their nails and hair 
with a juice extracted from this flower, or blossom, which 
is considered by them as a great beauty. 

Having now made our little arrangements, we journied 
back with all possible expedition to Lernacha, where my 
ship was waiting to take me back to Europe. On our 
return to Lernacha, we immediately waited on our good 
friend the vice-consul, to whom we were indebted for the 
very favourable reception we met with at the different 
places we visited in our tour through this island, par- 
ticularly at Nicosi ; and I was not a little surprised on 
receiving a letter from the truly amiable and charming 
Madame E., by the hands of her confidential friend, 
which breathed such warm professions of inviolable 
attachment, disinterested friendship and esteem, as would 
have induced any man but myself to settle for life in this 
paradisiacal island. But to the mind of a man, such as I 
then was, the slave of passion and the votary of licenti- 
ousness, such an idea would be no less horrible than that 
of self-destruction. 

However, I said every thing that could tend to re- 
concile her to a temporary separation, as I termed it, 
assuring her that I was only going to pay my respects 
to Sir R. A.^ at Constantinople, and would return very 
shortly from thence to Cyprus. 

' Sir Robt. Ainslie. 


Departure from Cyprus — Character and Manners of the Modern Greeks 
— Crete — Arrival at Marseilles — The Lazaretto — Paris — Dublin- 
Brighton — English Blacklegs — A Scuffle with Opposition — The 
French Revolution, etc. — A French Gambling-house — King's Return 
from Varennes, etc. — Reflections on Gaming, etc 

Before I leave the country of ancient heroes and 
demi-gods, I must beg permission to make a few observa- 
tions respecting what I have seen and heard of the 
character and manners of the modern Greeks. 

Ancient Greece, which once presented to the admiring 
world so many noble and flourishing cities, and gave 
birth to so many distinguished warriors, poets and 
orators, now appears a desolate and ruined country ; 
where the hand of despotism has levelled to the ground 
the monuments of its former grandeur ; extinguished the 
fire of genius and destroyed the energy of its inhabitants. 

The wretched descendants of those renowned heroes 
are at the present day distinguished only for low cunning, 
baseness, ferocity and the grossest superstition. The 
abject state of slavery and humiliation to which they are 
reduced has rendered them mean and dastardly. 

But I must not omit to observe that such of the 
inhabitants as are at a small distance from the seat of 
empire seem still to preserve a portion of hereditary 
spirit, particularly those of the Tagget mountains,^ who 
maintain that they are the true descendants of the ancient 

' Mount Taygetos. 


Spartans. These people could never be subdued : but in 
order to preserve what they call their independence, they 
pay to this moment a tribute to the Porte. 

The Greeks differ very little from the Turks in their 
manners ; but fall infinitely short of them in point of 
sincerity and fidelity. The only difference in their dress 
is that the Greeks are not permitted to wear green, or 
yellow. The Greeks very often give their daughters in 
marriage to Turks ; but it must be on condition that the 
children of these Grecian ladies shall be brought up in 
the Mahommetan religion. 

The marriage ceremony is always performed in the 
presence of a priest, and is held a sacrament ; but the 
union is not considered as indissoluble : and accordingly 
a divorce is obtained on merely applying for it, and the 
parties are at liberty to marry as soon after as they may 
think proper. 

The brilliant torch of Hymen, so celebrated by the 
ancient poets, is not forgotten by the modern Greeks. It 
is placed in the nuptial room, and remains there till it be 
consumed. As soon as the bride arrives at the house of 
her husband, she is obliged to walk over a cribble placed 
on the carpet for that purpose, and should she not break 
it, the husband, without further proof, would give way to 
suspicions of the most unfavourable kind : therefore great 
care is taken that those cribbles should be of a very fine 

It is the custom, always to burn a lamp in their bed- 
rooms — the rich from habit, the poor from devotion — 
and this lamp is placed before an image. 

The women are intolerably proud, though not so 
handsome as they are represented by many travellers. 
The most beautiful are in the island of Chio. They all 


paint their eyebrows with a preparation of antimony and 
gall-nuts. They are not allowed to live with a Frank 
without having previously obtained permission from the 
Cadi. The Grecian ladies never appear in public without 
a numerous suite, and at public ceremonies they are 
always on horseback. 

The wind, for the first part of our voyage, was pretty 
fair, and after a navigation of ten days we discovered the 
island of Candia, formerly called Crete, so celebrated in 
ancient history and mythology. This island is about two 
hundred miles long and fifty broad, and is at present 
chiefly inhabited by Greeks, who are said to pay the 
strictest regard to social and moral duties. The island 
produces plenty of excellent wine, corn, oil, silk and 
hemp, and is covered with olive-trees as large and 
flourishing as those of Toulon and Seville. The capital, 
of the same name, which was formerly so populous, is 
now almost desolate : it is, however, the see of a Greek 
archbishop, and its walls are still standing. 

At the extremity of the town is a small rivulet, sup- 
posed to be the river Lethe of the ancients. Mount Ida, 
so famous in history, is nothing but a sharp pointed 
eminence, or craggy ridge, which divides this island. 
This mountain, however, must not be confounded with 
mount Ida in the neighbourhood of Troy, where the 
shepherd Paris adjudged the prize of beauty to the 
goddess Venus. 

The Labyrinth so famed in Classic history, built by 
Daedalus in imitation of that in Egypt, extends for up- 
wards of two miles under a hill at the foot of Mount Ida. 

The next day we descried the island of Cythera, now 
called Cerigo, forty miles distant from the island of 
Candia. It was sacred to Venus, with a very ancient 


temple of that goddess, who was supposed to have 
emerged from the sea near its coasts. 

We now continued our course for several days with- 
out interruption, till, within three leagues of the island of 
Malta, we discovered a vessel which our captain thought 
bore a suspicious appearance. Having examined her 
with my glass, I perceived that she had no guns, but was 
full of men armed with sabres and pistols. 

Our fears subsided a little on her nearer approach, as 
we saw that she carried Tunisian colours ; and those 
states were then at peace with France, to which nation 
our vessel belonged. Having no boat on board, they 
made us a signal to hoist out ours : and when within hail 
they ordered our captain to go on board and carry with 
him some brandy, a chart and a compass ; which having 
obtained, they permitted us to proceed without even 
returning us thanks ; judging, perhaps rightly, that they 
owed their acquisition more to our fears than any friendly 
disposition towards them. 

A few days after we made Cape Bona, on the Barbary 
Coast, and soon after discovered Sardinia on our starboard. 
At length, in thirty-seven days after our departure from 
Cyprus, we came to an anchor in the port of Marseilles. 

The captain went on shore to deliver his letters at 
a particular place appointed for that purpose, as all 
vessels coming from the Levant are obliged to perform 
quarantine at the lazaretto, or Pest-house, of Marseilles. 
If in the space of those forty days none of the crew fall 
sick, they are enlarged and permitted to enter the pales 
of society ; otherwise the quarantine recommences until 
they are all in perfect health. 

The lazaretto is one of the best establishments I have 
seen for strict order and regularity. 


The building, which is very extensive, is situated on 
the sea-side and surrounded by high walls, within which 
are several large squares, for the purpose of airing the 
merchandise, lest they might retain infection. The crew 
of every vessel is separately guarded, and should any 
person who had nearly performed his quarantine touch 
any one who was just entering on it, he becomes, ipso facto, 
re-involved in the same necessity of probation with the 
other. If even a friend comes to visit him, he must not 
approach nearer than two yards from the grated door : 
and should he be so imprudent as to touch him, he is 
subject to the same painful confinement. 

This excellent institution is regulated by the Board of 
Trade, who every year appoint twelve merchants under 
the title of Superintendents of Health, with unlimited 
authority in everything that regards the establishment. 

Having passed thirty' days in this retreat, as we had 
letters of health from our Consul, we were at length 
judged fit once more to become members of society, an 
intelligence which I received with inexpressible joy and 
satisfaction, and resolved to make ample amends for the 
long abstinence and self-denial I had undergone. 

On my first visit to Marseilles I became acquainted 
with a young officer of Infantry, who had distinguished 
himself, as a spendthrift, a gambler and a self-sufficient 
blockhead. He possessed all the volubility and vain 
boasting of his countrymen, without any of their agree- 
able qualifications. This worthy gentleman often came 
to see me while I was in the lazaretto ; and as soon as 
the auspicious day was announced, I commissioned him 
to make every necessary preparation to celebrate the joyful 
event of my deliverance from this tedious and irksome 

' Moore's Journal says twenty-one days. See Appendix. Route. 


confinement ; as it was my wish that nothing should be 
wanting, as far as money, wine and the fair votaries of the 
Cyprian goddess, with whom this happy city abounds, 
could contribute to the entertainment of a select party. 

This was a charge which he undertook with the 
greatest readiness, and acquitted himself entirely to the 
satisfaction of his friends. Everything was comme il faut. 
But as usual on these occasions, the lot fell upon Jonas ; 
for besides the extravagant charges of the entertainment 
I lost three hundred louts (Tors at play to complete the 
happiness and hilarity of these good-natured friends. 

After I had rested a fortnight at Marseilles, I set out 
for Paris, and amused myself there and [in] its environs 
for about three weeks. 

I had the honour of being introduced to a lady of 
high rank, who was the particular favourite of a great 
personage, and who has since ended her career in a 
manner, at that time little expected, which may be justly 
considered one of the most extraordinary events of this 
extraordinary age. 

This unfortunate victim, to whom every heart and 
every court in Europe was then paying homage, could 
not afterwards find one individual resolute enough to risk 
his life for her deliverance. She shone then a bright star 
in all the splendour of royalty ! 

Coming one evening to this lady's house, she 
honoured me with particular attentions and entered into 
a long conversation with me on the subject of my travels, 
in the course of which she made such observations as 
proved her a lady of brilliant wit and much information. 

Soon after this conference, I quitted Paris for London, 
where I did not remain long, being impatient to receive 
the reward of my dangerous expedition. 

When I arrived in Dublin I produced such incon- 


testable proofs of having accomplished my arduous under- 
taking, and fulfilled my engagement, that my friends, 
who had staked their money on the supposed impracti- 
cability of the journey, were obliged reluctantly to pay 
me fifteen thousand pounds.^ 

The expenses of my journey to Jerusalem amounted 
to eight thousand, so that I cleared seven thousand 
pounds^ by this expedition ; the only instance in all my 
life before, in which any of my projects turned out to my 

On leaving London, I committed my fine Arabian 
horse to the care of my groom. All the amateurs and 
knowing ones of London flocked to see him. 

One of them offered me a thousand guineas for the 
horse : but as I had no intention of parting with him for 
any sum, the offer was of course rejected. In a few days 
after, I received, with inexpressible grief and vexation, 
the news of his death. It was the general opinion, that 
some scoundrel, under the malign influence of envy, had 
poisoned this incomparable quadruped ; and though I 
could never discover the author, yet I have not the 
smallest doubt of the fact. 

I remained in Dublin upwards of two years, during 
which time I addicted myself to play with unabating 
eagerness, and with various success : but upon the close, 
the balance was considerably against me. 

It was at that period I happily formed an acquaint- 
ance with a lady of exquisite taste and sensibility from 
whom I have never since separated. She has been a 
consolation to me in all my troubles — her persuasive 
mildness has been a constant check on the impetuosity 
of my temper, and at this moment, constitutes, in my 
retirement, the principal source of all my felicity. 
' ^^25,000. MS. No. 2. ^^17,000. MS. No. 2. 


When I had gone the round of all the amusements 
which my own country could afford, I panted after some- 
thing new, and as I never had a fixed establishment in 
London, I thought this scheme offered an opportunity 
of gratifying my volatility. With that rapidity which . 
marked all my actions, I took a house in London; bought 
horses and carriages ; subscribed to all the fashionable 
clubs and was in a short time a complete man of the ton 
at the West End of the Town. 

I had the honour of being presented at Court ; and 
was particularly introduced to his Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales, who honoured me with every mark of 
polite attention, for which this Prince is so eminently 

After having for some time enjoyed the pleasures of 
the metropolis, I went to the races at Brighton. One 
evening, after having had the honour of dining with 
H.R.H. at the Pavilion, we repaired to the ball-room, 
where he did me the honour of introducing me to the 
Duchess of C — ^ 

The wine I had drank, joined to the habit I had 
acquired abroad, of behaving with very little ceremony to 
ladies, made me behave with so little respect and decorum 
towards the duchess, that had I met with my real deserts, 
I should have been kicked out of the ball-room. I shall 
never be able to suppress the reproaches of my heart for 
my unwarrantable behaviour in addressing this lady in 
too familiar and unbecoming a manner. But she good- 
naturedly imputed my conduct to the effects of wine — 
the only excuse our poor countrymen can make for their 
various absurdities and errors in all parts of the world. 

1 ? Cumberland. MS. (No. 2) reads " G " which possibly may 

stand for Gloucester. 


After the Ball, I took a walk with two of my friends 
upon the Steyn, and as we were returning we heard the 
voices of many people in a house, which we had no 
sooner entered than we discovered several of our friends, 
surrounded by some of the most noted blacklegs in 
England, deeply engaged at play. Though I knew the 
character of those I had to deal with, yet such was my 
blind attachment to play that I could not resist the 
opportunity ; and according to the proverb, embraced the 
evil in order to avoid the temptation. 

Whether my adversaries meant to draw me in by 
encouraging me at first, or that the dice ran unusually in 
my favour, certain it is that I was, in a little time, a 
gainer of more than five hundred guineas : whereupon 
one of the blacklegs, vexed at his ill-luck, vented his 
chagrin in such impertinent language to me, that I was 
provoked to give him a most hearty thrashing, which 
broke up the party for the night. 

The next evening I returned to the scene of action, 
and not only lost what I had won the preceding night, 
but a considerable sum beside. 

When I came home, Mr. C — my fellow-lodger and 
companion in affliction, asked me if I did not perceive 
that we had been most egregiously cheated .? I answered 
no, and that I believed our losses were owing merely 
to ill-luck. " I am convinced to the contrary," replied 
he, " and that Rascal Major G — , I have no doubt, is the 
principal agent in the business." " Impossible," said I ; 
" a man of his fortune and connections could not descend 
to such meanness." " Well then," added Mr. C — " are 
you willing to put it to the proof ? If so, I will under- 
take this night, to convict this man of fortune and high 
connections, of using false dice ; which, on my honour, I 


believe he conceals in the hollow of his hand, to be 
produced whenever a fit occasion offers." 

I immediately expressed my approbation of my 
friend's proposal, and having fixed our plan, we repaired 
to the place appointed, accompanied by Col. St. L — and 
the Abbe St. F — , both of whom quitted the room soon 
after our arrival. We found nearly the same company as 
the evening before. It was then about midnight ; and 
the better to carry on our scheme we affected to be much 
intoxicated, an appearance which the Major likewise 
assumed, though for a very different purpose. 

After some throws of the dice the Major's turn came. 
We staked very large sums, which were eagerly accepted. 
At the moment of throwing my friend gave the signal, 
and instantly seized on the Major's hand. I flew to his 
assistance, calling at the same time to the rest of the 
company for their interference, asserting that the Major 
had false dice and that we were ready to stake our lives 
upon the issue of a strict examination. 

Not a soul interfered in the dispute ; so that [we] 
were left to contend with our adversary, who exerted all 
his strength to withhold from us the proof of his villany. 
After a severe scuffle, the violence of our exertions at 
length brought us all to the ground near the sideboard, 
from whence I snatched a knife and threatened the Major, 
that if he did not instantly disclose what he had in his 
hand I would cut it open. Finding it vain to contend 
any longer, he at last complied, and we, with a mixture 
of indignation and astonishment, discovered the object of 
our search, namely a pair of dice, while those with which 
the company played remained on the table. 

Upon examination we found them to be so contrived 
as never to throw seven ; a main which the Major 


constantly called ; so that whatever chance he brought, 
though apparently against him, Was in p fact -in his 
favour. He took all the odds that were ofFeredlhim and 
of course could never lose. 

We now found it as difficult to protect the Major 
from the rage of the company as we had before to 
procure assistance against him. The majority were for 
throwing him out of the window ; and indeed the poor 
devil himself, almost dead with apprehension, seemed to 
expect nothing but instant destruction. He pressed my 
hand and begged for mercy. My compassion was 
moved, which at once suppressed my resentment ; and 
he was through my intercession, joined by that of my 
friend, at length suffered to depart, after I had given him 
a glass of wine to raise his drooping spirits and enable 
him to find his way home. 

That which generally happens at all gaming-tables, 
in consequence of a scuffle, was precisely the case at 
ours ; for not only all the money which the Major had 
won, and lay before him on the table, disappeared, but 
every individual of the company complained of having 
been either cheated or robbed — for the truth of which I 
can vouch with respect to one of the company, as on my 
return home I found myself Hterally penniless. 

I took care to get the false and the fair dice sealed up 
by the groom-porter, in whose possession they were left 
till the next day, when he had orders to deliver them 
into the hands of Sir Charles B — ,^ the Steward of the 

' Sir Chas. Bunbury, Bart., one of the Stewards of the Jockey Club, 
the same who with Ralph Dutton and Thomas Panton conducted the 
famous investigation in reference to the suspicious running of H.R.H.'s 
Escape at Newmarket on two consecutive days in October 1 791. See 
Huish, Memoirs of George IV. 


Course, who produced them at the Jockey Club, of which 
I was a member, and it happened that the Prince of 
Wales dined with us that day. The implements were 
handed about and every one had a fling at the unfortunate 
Major : for among gamblers as well as among women, 
reputation is of the most tender nature, and consequently 
is injured, or perhaps utterly lost, by the smallest stain or 

The Prince highly commended our conduct : but at 
the same time observed that had we failed in our attempt 
to wrest from the Mai or the incontestible proof of his 
fraudulent practice, we should probably have cause to 
repent our enterprise. 

The Maior, as we afterwards learned, set off, in about 
a quarter of an hour after he had left us, for Falmouth, 
where he embarked for Jamaica, in hopes of arriving 
there in time to sell his property before his disgrace 
should be known in that quarter of the globe. But not- 
withstanding all his caution and expedition, the story got 
the start of him ; and to his utter ruin, had even reached 
the ears of his relation. Admiral G — , who would not 
admit him into his presence. 

Thus disgraced and disappointed, he re-embarked for 
England, and died, as was generally supposed through 
excessive grief and vexation, on his passage. 

The races being now over, at which, contrary to my 
usual custom, I met with some success, and having made 
some necessary arrangements, I returned to London and 
soon resumed my former course of life. 

Mv next trip was to Newmarket, a glorious arena ! 
in which I had an opportunity of entering the lists 


against Mr. F — / not in a political discussion or a 
trial of oratorical powers, though in these I might have 
made some proficiency had I availed myself of the very 
favourable opportunities that presented themselves to me 
on my first setting out in life, having been returned a 
Member in the Irish Parliament at the early age of 
eighteen ; a circumstance which induced me to apply 
myself, for some time, to the study of the constitution, 
laws and commerce of the country, with that degree of 
attention and assiduity, which so important and arduous 
a pursuit required : but the dissipated life into which I 
afterwards plunged, soon put a period to this and every 
other serious and laudable application. 

But to return to Mr. P., there is not among his 
most devoted friends a greater admirer of his genius, 
talents and manly eloquence than I am : yet at that 
time, his abilities as a statesman were not less conspicuous 
than the dissipation of his manners. He could sit up a 
whole night at a gaming table, and the next day make the 
Treasury Bench shake by the force of arguments. In our 
contest I paid a compliment of two thousand guineas to 
his superior skill, and six thousand to several others of 
the same party : among whom was H.R.H. the Duke of 
Y — ,'^ so that the opposition was completely triumphant, 
and levied a pretty severe fine on my purse. 

Of all the severe losses I ever sustained, this was the 
one I least regretted ; as I had not the most remote idea 
of suspecting the honour or integrity of my antagonists. 

The French Revolution, at this time, began to make 

^ Charles James Fox. Amongst other well - known gamesters for 
whom gambling provided an introduction to the Statesman was the famous 
Casanova, whose life and general tastes bore a strong resemblance to those 
of Thomas Whaley. 

a Duke of York. 


some noise in the world. All Europe had their attention 
on the National Assembly. Our nation was particularly 
respected by the French, and the Constitution of England 
[was] looked upon as the best model for their intended 

This was the shield, under which the Orleans faction 
covered their designs, and concealed the horrors and wide- 
spreading evils they were then preparing for their ill-fated 
country. Under the pretext of reformation they drew 
to their party all those whose notions of hberty were 
perfectly consistent with principles of the very best 
constitution ; whilst the populace were enticed by the 
abolition of titles and the sacrifice of a few privileges 
which the faction could easily resume when their power 
was once established. By these means they concentrated 
the whole force of the kingdom, and at one blow, over- 
turned a monarchy which had stood the test of so many 

Amongst the many whom curiosity led to this won- 
derful scene of action, I repaired to Paris in the year 
1 79 1. On this occasion, and two more visits which I 
afterwards paid to France, I was enabled to make some 
observations on the infatuated people of that vast and 
once flourishing empire. 

With a considerable sum of money in my pocket, I 
arrived at Paris, that epitome of the world, where great- 
ness and meanness, riches and poverty, wisdom and folly, 
are all to be met with in their highest degree. 

This immense city has at all times been the rendezvous 
and asylum of all the intriguers and desperadoes of 
Europe. It was likewise the abode of the most cele- 
brated artists, as well as the most learned, the most 
opulent and most profligate of mankind. 


Every person I saw wore, in some shape or other, the 
tri-coloured ribband, as the symbol of Liberty. Through 
all the provinces I observed a general fermentation among 
the people ; but Paris was the focus whence emanated all 
the rays of enthusiasm to the most distant parts of the 

The Palais Royal was the general rendezvous of the 
conspirators, of whom its proprietor was the chief Here 
was laid the plan, and the hour fixed, for an insurrection 
which was to be regulated by a signal from the Water- 
works. In every part of the garden were groups of men, 
each group, or separate body, had their particular orator, 
thundering forth downfall and destruction to royalty. 

This may be justly termed the volcano, from whose 
baneful crater issued all the lava that desolated the finest 
provinces in France ; and might with equal justice be 
called the Academy of Sedition and Irreligion, where 
pupils were taught to deny their God and disobey their 

Any person resolute enough to combat these doctrines 
was sure of meeting with the grossest insults, and may 
think himself peculiarly fortunate if he escaped with 

Chairs, tables and stools were converted into rostrums 
from whence the Apostles of Sedition harangued their 
tumultuous auditors : and here I cannot help expressing 
my astonishment, that in such a nation as France then 
was, a few thousands of incendiaries should be permitted 
thus to deliberate on the subversion of the existing 
government, and meditate the destruction of all those 
who were inimical to their system. 

My heart was wrung on beholding in the Thuilleries 
the illustrious but unfortunate Royal family, who were 


doomed soon to be the victims of this popular 

When the most renowned monarch that ever go- 
verned France erected that edifice, he Uttle imagined that 
it should one day become the prison of the best and 
mildest of his descendants, and that its doors should be 
guarded by a band of miscreants many of whom had 
tasted largely of the bounty of their august prisoners. 

I often attended the sittings of the National Con- 
vention, where I could discover nothing of that sober 
dignity that might be expected from the representatives 
of a great nation. On the contrary the most violent and 
sanguinary measures were proposed and heard with 
rapture ; and the promoter of these measures applauded 
as one of the best and wisest legislators. 

Mirabeau and the Abbe Maury were the two great 
political combatants on this prize-fighting stage. A 
French writer very justly remarks on the former " that he 
was more famous than celebrated, more original than 
eloquent, and equally actuated by avarice and ambition." 
Totally lost to a sense of morality, he wanted even that 
suavity of manners which might give a sort of gloss to 
his vices ; and throughout his whole conduct manifested 
a degree of savage fierceness and audacity never known 
in any character before him. 

He generally had the majority on his side, as the 
violence of his doctrine was well adapted to the character 
of his auditors, mostly composed of the Orleans faction. 

But the Club of the Jacobins was the place where 
the whole contents of Pandora's Box seemed concentrated. 
Here the goddess of Liberty presided — not the mild 
beneficent deity, under whose protecting arm and salutary 
influence are experienced all those blessings and rational 


enjoyments, which man can reasonably expect or wish for 
in a state of civil society — but a strumpet assuming her 
name, and glorying in her attributes, in order to give a 
sanction to her votaries for pillage, massacre and every 
species of atrocity without control. 

It is impossible to conceive an institution more 
afflictive or more disgraceful to human nature than that 
which had acquired for its title the Jacobin Club. An 
assemblage of worthless wretches, who acknowledged no 
God but Voltaire ; no religious code but that of the 
visionary Rousseau ; no system of morality but that of 
the apostate Raynal, nor political jurisdiction but that of 
an assassin. 

With these principles, they made, and are still making 
war against all regular governments, and proscribing 
without scruple all who are eminent for probity, virtue 
or talents. 

That such a mass of corruption should have been able 
to erect itself, without control, into a supreme tribunal 
within the metropolis of a vast empire ; that its members 
should have established societies of their own order, in 
almost all the large cities of Europe, organized bands of 
robbers, prisoners and assassins, and shaken the thrones of 
sovereigns to their very foundations ; that they should 
have murdered their own King, his Royal Consort and 
sister, and poisoned the young and innocent offspring of 
sixty-six kings; in fine, [that] they should have been 
tamely suffered to imprison, banish, pillage and massacre 
all those who dared to oppose them, can only be accounted 
for by supposing the most extraordinary resignation on 
the one hand, and the most unparalleled audacity on the 

In this pandemonium I was desired to observe a little 

MARAT. 28 r 

man about five feet high, whose very aspect bespoke him 
the arch-fiend of the diabolic assembly — this Marat ! 

Before the Revolution, he had no other way of sub- 
sistence than that of vending herbs, which he affirmed to 
be the production of certain mountains in Switzerland) 
and, according to his account, possessed, in the most 
eminent degree, all those sanative qualities ascribed to our 
modern patent medicines.^ 

This man certainly had a most daring mind, and an 
unblushing front. He was not to be disconcerted by 
rebuffs, or intimidated by danger : in the prosecution of 
his designs no compunctions of humanity ever obtruded 
themselves to impede his progress. 

From this infernal mansion I was impatient to depart, 
and again to visit the haunts of men. I was soon intro- 
duced to a society of a very different stamp, where I met 
with agreeable women, good cheer and deep play. This 
was the " Pavilion d'Hanovre," built by Marechal De 
RicheUeu on his return from his campaigns in Germany. 
It was then occupied by the Viscount C — , whose vices 
and immorality were as conspicuous as his rank. 

To this distinguished apostate I was introduced : and 
as he had previously received some information concerning 
me, he regulated his motions accordingly. 

I was received with the highest degree of affability 
and respect, and as he spoke English tolerably well, we 
conversed for some time in that language ; after which he 
introduced me to the ladies ; who were all expert at their 
trade, and perfect mistresses of the art of seduction. 
" Has milord been long in France ? " said one. " Does 

1 Marat's diploma of Doctor of Medicine was conferred by the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1775. The document is set out in full 
by his latest apologist, Mr. E. Belfort Bax, at p. 61 of Jean Paul Marat, 
The People's Friend, ed. 1901. Before going to Scotland, Marat seems to 
have resided in Dublin for a year. Ibid. p. 25. 


he propose to make any stay in it ? " says another. " It 
cannot be for the purpose of learning the language," 
observed a third, " as he already speaks it with greater 
purity than we do ourselves." 

The men too, played off all the artillery of their wit 
and politeness. They were all soi-disant men of fashion, 
and talked much of their influence at court : but I after- 
wards learned that they were a set of rascals, hired for the 
same purpose as the women. 

The only victims present were a counsellor of the 
Parliament and myself, though the company consisted of 
at least thirty. The counsellor was, according to the 
phrase, entirely done up, having lost his whole fortune 
left him by his father, 2. fermier-generale, which amounted 
to upwards of ^300,000. 

The dinner was served up with a display of profusion 
and elegance, while the lively conversation of the ladies 
gave the highest zest to our entertainment : for it must be 
granted, that the French ladies surpass those of any other 
nation in their agreeable manner of conversing and their 
lively turns of imagination ; and in this opinion, I am 
convinced all my countrymen who have visited France 
will concur. 

With the French, the manner is all in all ; and pro- 
vided a thing be done with a good grace, the merits of it 
form but a secondary consideration. A Frenchman offers 
you his house, his table, his horses, and even his wife ; 
and the last article is, perhaps, the only one he means you 
should accept. 

In France fashion governs everything ; and the spirit 
of intrigue prevails so much among them, that a man of 
the ton would be as much ashamed of even the appearance 
of an attachment to his wife, as if [he] were detected in 


any improper or dishonourable act. In other respects, 
the French character, unsophisticated by the " Rights of 
Man," is truly respectable. They are warm in friendship, 
brave, generous and loyal to excess. 

The good cheer and conviviality that prevailed at the 
viscount's table was entirely to my taste. The first day I 
played but little : nor indeed was I much pressed or 
solicited : for as they saw that I nibbled at the bait, they 
entertained no doubt but that I would soon swallow the 
hook : nor were they deceived ; as in a few days after I 
returned to the lure and in two sittings they contrived to 
ease me of three thousand louis. This obliged me to pay 
another visit to Ireland in order to recruit my purse. 

The evening before I quitted Paris, I was present at 
the return of the King, after having been stopped at 
Varennes, by the order of Romoeuf, son of Tenant \sicY 
to La Fayette and at that time his aide-de-camp. 

Romoeuf on that day decided the fate of France ; and 
the emigrants in London had the mortification of seeing 
in that very city, for upwards of two years, the villain 
who had the audacity to arrest his king and lead him to 
prison, from whence he was never brought but to meet 
the regicide judges and ascend the scaffold. 

When the King's flight was known at Paris, an 
universal consternation prevailed throughout the city. 
Each party was apprehensive of some ill consequences 
from the event ; though Garat in his Memoirs positively 
asserts that the whole was previously known, and either 
forwarded or connived at by all. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon, I procured by the 
help of a few louis d'ors, a seat in a sort of theatre, built 
for the purpose at the Gate of the Thuilleries. 

' ? sub-lieutenant. 


A general order was issued that a profound silence 
should be observed, and that no person, on any pretence, 
should take off his hat. The King's carriage was sur- 
rounded by National Guards, who formed an impenetrable 
mass against bands of assassins said to be employed by 
Orleans ; and his subsequent conduct proved that there 
was just ground for this conjecture. 

La Fayette encouraged the mob in the grossest insults 
against the Royal family, and often repeated the order 
that no one should uncover. This, however, did not 
prevent me from lifting my hat as the King passed : for 
which I should have paid dearly were it not for one of 
the National Guards, who persuaded the sans culottes to 
do me no injury by assuring them I was a mad Irishman.^ 

There were in the carriage with the Royal family 
two of the commissaries, Barnave and Petion. The latter 
had the Dauphin on his knee during the whole pro- 
cession. La Tour Maubourg, the third commissary, 
was in another carriage. On the box of the King's coach 
were seated the two Gardes du Corps, young men of 
family and fortune. They had their hands tied like the 
vilest criminal, and their faces exposed to the scorching 
sun, encountering wherever they turned their eyes, the 
ferocious countenances of a set of miscreants who were 
ready to tear them piecemeal for their attachment and 
fidelity to the best of Kings. 

One of these Gardes, as avant coureur, had got some 
miles beyond Varennes when he heard [of] the King's 
arrest ; and though he might have made his escape, yet 
he could not for a moment entertain the idea of 
abandoning his Royal master. His name was Vallory, 
and I feel much pleasure in having it in my power to 
1 Mad man. MS. No. 2. 


rescue from oblivion this act of generous loyalty in this 
young man. 

The King's return restored a temporary tranquillity to 
the metropolis ; and I gladly availed myself of this calm, 
to demand my passport, which was immediately granted. 

In a short time after my arrival in Dublin I sold an 
estate which produced me twenty-five thousand pounds ; 
and having paid some debts and made a few necessary 
purchases, I returned to Paris with fourteen thousand 
pounds in my pocket. 

I found this city in a state of greater tumult than 
when I left it. The hirelings of faction grew every day 
bolder and less restrained in their insults to the King. It 
was at this time a horde of regicides, headed by St. 
Huruge and Barras, broke into the palace, and though 
they did not effect the horrid purpose for which there is 
every reason to believe they were employed, yet every 
outrage, short of murder, was committed against this 
unfortunate family. 

I shall not attempt to describe the heartrending scene 
to which I myself was an eye-witness ; nor would any 
language express the different sensations which alternately 
took possession of my soul. Pity, rage, and loyalty 
forced from me a torrent of tears, which a regard to self- 
preservation should have induced me [to] suppress. 

I beheld the unfortunate King full of mildness and 
majesty, pitying and still loving his deluded subjects. 
He was obliged to drink the health of those who sought 
his blood, assassinated his amiable family, overturned his 
throne, and deluged his fair kingdom with the blood of 
its most noble inhabitants. 

At length Petion, the Mayor of Paris, arrived, and 
having harangued these brave citizens and applauded their 


conduct, he had sufficient influence over them to persuade 
them immediately to retire. Nor is this to be wondered 
at, as he was the very person who had planned the 
proceedings of that memorable day. But what renders 
this man's character odious in the highest degree is, that 
a few days before the tumult he had a conference with 
the King, and received a large sum of money to induce 
him to use his influence and authority in preventing any 
outrage that may be attempted against the Royal family. 

The next day I observed, in a printshop, a caricature 
representing the Duke of Orleans playing at picquet with 
the King. The Duke wore the bonnet rouge, and the 
King appeared endeavouring to prevent his crown from 
falling off his head. A label from the King's mouth 
contained these words. " I have discarded the Hearts : 
He has all the Spades " — in French, " Piques" which 
means both " Spades " at cards and " Pikes " as a weapon 
— " I've lost the Game." 

While I was reflecting on this severe sarcasm, I 
recognized a person whom I had often seen at Marseilles 
and London. He once possessed a very considerable 
fortune, which in early youth he squandered, and was 
now reduced to the necessity of living on the fruits of an 
experience dearly bought ; of which he so well availed 
himself that he supported the appearance and, what is 
much more extraordinary, the character of a gentleman ; 
having never been known, by any voluntary act, to incur 
the imputation of meanness or dishonesty. In the course 
of my acquaintance with him, I had many opportunities 
of proving the sincerity of his friendship and the strict- 
ness of his principles as a man of true honour and 

His knowledge of mankind was extensive : and as he 


was admitted into all societies, he was equally conversant 
in the tricks and frauds practised by adventurers both in 
high and low life. 

After some general conversation, he asked how long I 
had been at Paris. Upon which I told him I wfas just 
returned from Dublin, and related to him the cause of my 
journey. " It was very unlucky," said he, " that I 
happened not [to] be in Paris at the time, or I might 
have prevented your falling into the hands of the Philis- 
tines : but," continued he, " pardon me the expression, 
you seem born to be continually a dupe — I shall prove it 
to you whenever you please — and it is vain to contend 
with fate." 

" That may very virell be," replied I, " but at all 
events come and breakfast with me to-morrow morning." 
We parted for the present, and in the morning my 
friend was announced before I was out of bed. 

After breakfast the subject of our conversation the 
preceding day was resumed, and I detailed to him the 
several severe losses I had sustained at the Pavilion of 

" My dear W — " he exclaimed " it is astonishing 
that you are yet to learn that within these ten years the 
practice of knavery has been reduced into a regular 
science. That it has infected all societies and that you 
cannot go into any house of high or low degree without 
meeting with swarms of adventurers, whose whole study, 
day and night, is how they may plunder their neighbours 
with impunity. I know them all by their names, titles 
and degree of proficiency. I may easily guard you 
against their different modes of deception. You must 
consider that in Paris you cannot find deep play, unless 
it be at a very great disadvantage. 


"The games which are generally introduced in 
polite circles are pharo and rouge et noir, at which the 
holders of the bank have so great an advantage that it 
is impossible but a punter must be a loser in the course 
of a month, let him play with ever so much caution 
and even apparent success." 

" If that be the case," then said I, " 'tis astonishing 
that there are so many players at a game, so decidedly 
against them." 

" You are to consider," replied my friend, " that it 
is not every person who can command a sufficient 
capital to set up a bank ; and many who can are deterred 
by the greatness of the stake, as it requires no less than 
five or six thousand pounds, not considering that they 
lose little by little, as punters, what would be sufficient 
to establish a bank. 

" Besides, there are various motives and many induce- 
ments to gaming. Some enter into it from a natural 
inclination, without once considering whether the chances 
are for or against them. Others out of indolence, not 
knowing how else to employ their time, and many 
whose affairs are deranged or fortunes ruined, hope by 
some lucky run to retrieve their affairs. You will like- 
wise find great numbers who frequent these places merely 
for the good cheer that is to be found in them ; though 
they might regale themselves on much more reasonable 
terms at any tavern in town. — All these can only be 

" The ostensible holders of the bank are generally 
low fellows ; gamblers by profession and adepts in their 
art. They are of obscure family, and most of them have 
obtained by swindling the very capital which constitutes 
their sole establishment. 


" With these swindlers people of property have of 
late years associated themselves, thinking it an excellent 
method to let their money out to advantage." 

" You seem," said I, " to have a complete knowledge 
of the business ; but if the advantage be so great, why 
do not you yourself hold a bank .? " 

" For a very good reason, the want of means," 
answered he. I told him that I had a capital more than 
sufficient for the purpose, and that I would readily embark 
in it, if I thought it would succeed. He said he would 
answer for the success : but that it would be necessary, in 
case of such an establishment, to have a confidential person 
whose business it would be to watch with the strictest 
attention over those who deal and play. " For you must 
know," continued he, " that it is not here as in London, 
where people of rank and character undertake that office. 

" In Paris, a gentleman would think himself dis- 
graced by such an employment. The bank holders are 
therefore under the necessity of employing poor wretches 
for this purpose, who are paid a couple of louis a night 
for their trouble : and as they are fellows devoid of 
the principles of honour and integrity they are often 
bribed by sharpers to cheat their employers. But if 
you be determined to put your design into execution, 
I shall take care to guard against them, as I am perfectly 
well acquainted with all their tricks. 

" The ancient chancellerie of the Duke of Orleans is 
now to be let ; a most commodious situation for our 
purpose ; and you will find there an excellent cook, a 
character of no small importance in our household ; 
for the votaries in these temples pay the most devout 
homage to those altars where the richest morceaux and 
the most delicate viands abound." 


After this disquisition I gave him unlimited powers 
to arrange every thing relative to the business, and 
assured him that the money should be forthcoming 
when required. 

Thus empowered my friend set to work, and in a 
few days we made every necessary arrangement and 
opened shop : nor were we long without customers ; 
to the increase and continuance of which the skill of 
our cook contributed not a little. 

I received, for two months, the genteelest and most 
numerous company ever met with in Paris on such 
occasions, and gained by this speculation about fifty 
thousand pounds,^ part of which was expended in 

' Altered from fifty to fifteen in MS. No. 2. 


A Journey to Switzerland — Lausanne — The Glaciers — Mh B. — Some 
Observations on the Swiss — Their Candour — Their Bravery — Their 
Honesty — National Honour — Public Justice — Geneva — Milan — 
Florence — Rome — Some Reflections on Italy, 

The troubles in Paris increasing daily, and the season 
for going to Switzerland approaching, our punters fell off 
by degrees, many of whom went to join the emigrant 
princes. I therefore determined to visit Switzerland, and 
accordingly mounted my carriage : I had, besides, four 
others that followed me, with an immense retinue, not 
forgetting my cook and thirty led horses. 

My purse was considerably diminished, notwith- 
standing the success of my bank. 

'Tis true there was due to me twenty-five thousand 
pounds, a. shilling of which, in all probability, I shall 
never touch — thanks to the Revolution, which deprived 
my debtors of the means of payment. 

On my route I was often stopped and examined by the 
sans culottes, who were now the supreme rulers ; but at 
length I arrived without any accident at Lausanne, the 
general rendezvous of foreigners who visit Switzerland. 
At that time it was full of genteel company, and though 
I did not stake a single crown at play, I contrived to 
amuse myself tolerably well. 

My first object was to set my French cook to work, 
whose rare talents I did not suffer to remain unemployed, 

u 2 


as I kept open table for strangers in general, but more 
particularly for my own countrymen. Scarce an evening 
passed but we had a tea-party and a ball, at which was 
always present a number of beautiful and accomplished 
women, many of whom were of the first quality. Among 
those who honoured me with their presence, were the 
Princess Loubomeski,^ formerly the favourite of the King 
of Poland, and the Princess Joseph de Monaco, both of 
whom have since been guillotined at Paris, whither they 
went contrary to the advice and remonstrances of all their 

Besides these, I was often visited by the Russian 
Princess Bellouski, with her intimate friend Miss 
Cassenove, and Miss de'Apraxim, who had been accused 
and convicted of polygamy.'' But when the Duchess of 
D — ' honoured those assemblies with her presence she at 
■once attracted the attention and admiration of the 
company by the beauty of her person and her mental 

From this charming society I separated, with reluc- 
tance, in consequence of a resolution I had formed of 
making a tour round the glaciers and of endeavouring if 
possible, to ascend Mount Blanc. In my route I had the 
pleasure of meeting Lord Charles T — and Mr. B — ■, the 
former of whom has since lost his life in a manner 
peculiarly unfortunate : an event which I can never re- 
member but with extreme concern, having conceived for 
him a most sincere friendship and esteem, founded upon a 
knowledge of his merit and distinguished virtues. 

I shall not attempt a description of the glaciers and 

^ ? Lubomirski. 

^ MS. No. 2 reads " Miss C — and Miss D'A — daughter or the 
Count D'A — who had been accused, etc.'* 

^ Devonshire, as appears by Cloncurry's Personal Recollections. 


Mount Blanc ; but refer my readers to the account given 
by Monsieur de Sausure/ who expended a considerable 
part of his fortune in the most dangerous attempts to dis- 
cover whatever was rare or worthy of observation in those 
grand wonders of nature. He has composed a scientific 
work about the Alps ; in which he gives their altitude, 
describes the immense masses of snow which cover them, 
with some learned conjectures about their probable 
duration ; ascertains the weight of the air and gives a 
minute account of the fossils and metals contained in the 
bowels of those vast mountains. 

He is the only man who has acquired the glory of 
attaining the summit of Mount Blanc, where he has left a 
bottle containing a paper with his name inscribed on it. 

The reading of his work filled my mind with a desire 
of doing the same, and of paying homage to this great 
man, by placing my name next to this bottle. But 
whether it was not the proper season, or that the weather 
was unusually severe, we had not proceeded above two- 
thirds of the ascent when, owing to a violent shower of 
hail, a mass of snow detached itself from the mountain 
and killed two of our guides, which so intimidated the 
rest that it was impossible to prevail on them to proceed 
one step farther ; as they aiBrmed that the snow would 
soon fall in such masses as would inevitably overwhelm us 
all. I was now left alone with Lord Charles, and after 
some deliberation we determined to join our cowardly 
attendants ; as any attempt to proceed without them 
would be vain. 

We therefore returned to Lausanne, and the next day 
I received an invitation to a ball given by the Princess 
B . Besides the pleasure I took in dancing, I 

1 Saussure (H. B. de), Foyages dans les Alpes : two vols. Neufchatel, 


found myself induced, by another motive of a more 
powerful ascendancy, to accept this invitation. Miss E. 
the friend and companion of the Princess, was rich only 
in the gifts of nature, improved by accomplishments, the 
chief of which were music and painting, in which she 
eminently excelled. With these natural and acquired 
advantages, she began her career of conquests, in hopes of 
procuring a husband who might make amends for her 
only deficiency. 

It is natural to suppose, that a young man of my turn 
could not long remain insensible to so many attractions, 
and I made no scruple of telling her so. My assiduities 
were not rejected. I ventured a love-declaration in 
writing, to which she vouchsafed such an answer as 
induced a regular correspondence highly pleasing to me. 
But all my endeavours to procure a private interview 
were inelfectual, as I never could see her but in the 
company of her patroness ; and I could plainly perceive 
that both of them meant I should be indebted to Hymen 
for what I hoped to obtain by means of love alone. 

However, I still continued my assiduities in hopes of 
turning to my advantage the first favourable opportunity. 
But as none offered, I gave up the pursuit ; nor did I 
suffer much pain from the disappointment. 
I At Evian, a small town of Savoy on the borders of 

the lake, lived at that time an English gentleman, 
remarkable for his literary talents, his immense fortune, 
and still more so by the imputation of a crime which has 
been alleged against him, of a nature so horrible, that I 
wish to draw a veil over it, scarcely believing it possible 
that a man so amiable in every respect could ever have 
been so depraved. 

The bare accusation, however, has obliged him to 
quit his native country, where such a crime is looked 


upon with a degree of abhorrence equal to its enormity. 
I shall not hazard any farther opinion respecting this 
extraordinary charge against him, but merely relate a 
conversation that passed between him and a friend of 
mine who was on a very intimate footing with him. 

One day in a tete a tete my friend ventured to touch 
on the awful subject, or the suspicion entertained by the 
world against him. Mr. B — 1 solemnly declared that it 
was nothing but mere suspicion ; and that he would not 
exist an hour under a consciousness of having wilfully 
given cause or grounds for such a suspicion, and hoped 
that time would manifest to the world a much clearer 
proof of his innocence than ever was adduced of his 

But to return to the ball. After a few country 
dances, the Princess proposed that the whole party, 
consisting of the Princess L — , the family of the 
Apraxims, the two Princes Camille, Jules and the writer 
of these memoirs, should pay a visit to Mr. B — , which 
was unanimously agreed to : and accordingly the next 
morning we all embarked to cross the lake ; and after 
two hours pleasant navigation arrived at Evian. The 
Prince Camille, who was very intimate with Mr. B — , 
introduced us severally. And I do not think, that I ever 
saw a man of a more captivating exterior than our host : 
nor did he appear less indebted to nature for the endow- 
ments of his mind, for during the twenty-four hours 
that we passed with him, we were constantly entertained 
with something new and interesting in his conversation. 

The dinner was sumptuous, and served with the 
utmost taste and elegance : during the repast we were 
entertained with a concert, performed by a select band 

1 William Beckford (1759-1844), author of Vathek, and other works. 
* See Appendix. 


of twenty-four musicians, which he keeps constantly in 
his pay. When we had taken our coffee, Mr. B— gave 
us several airs of his own composition, on the piano- 
forte, which he touched with masterly execution and 
exquisite taste. 

Afterwards the carriages were announced : the whole 
company were conveyed in coaches-and-four, and on about 
twenty saddle-horses, to the distance of about four miles, 
where we arrived at a most delightful wood, in the midst 
of which was a garden laid out in the English taste, 
adorned with statues, and here and there with clumps of 
the most odoriferous flowering shrubs. 

Here, while we sauntered, our ears were often unex- 
pectedly struck with the softest music, the performers of 
which were to us invisible, and the sounds were rever- 
berated, with ravishing melody, by the echoing mountains 
which surrounded us, so that the whole appeared the 
effect of enchantment. 

On our return to the house we were presented with 
tea and sweetmeats, the whole concluding with a ball, at 
which this admirable exile shewed himself as great an 
adept in dancing as he had before done in music. Our 
amusements continued till morning, when we all re- 
embarked on our return to Lausanne, after taking leave of 
our kind host, who expressed his hopes that we would 
often favour him with our company in his retirement. 

During our passage across the lake, nothing was talked 
of but this modern Anacreontic LucuUus. 

The ladies were very lavish in his praise, not knowing, 
or seeming to know, anything of the cause which 
brought him to his present abode. They all agreed that 
the woman who could inspire him with love, must be the 
envy of her sex ; while each, perhaps, fancied herself the 
only one who stood a chance for such a distinction. 


One young lady in particular seemed to be of that 
opinion ; but she laid her snares with so little caution 
and address, that Mr. B — who was a wary bird, easily 
escaped being entangled ; and he proved to her, by 
his very particular attention and cold civilities that 
marriage was not [so] attracting a lure as the young lady 

The next morning I paid a visit to the Duchess of 
D — , accompanied by two of the ladies who were of the 
party the preceding day ; where I found a large company ; 
and close to her ladyship, as usual, her two faithful 
attendants. I cannot pass over what appeared to me a 
peculiarity in this distinguished lady, which is, that she 
gives to all persons introduced to her, a gracious recep- 
tion : nor can she by any coldness of manners or sarcastic 
mode of civility, drive any one from her presence, however 
disagreeable in manners or conversation. 

Of this weakness, and an amiable weakness it must 
surely be allowed, two old gentlemen, and both con- 
spicuous characters, took advantage, and were as constant 
at her levee as her attendants. When I entered the room 
and saw her thus attended, it instantly brought to my 
mind the picture of Susanna between the two elders.^ 

The one was a Swiss physician, in his person the very 
transcript of Don Quixote, and a Thomas Diafoirus^ in 
his conversation. He had raised his reputation a little 
by the publication of a sort of medical nomenclature ; 
though in his own practice he prescribed but one remedy 
for all diseases, and as his patients were of the beau monde, 

1 There is a copy in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, of the 
Catalogue of the " Cabinet and Gallery Pictures " sold by auction on the 
2 1st and 22nd June, 1849, at No. 86 Stephen's Green, which mentions a 
picture (lot 67) of ** Susannah and the Elders " after Guercino, of which 
Whaley was possibly thinking here. 

* Moliere — Malade Imaginaire. 


whose disorders were, for the most part, imaginary, he 
was tolerably successful. 

The other was the most renowned and most volu- 
minous historian of our age ; -^ but whatever pleasure the 
reading of his works may afford, it was more than 
counterbalanced by the insipidity of his conversation. 

Some of the company made inquiries concerning our 
expedition to Evian, and when I had related the par- 
ticulars, the historian observed, with a truly pedantic air, 
" that it was astonishing any Englishman would visit 
a man who lay under such an imputation as Mr. B — 
did : that even supposing him innocent still some regard 
was due to the opinion of the world ; and he would venture 
to say, that I was the only one among my countrymen 
who had ever paid that man the smallest attention since 
his banishment." The only reply I made to his im- 
pertinent animadversion was, that I did not look upon 
this little piece of history as any way deserving the 
attention of so great a man. 

The Duchess complacently smiled : the rest of the 
company looked grave ; my pedant was dumb, and I took 
my leave. 

The season for enjoying Switzerland being nearly over, 
I prepared for my departure. But before I quit it I shall 
take the liberty of saying a few words concerning the 
character of that nation, described by so many authors ; 
and this I do, because the observations I have made differ 
so materially from all the accounts I have read. 

It is certain that at present no trace can be discovered 
of the cotemporaries of William Tell. All those who 
have given any account of Switzerland are lavish in their 
descriptions of the beauties of the country, where nature 

' Ed. Gibbon. 


is permitted to indulge herself in all her native grandeur 
and majesty, unrestrained by the intrusive hand of art. 

The inhabitants are represented [as] candid, brave and 
laborious, faithful and steady in their friendship, and 
always ready to sacrifice their lives in support of their 
country's honour. The women are said to be handsome, 
domestic, virtuous, without any propensity to expensive 

I confess that I had not penetration enough to discover 
these rare perfections during my residence among them. 
And as to their frankness and candour, they appeared to 
me rather boorish, except when they have any point to 
carry and then they are all civility and complaisance ; but 
not in the least degree more candid on that account. And 
since the Canton of Berne has taken upon itself to regulate 
the others, whatever degree of candour they might have 
possessed before is considerably diminished, owing to the 
electioneering intrigues carried on previous to the nomi- 
nation of magistrates. 

They are said to be brave — true ; if a sort of 
mechanical courage, hired out to the best bidder, can be 
called bravery. But I never saw in them any instance of 
that true courage, which consists in a jealous sense of 
honour and a congenial warmth in the cause of friendship. 
When they fight among themselves, it is with sticks ; and 
as they never engage upon equal terms, the contest is soon 
decided by the weak yielding to the strong. The 
peasants and mechanics spend half the day in eating 
and their nights at the tavern. In fact none among them 
can be justly called laborious but the women. They 
indeed are never idle, and seem only to hold the place of 
upper servants in the family. 

I have heard the Swiss praised for their honesty. To 
this I shall only say, that upon entering Switzerland, I 


was particularly cautioned to beware of the roguery of 
servants ; which salutary advice I did not attend to, and 
suffered accordingly. 

As to the sacrifices they are always ready to make in 
support of the honour of their country, the French 
Revolution affords a sufficient answer. Never was a 
people so degraded and insulted as the Swiss were upon 
that occasion. It cannot be forgotten that the regiment 
of Wallwill [sky was disarmed at Aix in Provence by 
the National Guard, and shamefully driven home — a 
direct infringement of the rights of treaties and the laws 
of nations. And when the Swiss Guards were massacred 
at Paris, and the brave Major Bachman executed on a 
public scaffold, the silence of the thirteen Cantons upon 
these events convinced the revolutionists that they might 
have effected any attempt they pleased against that nation 
with impunity. 

That Switzerland, after the efforts she had made to 
shake off the imperial yoke and erect herself into a 
republic, should not have turned her arms against France, 
while pursuing a similar object, is in no way surprising : 
on the contrary, it was rather to be expected that she 
would rather have assisted, from motives of religion and 
policy, in bringing about the Revolution. But that any 
regular government should tamely submit to the grossest 
insults without making one attempt to obtain redress, 
exceeds credibility, and is not to be paralleled in ancient 
or modern history. 

They have even gone further : they have received 
into their States an ambassador from the Jacobins, citizen 

1 Whaley evidently refers to Major de Watteville, the commanding 
officer of the Bernese regiment of Ernst, which laid down arms, and sur- 
rendered to a band of desperate Marsillians in February, 1 792. See Planta, J., 
History of the Helvetic Confederation^ ii. 336-7. Lond. 1800. 


Barthelemy, a political camelion, [who] has successively 
dictated to them the orders he received either from 
Orleans or Brissot, CoUot de Herbois or Robespierre, 
Madame Tallien or the Five Kings ; and they have 
constantly bent with the most abject submission under 
the yoke of those tyrants. Some individuals have even 
given up their crosses of the order of St. Lewis, in direct 
violation of the oath they had taken on receiving it. 

Their strict administration of justice has been much 
extolled — the following instance will shew how justly. 
In travelling through the country, I stopped at Schaff- 
hausen to spend the night. Our supper, for two, 
consisted of milk porridge, four eggs, some middling 
kind of bread, and a pint of excellent wine. Our 
chamber and beds every way corresponded with this 
delicious fare. In the morning our conscientious host 
made no scruple of charging thirty-six livres for our 
supper and beds. The charge was truly exorbitant ; yet 
to avoid any sort of altercation, I threw a louis on the 
table, declaring that I would pay no more. But as he 
still persisted in demanding the full amount of his charge, 
I at length said to him, " Surely, my friend, there is 
justice to be had in this country. I insist upon going 
immediately to the magistrate." " You need not go far, 
then," said mine host dryly, " I am the magistrate, and if 
you once oblige me to assume the magisterial character I 
shall make you pay double for your contumacy." In fact, 
it was the burgomaster of the town I had to deal with, 
and I was under the necessity of satisfying his rapacity as 
an innkeeper to escape his injustice as a magistrate. 

I read in the public papers that the French had 
violated the territory of the Grisons, by which circum- 
stance the Cantons became at the mercy of the French 


Republic, the first consequence of which was an order to 
banish all French emigrants out of the country. These 
people had never been a burden to the Swiss : on the con- 
trary, they had expended considerable sums of money 
among them ; and to this alone they were indebted for 
the favourable reception they met with. 

As to the women, they are much the same in Switzer- 
land as in other places. At Berne, Zurich and Soleure,i 
you see them all dressed in the English or French 
fashions. In love intrigues they are in no way inferior to 
their neighbours ; and the readiest way to gain your point 
with a Swiss lady is by splendid entertainments or 
presents. When a young lady in Switzerland, as is often 
the case, becomes a mother before she is a wife, the lover 
is obliged to pay a certain sum of money unless he 
chooses to marry, which effectually seals up the lips of her 
relations and in some degree patches up her tattered 

I cannot conclude these observations without briefly 
mentioning an establishment called the Matte, which is 
sanctioned by Government. This consists of public baths, 
where prostitutes are hired out at stated fares like our 
hackney coaches. A State that encourages such an insti- 
tution certainly cannot boast much of its attention to the 
morals of youth. 

For the present we shall take leave of the Helvetic 
States and turn our attention to Geneva, whose restless 
disposition has produced a number of revolutions in a very 
short space of time. 

These revolutions were set on foot by foreign powers, 
in hopes of gaining possession of that rich and industrious 
city, and seconded by bribed incendiaries within. On 

1 The French form of Solothurn. 

GENEVA. 303 

my entrance into the town, I was struck with a scene 
truly afflicting. 

As the French had just entered Chambery, about 
five or six thousand emigrants, French and Savoyards, 
had taken refuge in Geneva. Among these were 
numbers of priests, women, and children, covered with 
mud and miserably drenched in rain, having been exposed 
to all the inclemency of a most tempestuous night. 

These poor wretches stood shivering in the streets 
and not one dared to afford them the least shelter or 
relief ; neither could they pursue their journey by land 
to Switzerland, as the little town of Versoix was at that 
time garrisoned by the French. They had therefore no 
way or means of arriving there but by crossing the lake, 
which was attended by many difficulties, as there were 
but few boats and for these the Genevese charged most 
exorbitant prices, well knowing these unfortunate people 
were entirely at their mercy. 

Chambery being then in the hands of the French, 
which prevented me from passing over Mt. Cenis, I 
hired a large boat to take me across the lake back again 
to Lausanne ; from whence it was my intention to pass 
through the Tyrolese into Italy. 

We had scarcely proceeded a quarter of a league 
when we perceived a dozen boats coming out of the 
port of Versoix, forming a sort of line across the lake ; 
and at the same time, saw a small one approaching us 
from Geneva ; upon which we lay to till she came up 
alongside. In this I met two friends, who advised me 
by no means to continue my voyage ; as the French, 
whom I saw were a banditti, determined to pillage all 
who fell in their way. 

As I had a number of emigrants with me, to whom 


I had granted a passage, and knew that my danger would 
be encreased by having them on board, I determined to 
return and risk going by land to Lausanne, which I at 
last accomplished after having been stopped at Versoix, 
but upon producing my passport I was suffered to 
/ When I arrived at Lausanne I learned that Mr. B.i 

had quitted his retirement at Evian,^ not choosing to 
reside in any place occupied by the French, and had 
hired a house for three months at Lausanne ; but the 
very day of his arrival he was given to understand by 
a peremptory message from Monsieur L. Baron de E., 
then Bailiff of the town, that he must immediately 
depart, and that if he or any of his people were to be 
found there by seven the morning following, they should 
be taken ,into custody. 

An order so severe, and conveyed in such harsh 
terms, excited much surprise ; but Mr. B. thought it 
most prudent to obey. The reason alleged for this 
extraordinary conduct was that Mr. B. was suspected of 
having, by means of a considerable sum of money, 
favoured the escape of a prisoner, who had been confined 
upwards of twenty years on conviction of being the 
chief in forming a conspiracy at Rolles, the object of 
which was that of detaching this bailiwick from its 
dependance on Berne and of delivering it into the hands 
of the French. 

It is certain that the prisoner made his escape at that 
time : but I cannot persuade myself that Mr. B. took any 
part in the business, as he must be convinced that nothing 
could result from his interference in that affair, but the 
hatred and animosity of those very people among whom 

1 Beckford. ' See Appendix, Extract from Beckford's Letters. 

IN ITALY. 305 

he meant to fix his residence. But what surprises me 
the most is that Mr. B. never made any application to 
our court for redress against so gross an insult offered 
to a British subject. But probably he conceived that 
an application of that sort would be attended with so 
much trouble and humiliation, that his proud and inde- 
pendent spirit could not stoop to hazard the attempt. ^^__/ 

I now bade my last adieu to Switzerland : and after 
having visited the famous Waterfall of the Rhine, about 
half a league from Schaffhausen, I continued my route 
through the Tyrolese, as far as Milan without making 
any stop, except at Trent, situated at the foot of the 
Alps, famous for the general Council called the Council 
of Trent, which lasted eighteen years, and whose decision 
forms the basis on which the principal tenets of the 
Popish religion are founded. 

At Milan I spent three weeks in admiring one of 
the largest and most magnificent cities of Italy. The 
metropolitan church particularly engaged my attention ; 
an undertaking so stupendous that it is not yet finished, 
though workmen are continually employed in the prose- 
cution of it. 

This city has been long very populous, and is now 
become the residence of some of the first families in the 
country. They have lately completed a most superb 
promenade, which commands prospects far surpassing, in 
point of elegance and variety, any I ever saw. 

From Milan I proceeded to Bologna, where I 
remained some days wholly occupied in viewing the 
works of the most eminent masters in painting and sculp- 
ture, and at length reached Florence with an intention of 
spending some time with my friend Lord H — \ then 
ambassador at the Court of Tuscany. 

1 Lord Hervey. 


On my arrival I lost no time in waiting upon his 
lordship, who received me with all the cordiality of an 
old friend, and as such introduced me to his lady, one of 
the most amiable and accomplished of her sex. Here I 
had the good fortune of meeting again the Duchess of 
D — , who had the goodness to remember that she had 
formerly done me the honour of admitting me into her 
society at Lausanne. 

In this charming society I passed my time in the 
most agreeable manner. The mornings I generally 
devoted to visiting every object that appeared most 
worthy observation, the chief of which is certainly the 
Meridian at the Cathedral, one of the finest pieces of 
mechanism in the world. My evenings I constantly 
passed in the charming and fascinating society I met at 
our ambassador's. 

But in pursuance of my itinerant plan, I was obliged 
to quit them, though with extreme regret. Previous to 
my departure, I sold my carriages and horses to Lord 
H — ' for two thousand one hundred pounds, on condition 
that I should be paid at the death of his father. The 
father, however, is still living, and the son dead ; so that 
if the surviving brother who was then at Florence, and 
knows the whole transaction, should not think proper to 
pay me at the stipulated time, I must add this to the Ust 
of my bad bargains which, considering my present 
circumstances, is already by much too long. 

After having visited and taken leave of all my friends, 
I set out for Rome. 

There have been so many accounts of this famous and 
ancient city, and every thing it contains so minutely 
described by writers of the first distinction, that I shall 
not take up the reader's time with any observations of 

^ See p. 305, n. 


my own upon it, but merely intimate that, for the two 
months I remained there, I always found something new 
to admire, though I generally spent eight hours every 
day in viewing whatever [was] worthy the notice of a 

From Rome it was my intention to go to Naples, 
when I received a letter from my attorney at Paris, with 
whom I had left an account of what was due to me, 
amounting to twenty-five thousand pounds, as I have 
already mentioned. He informed me that if I did not 
use the utmost expedition, I should probably lose the 
whole, as the time limited for the creditors of 
emigrants to lay in their claims was nearly expired. I 
therefore made what speed I could to Leghorn, where 
I embarked in an open boat, not finding any better 

In quitting the Italian coast some reflections involun- 
tarily occurred to me on the present inhabitants of a 
country so renowned for the arts, the eminent men it has 
produced, and the number of its revolutions. Their 
language, once so copious and sublime, which formed 
the standard of perfection throughout the known world, 
is now frittered into a mere sing-song ; and the ancient 
Romans, who by their bravery and wisdom gave laws to 
Europe, who were both fertile in imagining and quick in 
executing the most arduous and wonderful undertakings, 
are now succeeded by a race of effeminate, cowardly and 
superstitious bigots. 

Everything in Italy is tinctured with superstition ; it 
pervades their palaces, the chambers of their coquettes, 
the lectures of their pretended philosophers, and stalks 
abroad in their streets and on their highways, polluting 
the fountain of true and sacred religion. 

X 2 


The Italian women are by nature coquettes, and of 
course intriguing and inconstant. They do not think 
themselves truly beloved unless the gallant be ready and 
willing to commit any the most atrocious crime for their 
sake. Far different from the English and French in this 
respect ; the former content themselves with laying their 
lovers under contribution, and in France he is most likely 
to succeed who can play the fop, or man of the world, 
with the best grace. 

We had scarce sailed fifteen miles when we were 
overtaken by a violent storm, which obliged us to take 
shelter in the port of Spezzia, one of the largest and 
finest in the world. It is so large that five fleets of two 
or three hundred sail each may ride in it with safety 
and convenience. The observation " that a storm is 
succeeded by a calm " was verified with us : we took 
advantage of it, and with the help of our oars arrived 
safely at Antibes. Here I quitted the vessel, and 
travelled on through Nice, to Marseilles, from whence 
I proceeded directly to Paris. 


My Return to Paris — The Valois Club — The King's Trial— His Death 
— The Duke of Orleans — A Duel — fegalite — Lisle — Brussels — The 
Theatre — Calais — A Journey to Ostend — to Dover — to London 
— Conclusion. 

The morning after my arrival O — T — entered my 
room and informed my companion and me that there was 
much danger in walking the streets, and advised us to be 
upon our guard. As I thought it would be an imputation 
on my courage to keep within doors on that account, I 
was determined not to regard his injunctions, be the 
consequence what it might. This was the very point 
he wished to gain. Danger there was indeed, but not of 
the nature he represented. 

After we had dined and drank pretty freely, we went 
together to the Valois Club, where I found the Count 
A — D — ,^ general of the Sans-culottes, G — ' a Spanish 
count, then Commissary-at-War, both of whom have 
been since guillotined, and the Chevalier de St. M— . 
This party prevailed on me to play at hazard, and in the 
course of the evening I lost two thousand louts dors in 
ready money, and two thousand more on my parole. 

At six o'clock in the morning I found my way home, 
perplexed and stupified with my losses, and cursing that 
infatuation, which was continually involving me in new 

My situation was certainly as deplorable as could be 
imagined — in a city where no person could be secure for 

1 Arthur Dillon. ^ ? Gabbarus. 


a moment, and deprived of every means of quitting it : 
but what still encreased my apprehensions and embarrass- 
ment was, that a war was on the eve of breaking out 
between England and France. In this emergency I 
determined on sending my fair friend to England to 
procure me some money, if possible. It was agreed that 
she should turn into cash what jewels she had, part 
of which would bear her expenses to England, and the 
remainder was to be left with me. 

Everything being settled according to this plan, she 
departed accompanied only by her servant, leaving with 
me our little boy Tom, who had been my companion 
in all my travels, and a footman. I then threw myself 
on the bed and remained some time overwhelmed with 
grief and vexation, during which an accident happened 
to her which proved the danger of appearing at that 
time in the streets of Paris. 

Mrs. W — 1 had scarce left me and prepared to get into 
the carriage, when a rascal who had been my valet de 
chambre, and whom I had dismissed from my service for 
having robbed me, and to whom I did not owe a sixpence, 
instantly raised a mob around her by exclaiming that she 
was an aristocrat, and that her motive for absconding was 
to evade paying him fifty louis due of his wages. 

Had he accused her of being a thief or a murderer, she 
might, in all probability, have passed unmolested : but to 
be an aristocrat precluded all chance of mercy, and she 
must inevitably have been torn to pieces, if, fortunately, a 
member of the National Assembly had not passed by at 
that moment, and rescued her from the hands of those 

' The only occasion on which she is so described. MS. No. 2 here 
reads " my fair friend," but the small " m " of " my " is written over a 
capital M in such a way as to suggest that the writer was beginning to 
write Mrs. W — but changed his mind. 


furies. This, however, he could not effect till he had 
paid the fifty louis to the villain who had excited the 
tumult, after which he conducted her safe to her carriage 
and took his leave. 

I endeavoured to find out who the generous person 
was, to whom I was so much indebted, and discharge at 
least the pecuniary part of the obligation ; but I could 
never discover him. Since my return to England I 
learned that his name is Monsieur de Naublanc, now a 
member of the Council of Five Hundred, and who has 
lately so eminently distinguished himself by pleading the 
cause of the oppressed and unfortunate. 

The next morning I received a letter from A — D — ,' 
in which he proposed that if it was not in my power 
to pay the two thousand louis d'ors I had lost to him, 
he would content himself with my note oi hand payable 
in three months ; to which I replied, that as I had sent 
to England for money, [and] I hoped to pay him before 
the expiration of that time, any such engagement appeared 
to me totally useless and unnecessary. 

At that time Paris was in a state of the most dreadful 
consternation. The trial of the King had commenced, 
and all minds were intent upon the issue : but no one 
dare communicate his thoughts to another. All was 
distrust, and gloomy silence, in a city once the seat of 
mirth and noisy festivity. But though the anxiety as to 
the event of the trial was general, yet the motives that 
actuated each party were very different. Good men were 
struck with the horror of what they had but too much 
reason to apprehend, and bloodthirsty miscreants feared 
that their rage might be disappointed. 

At length the regicide Assembly passed the horrible 

1 Arthur Dillon. 


decree and doomed the unfortunate Louis to an igno- 
minious death. I saw Garat, the Minister of Justice, 
Le Brun, Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Gourvelle, 
Secretary of the Council, mount the carriage pale and 
trembling, like so many culprits, charged with the awful 
commission of announcing to the King a sentence which 
was at once a mockery of justice and a disgrace to human 

I shall pass over everything relative to what happened 
within the walls of the temple, of which so many 
contradictory accounts have been given, and confine 
myself to what fell within my own observation. 

After I had seen, with heartfelt indignation, the 
three wretches depart on their mission, I went to an 
appointment I had made with one of my friends at the 
Cafe de Foix. I had scarce entered the room when 
I saw two men approach, armed with sabres and pistols, 
exclaiming and repeating many times " Let all join with 
us who wish to save our unfortunate monarch." To this 
no answer was made ; and while I was reflecting on so 
strange an occurrence, my friend arrived and we soon 
retired to our hotel. 

The next day was the memorable twenty-first of 
January, 1793. At nine in the morning, habited Hke a 
true Sans culotte, I repaired to the Place Louis Quinze, now 
the Place of the Revolution. All the streets were lined 
with armed men, and cannon placed at the entrances. 

The concourse of people was prodigious. I pushed 
my way through with much difficulty, so as to get near 
the scaffold, which was erected between the pedestal of 
the statue and the Elysian Fields. 

But when I came to the fatal spot, my resolution 
failed me, and fully convinced that there was not the 


smallest prospect of rescuing the unfortunate victim from 
the hands of his murderers, I fled with as much precipi- 
tancy from this scene of slaughter, this deed of blood by 
which human nature was so woefully outraged, as I had 
used before in approaching it. 

At ten a large body of soldiers, both horse and foot, 
made their appearance. They were followed by a coach 
drawn by two black horses, in which were the royal 
victim, his confessor, a municipal officer, two officers of 
the National Guards, J. Roux and P. Bernard, two 
municipal priests. Before the coach rode Berruyer, pen- 
sioner of the King, and the infamous Santerre. 

When arrived at the foot of the scaffisld, the King 
alighted, pulled off his coat, which was of a grey colour, 
and ascended the scaffold with a firm step and tranquil 
aspect, while he benignly cast his eyes on the surrounding 
multitude. He then advanced, and would have addressed 
the people ; but the noise of the drums, which were then 
ordered to be beat, drowned his voice, so that these words 
only, could be distinctly heard. " I die innocent. I for- 
give my enemies, and Heaven grant that France " — here, 
on a signal from Santerre, the executioner seized the 
King and tied" him to the plank. In this position he 
raised his head, and once more gazed on the multitude. 
It was at this instant that his confessor, kneeling close to 
his face, pronounced with an emphatic tone, " Son of St. 
Louis, ascend to Heaven," when the fatal axe immediately 
fell, and this faithful adherent was besprinkled with the 
blood of his royal master. 

The falling of the guillotine did not immediately 
separate the head from the body ; but upon a pressure of 
the iron it fell into a casket placed for the purpose. 

One of the executioners, who was said to be a tavern- 


keeper, and had been clerk to a wine-merchant of Rheims, 
took up his head and, walking round the scaffold, exposed 
it to the people. A few voices, and but few, exclaimed, 
" Vive la nation, vive la Republique." 

During the whole proceeding, the soldiers observed 
the most profound silence. All expressions of pity were 
suppressed by terror ; and after the execution a deathlike 
stillness prevailed throughout, which gave additional 
horror to the scene. 

I was told that the Duke of Orleans was on the Pont 
Louis, seated in a cabriolet, and calmly beholding the 
murder in which he bore so principal a part. 

He stayed till the body was removed, and drove 
afterwards to his palace, where an elegant carriage drawn 
by six bays waited to convey him to Rincy, one of 
his country seats, a few miles from Paris, where he 
had invited Robespierre, Collot d'Herbois, Cambon, and 
some other conspirators to dine with him and to 
celebrate the death of their royal master. 

I have before mentioned that my feelings could not 
endure this bloody spectacle. The relation I have given 
of it is, however, but too correct. I had not returned 
many minutes from this fatal spot, my mind tortured 
with the most afflicting sensations, and with the dreadful 
consequences likely to ensue, when O ! shame on the 
perversion of every best principle — O ! shame upon 
those degraded Englishmen ! — no, can I call them by 
that dignified name ? — some of my countrymen entered 
the coffee-room, and with an air of self-complacency and 
grim satisfaction displayed to my view their handker- 
chiefs, stained with drops of the blood of the mild and 
beneficent Lewis. 

My own blood curdled at the sight, and with a stern- 


ness produced by a kind of sensation I had never felt 
before, I boldly rebuked them for the savage pleasure 
they testified and the mean part they had acted. 

" These are accursed spots," exclaimed I, with the 
liveHest emotion, "which not all the waters of the 
Thames or the Seine can wash away." 

On the following day I did not go out till it was 
late ; and on the Pont Neuf I met my friend Colonel 
Wall, a most loyal though unfortunate man, to whom 
I related my adventure with Arthur D — } He was 
clearly of opinion that I had been cheated, and advised 
me by no means to pay the two thousand /ouis, which 
I had lost upon my parole, or give him any security for 
that sum. 

I remained for eight days without hearing any thing 
from him ; when one morning O — entered my apart- 
ment. I immediately charged him with being in league 
with the set who had plundered me, and threatened to 
chastise him on the spot : upon which he burst into 
tears, and confessed that he was an accomplice in their 
villainous transactions ; but solemnly protested that he 
had not touched a so/ of the ready money, and that his 
share of the spoil was to be five hundred /ouis out of the 
two thousand due, provided he could find means to 
recover it. He then declared that if I would give him 
the five hundred, he would not only discover to me how 
I had been cheated but avow it openly to their faces. 

I told him that I felt infinitely more hurt at the idea 
of being injured by him, who must be sensible how much 
I had been his friend, than by being betrayed by those 
to whom I was a perfect stranger. He acknowledged 
that his conduct was reprehensible in the highest degree, 

1 See post, 317, where " Dillon" is written in full. 


and that he deserved nothing from me but the severest 
reproaches : but at the same time observed, by way of 
justification of his conduct, that as he saw I was 
plundered by every one he thought he had as good a 
right to a share of the spoil as any other. He con- 
cluded by repeating his offer of disclosing the villainy on 
condition of being recompensed with five hundred louis : 
to which I made no other return than that of kicking 
him out of doors. 

Two days after I had another message from A — D — , 
in consequence of which I went to him accompanied by 
my friend W — } There we found D — and G — with 
pistols lying on the table. This apparatus did not 
prevent me from telling D — what I thought of his 
behaviour, or signifying my determination not to pay 
him, as I was convinced I had been cheated, which 
I could prove by the evidence of O — one of his 

W — supported my charge, and the two friends of 
D — ranged themselves on his side. 

It was impossible that a dispute of this kind could 
end amicably, and accordingly D — demanded satis- 
faction, which I readily agreed to grant, notwithstanding 
the advice of W — to the contrary. We appointed the 
following evening to meet at six o'clock, in the Elysian 
Fields — we were to begin with pistols and, should these 
take no effect, the contest was to be decided by the 

W— and I were punctual to the time and place 

appointed ; but we waited near half an hour before D — 

appeared. At last we saw him advancing, accompanied 

by G — and two others, who were entire strangers to us. 

' Col. Wall, as mentioned at p. 315. 

A DUEL. 317 

W — who had no sword, perceiving that G — , second to 
Dillon,! had one by his side, desired him instantly to 
quit it, threatening, in case of refusal, to lodge the 
contents of his pistols in his body. This demand G — 
thought proper to comply with ; and no further obstacle 
remaining, I took my station. W — called on D — to do 
the same ; but he expressed a wish to speak to G — , to 
which my friend would by no means consent, having 
some suspicion of foul play. 

While this matter was in agitation, the man who 
held our horses came speedily to inform us that a troop 
of National Guards was coming towards us, which I 
perceived to be really the case. I had scarcely time to 
mount my horse, and apprise W — of our danger, when 
the horsemen came close upon us. We immediately set 
off full gallop : D — pursued us till we were out of 
hearing, uttering all the invectives and opprobrious 
language he could think of. 

By the excellence of our horses, however, we escaped 
our pursuers, and in about an hour arrived at Nanterre, a 
little village three leagues from Paris. Here we stopped 
for the night ; and in the morning sent a person on 
whose fidelity we could depend to make inquiries 
concerning the general opinion entertained of our 

From this faithful emissary we learned that D — 
exerted all his influence with the Jacobin Club to get me 

At that time, there was from the prison to the 
guillotine but a regular step, and the interval very short 
between the one and the other. 

Notwithstanding this alarming information, I 

' See p. 315, n. MS. No. 2 here reads " D — ." 


returned to Paris the same day, and remained there 
for three weeks, skulking about like a thief; never 
sleeping two nights in succession in the same place, to 
evade the domiciliary visits that were made almost 
every night. 

Harassed with fatigue, exposed to every kind of 
danger, and feeling the greatest solicitude for my little 
boy, for whose safety I entertained a thousand fears, 
receiving no intelligence from his mother, whom I had 
dispatched to England, and finding from the information 
of my friends that D — had laid a plan to assassinate me, 
or at least to intimidate me so as to extort payment of 
the debt he claimed, I determined to leave this wretched 
capital and repair to Brussels ; but the difficulty was how 
to obtain a passport, all the avenues to Paris being closely 

In this extremity 1 applied to W — y, formerly 
under-secretary^ to a Viceroy of Ireland, a man of whose 
honour and integrity I had repeated proofs. He not 
only offered me his assistance, but proposed to accompany 
me, if [I] should succeed in getting off. In consequence 
of which, the next day we set out together on foot for 
Rincy, where, as I have already observed, the Duke of 
Orleans had a country-house. 

While we waited for a favourable opportunity of 
procuring a carriage we strolled into the Park, and had 
proceeded but a few paces when we saw the execrable 
proprietor himself walking towards us with a book in 
his hand. 

Having had the misfortune of being introduced to 
him before the Revolution, he recollected me. But my 

^ Private secretary must be meant, as there was no under-secretary 
about the time whose name would fit the initial. 

fiGALITfi. 319 

friend and he had been upon intimate terms. He 
seemed much surprised at meeting us, and asked a 
number of questions as to the cause of our being there. 

When we had fully satisfied him, he invited us to 
dinner, and promised us a passport to Brussels that 
should secure us from either insult or interruption on 
the way. As we walked towards the house he took 
notice of Mr. W — 's being in mourning, and without 
ceremony demanded the occasion. Mr. W — told him 
he wore it in honour of the good King who had been 
recently murdered. 

I shuddered at the boldness of his expression ; but 
Orleans, with well-dissembled candour and an affectation 
of a deep sense of public justice, observed, that as it was 
an act the sole object of which was the good of the 
people, it was not only justifiable in itself, but such as 
every true Frenchman should glory in. " However that 
may be," replied W — y, " every man is at liberty to 
judge for himself, and our opinions, I believe, can never 
coincide upon that subject." 

I wished to give a turn to the conversation, and for 
the present succeeded ; but at dinner it was impossible 
to exclude politics ; and this infamous modern Nero, 
equally detestable as a father, a husband or a subject, 
and even a traitor to the cause he espoused, manifested, 
throughout the whole of his political discussion that 
evening, a degree of depravity which till then I thought 
human nature incapable of. 

I felt so uneasy in his company that I could have 
gladly quitted it even without the passport, which, 
however we at last obtained, with a letter to the 
mulatto St. George, then commandant at Lisle. 

I shall always regret the necessity I was under of 


being obliged to such a monster ; but our very critical 
situation at that time rendered it unavoidable, and 
necessity often silences every other consideration. 

It was seven in the evening when we reached Lisle : 
the Gates were shut, and we could not get admittance 
until I produced my letter for the Commandant, who 
came himself to receive it. This officer gave us a very 
friendlv and polite reception, and during our stay treated 
us with the utmost respect and civility. What he may 
have done since I know not ; but certain it is that 
though a creature of the Duke's he seemed composed of 
very different materials, and consequently possessed very 
different sentiments from those of his detestable superior. 
Not only he, but all the officers who were with him, 
spoke with detestation and horror of the act perpetrated 
by Orleans and his gang of assassins. 

St. George had the precaution to send with me a 
friend of his as far as Brussels, where, without his 
assistance, I should certainly have been assassinated for 
my anti-sansculottism. 

I was one night at the theatre where a new Re- 
publican piece was performed, composed for the express 
purpose of insulting the memory of the late unfortunate 
King. It afforded high entertainment to the audience ; 
but only served to fill my mind alternately with indigna- 
tion and melancholy ideas ; till at length I felt my 
situation so disagreeable that I was on the point of 
leaving the house, when a Jacobin, who stood near me, 
asked why I did not seem to participate in the general 
satisfaction. To which I answered that every man may 
be supposed master of his actions, but could not always 
command or suppress his feelings ; and that what 
produced joy in some minds, may have quite the 


contrary effect on others. " You are then an aristocrat," 
said he ; to which I imprudently answered in the 
affirmative. I had scarcely pronounced the word, when 
he vociferated " Here is a rascally aristocrat got 
among us." 

In an instant the whole house was in confusion — every 
eye sought me with evident malignancy, and I should 
certainly have paid very dearly for my temerity had not 
the officer who accompanied me, by threatening to call in 
the National Guard, rescued me from their clutches and 
conveyed me home in safety. 

The next day I met Prince Louis de A — who by his 
revolutionary principles had acquired popularity, and even 
some ascendancy over the Jacobins. 

He found no difficulty in persuading them that what 
I said was merely in jest, and without any intention of 
giving offence ; so that for the time I remained among 
them, which was near a month, I met with neither insult 
or molestation. 

From Brussels I proceeded to Dunkirk, where I 
obtained a passport to Calais, as I entertained the pleasing 
hope of meeting my companion there and taking her 
with me into Switzerland. In this I was disappointed : 
but I had the pleasure of meeting with many of my 
countrymen here, who were waiting with impatience for 
an opportunity of returning to England. 

In the hotel where I lodged was a French duke, who 
endeavoured with unremitting assiduity to draw me into 
an intimacy with him, but as his conversation shewed 
him to be of the most violent democratic principles, I 
shrunk from his advances as much as I could consistently 
with propriety and good manners. One night as I was 
preparing to go to bed, he begged leave to accompany 


me to my chamber, having, as he said, something of 
importance to communicate ; to which I assented. 

When [we] were in the room he observed little Tom 
in bed, and asked if he understood French ; I told him he 
did, but that he might speak freely as the boy was fast 
asleep. He then spoke thus to me. " My dear sir, from 
what I have heard of you, and the disinclination you have 
manifested to enter into any degree of familiarity with 
me, I feel myself warranted in giving you my entire con- 
fidence, and disclosing to you my real sentiments ; 
particularly on the subject of modern politics, which are 
the very reverse of what you may be induced to imagine 
from the tenor of my conversation on that favourite 
subject. But it is of the utmost consequence to me and 
some others, whom I highly esteem, that we should thus 
assume a character and outwardly profess sentiments 
which we despise and inwardly disavow. Grant me your 
confidence and esteem, and you shall never find me un- 
worthy of either. There are many others whom you 
have it in your power to serve ; and who, you may rest 
assured, will always preserve a grateful sense of their 
obligations to you. 

" Is it in your power to set out directly for Paris and 
repair to an hotel I shall point out to you .? There you 
will meet a man whom you will readily distinguish by 
the description I shall give you. He will give into your 
hands a thousand louts d'ors, and to him you are to con- 
sign this letter." 

I asked him what the purport of the letter might be ; 
to which he answered that he was not at liberty to 
discover ; but solemnly declared, upon his honour, that it 
was such as could not in any wise tend to involve me in 
either difficulty or danger, even should the contents be 


made publicly known. I told him I felt highly honoured 
by the confidence he was pleased to repose in me ; but 
that the offer of the money was totally unnecessary, as I 
should without any such inducement readily undertake 
what he proposed, were it not that I was waiting for the 
arrival of a lady from England, who would be much 
embarrassed and distressed should she not find me there : 
but if he could postpone the business till then, I should 
with alacrity enter upon and execute it to the utmost of 
my power and abilities. He expressed his thanks, but 
said that the delay of a few hours would render the whole 
scheme abortive. Since that time I have heard no more 
of the French duke and the letter. 

While I thus remained in expectation of some 
intelligence from England, I became acquainted with 
an American lady, who was then at Calais with her 
two daughters, waiting for the arrival of her husband 
from Vienna, where he had been sent in a diplomatic 
capacity from the United States. These ladies took a 
great liking to my little boy ; asked me his name and 
age, and after some conversation I discovered that the 
old lady was acquainted with my mother. When she 
understood my situation she kindly offered me every 
assistance in her power, and very soon had an opportunity 
of shewing the sincerity of her professions. 

At length a signal was given of a Packet from 
England being in sight ; upon which I went down to 
the Quay, and by the help of my glass discovered my 
dear companion among several other females on board. 
I had very little time to rejoice at the prospect of my 
troubles and anxiety being nearly at an end, when I was 
informed that the Municipality of Calais had refused to 
admit the Packet-boat into the harbour. I immediately 


wrote a letter and endeavoured to get it conveyed on 
board, offering a reward of twenty louis d'ors to any 
person who would engage to convey it safe. But no one 
would undertake the office without permission from the 
Municipality. I applied to them myself and shewed 
them the letter, which contained nothing more than to 
inform my friend of my being there, and to desire she 
would return to London, and wait there till I could 
find an opportunity of joining her. I requested they 
would permit me to send this letter by the boat that was 
to convey their determination to the Packet : but this 
they refused, and I had the mortification of seeing the 
vessel leave the coast, without being able to give my dear 
companion the least information concerning myself or 
any measures I may have [had] in contemplation for our 
mutual accommodation. 

Vexed to the soul at seeing all my hopes thus 
frustrated, and having no prospect of an end to my 
misfortunes, I applied to the American lady for advice. 
As she had determined on going to Ostend she proposed 
that I should accompany her, and accordingly we dis- 
patched a courier to Paris for permission to quit France. 
He soon returned with a direct refusal to our request, 
the only reason alleged for which was, that in the present 
critical state of affairs no person whatsoever could be 
allowed to leave the country. 

Notwithstanding this prohibition, we did not give 
up our determination or hopes of visiting Ostend ; and 
to this end, we availed ourselves of an old passport 
which the lady had for herself, her two daughters and 
her son, who was then absent and whom, on this 
occasion, I was to personate. 

Having procured four stout horses, and harnessed 


them to my carriage, we proceeded as far as Farnese 
without interruption, as we travelled for the most part 
through by-roads : but here we were stopped, and after 
receiving many insults from the soldiers on guard, we 
were carried before the Commissary, though he was 
then in bed. Fortunately for us, this gentleman was 
of a mild and humane disposition ; and after having 
examined our passports, and understanding that we were 
subjects of the United States, he not only imprisoned the 
soldiers who had insulted us, but gave us a fresh passport, 
and sent an escort to conduct us safe out of the town. 

We now resumed our journey with less apprehensions 
on our minds than when we first set out, and travelled 
without stopping till we arrived at a small town within 
six leagues of our journey's end, where we found it 
necessary to halt, in order to refresh our horses. While 
this was doing I took a walk to a small eminence to 
enjoy the prospect, leaving the ladies in the carriage. 
On my return I found the inn beset by ten or twelve 
hundred Republicans, a part of whom surrounded me 
as I approached the carriage and strictly interrogated 
me as to my name and country, backing each im- 
pertinent question with a bayonet pointed at my breast. 

Notwithstanding I repeatedly assured them that I 
was an American, yet I should have hardly escaped with 
life, if the officers, who were more rational beings, had 
not interposed and rescued me from the hands of these 
drunken scoundrels. 

It was with the utmost difficulty I could approach 
the carriage, where I found another set of those mis- 
creants, and the ladies half dead with apprehension. 
They had, however, presence of mind to make signs to 
me, not by any means to shew the least appearance of 


resentment. By dint of entreaties and fair words, I was 
at length suffered to step into the carriage : but we had 
scarcely recovered from our agitation and apprehensions, 
when we were assailed by another set, and again relieved 
by the officers, though not without being obliged to cry 
out repeatedly " Vive la Republique ! " to which, with 
true politeness, they answered " Vivent les Amerkains!" 
We were then permitted to prosecute our journey ; but 
every half league we met with parties of the National 
Guards, who all took care to lay us under some con- 

In this pleasant way of travelling we arrived under 
the walls of Ostend ; and after waiting a short time, 
were admitted into the town, having announced ourselves 
as English, the garrison being at that time in anxious 
expectation of a fleet with troops from England. 

In ten days after my arrival I had the satisfaction of 
seeing the British flag flying in the harbour, and among 
the officers recognized some of my old acquaintance, 
who supplied me with money sufficient to pursue my 
route with the American ladies ; and we accordingly 
embarked in the first Packet for Dover, where we soon 

After having procured proper accommodations for the 
ladies, the first thing I did was to inquire after my 
companion. For this purpose I repaired to the York 
Hotel, where I was well known from an act of folly I 
had committed there some years before. 

I had laid a wager with a young man as giddy and 
inconsiderate as myself, that I would leap out of the 
window, on the second floor, over the roof of the mail- 
coach that was then standing near the door. By laying 
mattresses in the street to break the fall, I performed the 


feat and had the honour of winning the wager which 
was two thousand guineas, besides the good fortune to 
escape with whole bones. 

To return, however, from this digression, I was 
informed in the hotel that my friend had gone to Deal, 
in hopes of procuring a passage to France. I instantly- 
set out for Deal where I learned that she had proceeded 
directly from thence to London without taking any 
refreshment. Now I had not a guinea in my pocket, 
and to complete my embarrassment I had sufficient reason 
to apprehend, that on my arrival in the capital, I should 
be arrested by the creditors of two young men for whom 
I was security. 

While I was revolving in my mind the extent of my 
present distress, I discovered that my friend Admiral 
M — ^ was then at Deal, under orders for Ostend. To 
him I gave a succinct detail of all my distresses ; of the 
fatigue I had undergone, not having been in bed for the 
last five days, and of the extreme desire I had of getting 
to London, whatever might be the consequence. 

Like a true friend he removed all my difficulties, and 
I immediately set out for London, accompanied by an 
officer charged with dispatches for the Admiralty. 

We arrived at six in the morning and my first visit 
was to my old lodging, where I indulged myself with 
the pleasing hope of finding my companion, or, at least, 
of gaining such intelligence of her as would remove 
those apprehensions which our separation had occasioned. 
But by a strange fatality, she had, a short time before, 
returned to Deal with an intention of embarking for 

' Rear-Admiral John MacBride, then in command in the Downs. 


These repeated disappointments did not cool my 
ardour or abate my activity. I therefore returned directly 
to Deal, where I had the additional mortification of 
finding that only three hours before she had embarked in 
the Packet that sailed for Ostend. By the powerful bait 
of twenty guineas, I prevailed on the master of a boat 
immediately to take me on board, and exert all his 
nautical skill and powers to overtake the Packet. 'Tis 
true I had not in my possession the means of fulfilling 
my engagement, but I knew that could I overtake 
my friend, she had money sufficient to answer every 

After five hours' rowing we came alongside of the 
Packet, not above three leagues from land, where she 
had come to an anchor owing to contrary winds. Here 
I found my Eurydice, who was then in bed, worn out 
with fatigue and anxiety. After we had recounted our 
adventures to each other and described the dangers we 
had passed, through flood and field, she desired me to 
observe a petticoat she then wore, and which, she said, 
had not been off for three weeks. I begged to know 
what charm it possessed that could thus peculiarly attach 
her ; upon which she shewed me two thousand pounds 
sewed in the binding. But alas ! this sum, considerable 
as it was, did not prove of much advantage to us, as will 
shortly appear. 

We had now no motive or inducement to proceed 
any farther on our way to Ostend ; and therefore we 
returned to Deal, and from thence to London, where I 
was no sooner arrived than I encountered one of my 
creditors, to whom I was under the necessity of giving 
seventeen hundred pounds to stop his mouth and prevent 
his giving intelligence to the rest. But still this could 


give me no hope of perfect security ; and as my debts 
amounted to upwards of ten thousand pounds, I knew it 
would be impossible for me to remain in the heart of 
London without being every moment under the painful 
apprehensions of a discovery. 

I therefore took a lodging in the suburbs, in the 
neighbourhood of Moorfields, where I lived as retired 
and private as possible, never stirring out but on Sunday 
evenings, and associating with no person excepting my 
brother. I had only one servant, and of his fidelity I 
could not, without doing him the highest injustice, 
entertain the smallest doubt. 

One day, as he was out for beer, a man followed him 
unperceived, and the instant my servant opened the door, 
he forced himself in and was followed by six more who 
ranged themselves in the passage, while the first entered 
the room where I was sitting. " Good morning to you 
Mr. W — " said he with a sneer. " I am very glad to see 
you again in London." As I then passed under another 
name, for the same reason which induced me to live in 
that part of the town, I told him he was mistaken, that 
my name was not W — . " No, no," replied he, " I am 
not mistaken, and your memory must be very bad 
indeed, if you do not know me to be the waiter at 
Brook's to whom you are indebted four hundred pounds. 
I have here a writ against you for that sum, which you 
must either pay or go to prison." 

While this was passing, the landlord and my servant 
entered the room and prepared to defend me. I seized 
a sword and pistol, and retired through a door leading to 
a room the windows of which fronted the street. 
While I was meditating an escape by this means, the 
people called to me not to risk my neck by such an 


attempt, which must prove fruitless, as the house was 
surrounded by at least twenty constables. I then 
returned to the room I had quitted, and assisted by my 
two friends, endeavoured to keep at bay the whole gang, 
who were just entering. 

But my companion, who was at that time very ill, 
entreated me not to hazard my life in opposing so many, 
who could not fail to overpower me in the end. Her 
entreaties, and a conviction in my own mind that 
resistance would be in vain, induced me at length to 
surrender ; upon which I was instantly conveyed to the 
Bridewell, a prison solely designed for thieves and 

My female friend intended to accompany me, but 
was refused admittance ; and I was thrust into a common 
room, amidst wretched criminals of all descriptions. I 
represented to the Jailor, that I was not committed on a 
charge of any crime, and that I was a gentleman^ 
" That may be," said the Jailor : " but here we make 
no distinction but according to the money a man can 
afford to spend. I have excellent champaign and claret, 
and if you choose to call for either, I can accommodate 
you with one of my own apartments." I acceded to the 
proposal and was shewn into a room, which, immediately 
upon my entrance, suggested an idea of my being able to 
effect my escape. 

With this view, I desired my servant to wait in the 
street, within a few yards of the prison, and invited the 
Jailor to take a glass of wine with me ; an offer which I 
had no occasion to repeat ; and accordingly I plied him 
so closely with his own home-brewed champaign, that he 
was soon in a fit condition for my purpose, which was 
that of descending from the window into the street : 


and this I could have easily effected but for a circum- 
stance I was [not] aware of 

I had scarce made the attempt when the Jailor's 
daughter, a stout athletic wench, assisted by two of the 
understrappers, seized me and immediately conveyed me 
to the common room, where I should have been very 
roughly handled were it not for the interposition of 
ten guineas, which I fortunately had then in my pocket, 
and with which I appeased the infernal crew there 
assembled and prepared to load me with blows and 

The Jailor on recovering from the state in which 
I had left him, shewed a grateful remembrance of my 
generous hospitality without once adverting to the 
motive ; and not only liberated me from the purgatory, 
but even gave me up his own bed. 

In the meantime my faithful friend had gone to my 
brother and related to him the whole of my misfortune. 
He bade her be of good cheer, as he had just learned 
that my brother-in-law, the Chancellor,' was then in 
London, to whom he would immediately communicate 
my situation. 

He accordingly went to his lodging, but as he had 
dined abroad that day it was impossible to do any thing 
effectual till the next. In the morning, however, they 
were both at the prison door by six o'clock. My 
brother-in-law readily undertook to discharge the action ; 
but before I could obtain my liberty it was necessary 
to search the office, which luckily happened to be in 
the county of Surrey. Had it been in Middlesex, there 
would in all probability have been detainers to the 
amount of all my debts. As it was he had only four 
hundred pounds to pay with the costs. 

' Viscount Fitzgibbon, then Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 


I was now determined not to stay another hour in 
London ; and immediately set out for Dublin. 

The first thing I did after my arrival was to dispose 
of all my estates, for the discharge of my personal debts ; 
and with the remainder, amounting to about five 
thousand pounds, I resolved to try my fortune at play 
and either retrieve myself or complete my ruin. 

The latter was my fate, as may easily be supposed ; 
for in one winter I lost ten thousand pounds, which 
obliged me to sell all my own jewels, and those I had 
given to my companion in my better days : so that in 
the course of a few years I dissipated a fortune of near 
four hundred thousand pounds, and contracted debts to 
the amount of thirty thousand more, without ever 
purchasing or acquiring contentment or one hour's true 

Deprived now of all the means by which I could 
support my rank in a society the only cement of which 
is gold, I had leisure to look a little into myself, and for 
the first time saw my conduct in its true light. I am 
at present, as I have already related, retired from the 
world, and my principal occupation, since the above 
mentioned period, has been the compiling of this 
narrative, which I hope from its candour will, in the 
estimation of my friends, make some atonement for the 
folly and extravagance of the author. 



As I committed many of the preceding events to 
paper, I frequently paused to compare my present mode 
of thinking with the notions of life and happiness I had 
formerly entertained ; and as I occasionally sighed or 
smiled at the recollections of my past extravagancies, I 
have often doubted whether I really was the principal 
actor in the scenes I have here related. 

When the effervescence of youth and the violence 
of passion are past, when the imagination has lost its 
power, and novelty no longer invites, because life has 
nothing new, the mind viewing things with the clear 
and unimpassioned eyes of reason, retraces the follies of 
our juvenile years with pity and astonishment. 

The vanity of human happiness has ever been an 
inexhaustible theme for the moralist and philosopher. 
These by the incontrovertible evidence of experience 
and the sound arguments of reason, to which they have 
not infrequently added the lesson of instruction, have 
endeavoured to prove the fallacy of our fondest pursuits, 
and laboured to give to youth the judgment and 'solidity 
of age. But the inefficacy of their labours teaches us 
that our knowledge, in order to be productive of the 
advantages they boast of, must proceed from the same 
source ; and that the precepts of the sage avail but 
little till they have been enforced by the sanction of 

A sigh involuntarily arises, when we reflect that the 
most enviable period of our existence must be thus 


sacrificed ; and we cannot help lamenting that we are 
ignorant in what true happiness consists whilst we are 
best fitted for the enjoyment ; and are not able to make 
a true estimate of it till the finest feelings of the heart 
have been destroyed by disappointment and dissipation. 

The attainment of happiness has ever been the 
principal incentive to the pursuits of man : and according 
to the propensity of his disposition, he has sought it in 
the daring paths of ambition, in the possession of riches, 
the voice of fame, or in the more rational enjoyment of 
intellectual acquisitions. 

Ambition, fortune and fame, even where they have 
bestowed their united favours, have only served to 
convince him of their inability to content the heart. 
The attainment of knowledge and the cultivation of 
literature have, amidst their boasted utility, failed to 
satisfy the curious and active nature of man. He has 
found that on conjecture many of his inquiries must 
rest ; and over what he would have wished the light 
of truth and certainty to shine, the dark and impenetrable 
veil of ignorance has been drawn. Hence, in what he 
was unable to investigate, doubts have arisen ; [and] 
here it is that Scepticism has reared her dauntless head, 
and from this source has drawn her too powerful 
arguments to silence her believing opponents. 

But if man has been disappointed in his promised 
happiness, it is not because our life has no enjoyment 
to bestow ; but because he expected to derive happiness 
from a false source ; has sought her in paths which she 
frequented not, and has used to excess those pleasures 
which induce pain when they exceed the bounds of 
prudence, moderation and virtue. 

Ambition, when directed to proper objects, becomes 


a virtue, and the voice of praise will be ever grateful to 
the ear, when it is attended with the consciousness of 
being merited. It is the application of riches that stamps 
their value ; and if the gifts of fortune add not to our 
happiness the fault arises from ourselves. 

If in the intellectual pursuits we could be content to 
confine our researches within the limits that are 
enlightened by the eyes of reason ; if we knew how to 
stop at the point where it has been ordained that our 
knowledge should terminate ; and could persuade our- 
selves that we knew sufficient for our happiness ; we 
should not be prompted to bewilder ourselves in those 
paths of doubt which lead to infidelity. 

My own example will give the sanction of truth to 
most of the preceding observations. I was born with 
strong passions, a lively imagination and a spirit that 
could brook no restraint. I possessed a restlessness and 
activity of mind that directed me to the most extravagant 
pursuits ; and the ardour of my disposition never abated 
till satiety had weakened the power of enjoyment ; till 
my health was impaired and my fortune destroyed. In 
the warmth of my imagination I formed schemes of the 
wildest and most eccentric kind ; and in the execution 
of them no danger could intimidate, no difficulty 
deter me. 

The remonstrances of my friends, the tender solici- 
tude and affectionate entreaties of my mother, though I 
always listened with emotion and gratitude to the 
voice of love and reason, could not recall me from my 
eccentricities, nor stop me in the career of folly and 
dissipation which led me from precipice to precipice 
into an abyss of misfortunes. 

But if to my natural disposition many of my follies 


are to be attributed, no small share may be laid to a 
neglected education. 

The very causes from which many of my extrava- 
gancies sprung, would, if properly directed, have been 
a spur to actions which might have rendered me of use 
and an ornament to the age I live in. But either the 
good-nature or indolence of my tutor forbore to control 
the impetuosity of my disposition, till he found himself 
unequal to the task, and neglected to enforce the utility 
of instruction till my mind had contracted a habit of 
indolence that rendered the idea of study and application 
painful and disgusting. 

If the ardour and activity of my mind had been 
directed to intellectual attainments, I should not have 
experienced the vanity of thought which made me 
dehght in change and any expedient that could beguile 
the time and retrieve me from the most insupportable 
of maladies, ennui. 

The calm shades of domestic life, the pleasures of 
social converse and the tranquil enjoyment of friendship, 
experience has taught me, have the most extensive power 
of conferring happiness : but, for the enjoyment of these 
it requires a mind enriched with information and refined 
by a cultivated taste : it requires that station where 
poverty excites not discontent, nor riches tempt to 
improper pursuits, [and] which affords a sufficiency for 
the necessities and a little for the elegancies of life. 

Removed from the noise and bustle of the world 
I have lost all relish for the tumultuous pleasures of Ufe • 
and little remains of all that is past, but the melancholy 
reflection of having applied to an improper use the gifts 
with which nature and fortune had richly endowed me. 
Blessed with the reciprocal friendship of a tender and 


beloved companion, and the society of a few rational 
friends ; dividing my time between their company and 
literary pursuits, my days might now roll on in serenity 
and repose, if retrospection did not sometimes damp the 
pleasure of enjoyment. But in proportion as the recol- 
lection of the past is painful, the mind directs its views to 
the future ; and I feel no trifling satisfaction from the 
prospect, that this simple narrative may persuade the 
young and inexperienced, if the language of truth has 
the power of persuasion, that a life ot dissipation can 
produce no enjoyment, and that tumultuous pleasures afford 
no real happiness. 



[Begins] The following sheets, written on board ship, 
are not to be consider'd as a composition deliberately put 
together, or as a work sufficiently digested to be submitted to 
the inspection of the Public — the undertaking I meant merely as 
a passe terns at sea, to dissipate the many heavy hours of ennui 
which I must, without an employment of this kind, have been 
subject to — intended merely as a future gratification to myself, 
by enabling me to recollect the occurrences of a long tour, I have 
not an idea of its ever appearing more publicly than within the 
small circle of my most particular Friends. . . . 

Fage I. Gibraltar, November 6th, 1788. 

Having determined to accept an invitation I received from 
Mr. Whaley (who with a Mr. Wilson made a stay of ten Days at 
Gibraltar on their way to Smyrna) to accompany him on a tour 
to the Levant, Constantinople, and the coast of Syria, and to 
penetrate as far as Jerusalem, in consequence of a bet he had 
taken on in Ireland, that he would go there ; We embarked on 
the 6th of November, 1788, on board the London of London, a 
ship bound to Smyrna, of which Mr. Whaley had hired the 
cabin. We sailed out of Gibraltar Bay that evening with a fair 
wind. . . . 

Page 43. 19th [December]. — We all return'd to Constanti- 
nople. Soon after our arrival at the Palace, Sir Robert's painter^ 
a Signior Mayer, permitted us to examine a set of views he had 
just finish'd for the Ambassador to present to the King ; they 
represented the most beautiful views of Constantinople, Ephesus, 
Athens, the Bosphorus, etc., etc. . . . 


Page 60. December 27th. — We started [from Belgrade, 
near the Black Sea] soon this morning, expecting an excellent 
day's sport, as the country, we were inform'd, abounded with 
game of every kind. We, however, found the snow so very 
deep that ... we return'd home at one o'clock, and order'd 
an early dinner, as we determin'd to set ofF immediately after for 
Constantinople by land, the Ambassador having kindly sent his 
horses for us. We arrived in town soon after it was dark, and 
as soon as we had paid our respects to Sir Robert, .... we 
retired early to bed. About 1 1 o'clock ray friend Whaley, who 
lay in a bed near mine, awoke me. He found himself extremely 
indisposed, and on going to him, I was not a little alarm'd to 
find him in a very violent fever, which, as he afterwards 
acknowledged, he had brought on by eating a quantity of snow, 
the morning before, to quench his thirst, while he was in a great 
perspiration. Mr. Franklin, surgeon's mate of the Pearl, was 
fortunately in the Palace. I immediately sent for him, and as in 
the course of an hour he found the fever augment rapidly, 
attended with a strong dehrium, he administer'd large quantities 
of James's Powders, . . . and to our great joy the delirium was 
soon remov'd. Page 62. — [A description follows of the serious 
nature of Whaley's illness]. . . . Until the 18th of January, '89, 
he was not thought at all in a situation to embark for Smyrna. . . . 

Page 63. — Through the whole of that distressing period the 
attention and politeness of our worthy Ambassador were such as 
never to be forgotten by either of us. . . . 

Page 113. — On the ist of Jan"", 1789, my friend found 
himself much better . . . and was unfortunately prevail'd on by 
Mons' le Comte de Choiseul, French Minister at Constf'*, to 
dine with a party at his Palace. ... In the evening there was 
a ball. The temptations to dance were too strong for my friend 
to resist. ... At nine o'clock he was obliged to go home 
and the following morning ... his fever was attended with the 
most alarming symptoms, of a putrid nature. On the 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th the malady had increased to so alarming a height that 


it fell to my lot to perform the most distressing and truly painful 
office of friendship, which was to assist in the final arrangement 
of his worldly affairs. . . . 

Page 115.— On the 18th of Jan'' my friend found him- 
self so much better that he determin'd to embark for Smyrna, 
though contrary to the advice of his physician. 

Page 129. [At Smyrna] Feb-^ 2nd [1789].— This evening 
bemg fix'd on for our departure, we return'd the visits of 
all the gentlemen who had come to see us, and prepared other 
matters for our embarkation in the course of the morning. We 
were prevail'd on to postpone our going on board till after 
supper. . . . We went after the Play to the Cassino, where we 
were presented to the Prince Victoire Gimine, of the Rohan 
family, with several of whom Whaley had been intimate when in 
France. He commanded a very fine frigate, the Badine. He 
is an active spirited young man, passionately fond of his pro- 
fession, imitates as nearly as possible the customs of the British 
Navy, and spares no pains to acquire a knowledge of their 
regulations. When we met him he was just return'd from 
Athens, where he had been in search of antiquities, and where 
he had procured some beautiful pieces of Grecian sculpture, 
etc., etc. 

Page 298. [At Jerusalem.] — The Procurer then accom- 
panied us to the Appartments of the Superior of the Convent, 
whom we had not before seen, as he was indisposed when we 
arrived ... he appear'd to be a good deal oppress'd by a 
feverish cold. He raised himself and received us politely. He 
was a man far advanced in years, yet he possessed a natural 
vivacity in his countenance, which a life of retirement had not 
entirely deprived him of, and which a long beard, with the cowl 
and dismal Cordelier habit, could not altogether disguise. We 
conversed for some time on the late transactions in Europe, and 
he question'd us particularly concerning the motives of our 
journey, which we told him we had undertaken both through 
religion and curiosity. . . . We took our leave, and return'd 



with the Procurer to his appartments. The Superior here sent 
us a Certificate of our having visited Jerusalem, which we were 
inform'd it was customary to give to every pilgrim who visits 
the convents, and which we were glad to obtain, as a voucher of 
our having perform 'd the journey required by the articles of my 
friend's bet. I here annex the original Certificate for the 
gratification of any person who may read this. [The next leaf 
of the MS. has been torn out.] 


From — 

Gibraltar to Smyrna . . 
Smyrna to Constanti""'' by land 
Consf'' to Smyrna by sea . 
Smyrna to Fogia Nova do. 
Fogia to Patmos do. 

Patmos to St. Jean d'Acre do, 
D'Acre to Jerusalem about 
Jerusalem to Bethlehem and 


Jerusalem to Acre . . . 
Acre to Cyprus .... 
Tour through the Island about 
Cyprus to Marseilles (21 days 


Marseilles to Paris by land . 
Paris to London and back 

Do. do. . . 














Finish d. 

e'" Nov' '88 

i^' Dec' 

4"' Dec' 


ig* Jan'y'89 

27"' Jan" 

a-d Feb" 

5"' Feb'" 

lo"- Feb'" 

1 1 "Feb'" 

iS"- Feb'" 

23"' Feb'" 

24"' Feb'" 

28* Feb'" 

4'" March 

4"' March 


8"* — 

lo" — 

13* — 

H* — 

24 — 

26"> — 

6'" May 

28* May 

2^ June 

2"'' June 


London to Dublin . 


6840 miles 
■ 338 



Marseilles to Paris ... 169 Leagues. 
Paris to London and back . 1 80 


1047 miles, travell'd in 10 Days. 


MS. No. 1, Vol. II., pp. 114-118. See Preface, page xl. 

Episode of Theresina. 

I shall ever \sic\ forget my tender, faithful and lovely 
Theresina, when I had bought her from her parents. When I 
first saw her, she was sitting before the door. The beauty of her 
complexion, the regularity of her features, and above all, the 
innocent, modest and tender simplicity of her countenance, made 
me gaze on her with wonder, delight and admiration. The parents 
soon observed the lively impression their lovely child made on me, 
and they immediately determined to turn it to their advantage. 
Within a quarter of an hour the bargain was struck, I paid 
about £130 and Theresina was mine. Strange as it may appear, 
I was the only person that was astonished at so extraordinary a 
transaction. Theresina shed a few tears on quitting her parents, 
but they were soon dried up when I had provided her with all 
the most costly dresses that Eastern magnificence could produce. 

She [sic] pleased and happy in her new situation. She was 
but thirteen, her mind perfectly corresponded with the wonderful 
simetry [j/c] of her person ; courteous and affable to everybody, 
without regretting the past, or caring for the future, her only 
study was to promote the happiness of a person whom she 
considered as a master and benefactor. 

It was both my duty and inclination to provide for so 
charming a girl ; as I was convinced that she could not be 
insensible to the personal accomplishment of my dear Paoulo, 
who was returning to his own country, I proposed a match 


between them, which both accepted with eagerness and grati- 
tude. Theresina was happy with the idea of returning to her 
own country and of having her freedom, while Paoulo thought 
it a great honour and found it his interest to marry the pretty 
slave of his master. They had saved some money, I doubled it 
and paid their passage ; now they are comfortably settled at 
Smyrna, where Paoulo carries on some trade, and they live in a 
simple and happy mediocrity. 

Happy simplicity ! I leave it to our modern philosophers 
and modern beaux to comment upon it. As for my part, I do 
not blush to acknowledge, that however customs and manners 
may differ among nations, I cannot help admiring the passive 
submission and un[.r/V] philosophy of my dear Theresina, 
while I am at a loss to find expression sufficiently strong to 
reprobate the selfish and interested character of her parents. 

Page 295, a?ite. — "During the period of my residence at 
Neufchatel (1792-4), it was also visited by Mr. Beckford, the 
well-known author of " Vathek," who made his journey in a 
style that would astonish the princes of the present degenerate 
days. His travelling menage consisted of about thirty horses, 
with four carriages, and a corresponding train of servants. 
Immediately upon his arrival Mr. Beckford set up a fine yacht 
upon the lake, and by his munificent hospitality, soon ingratiated 
himself with the young Enghshmen of rank whose names I have 
mentioned. The friendship, however, was not of long endurance: 
in the course of a few weeks, letters came from England to 
Captain Arbuthnot (Earl Digby's tutor), as the result of which 
our visits to Mr. Beckford ceased." — Personal Recollections of 
Valentine Lord Cloncurry, page 11. 

Page 394, ante. — William Beckford, in his Portuguese Letters, 
refers to his stay at Evian at an earlier date. Writing from 
Falmouth, where he was detained by contrary winds, on the 
nth March, 1787, he says: "What a fool I was to leave my 
beloved retirement at Evian ! Instead of viewing innumerable 


transparent rills falling over the amber-coloured rocks of 
Melierie [izV], I am chained down to contemplate an oosy 

beach. . . . Instead of the cheerful crackling of a wood fire in 

the old baron's great hall I hear the bellowing of winds in 

narrow chimneys. You must allow the aromatic fragrance of 

fir-cones, such heaps of which I used to burn in Savoy, is 
greatly preferable." — Letter V. 

Among other expensive luxuries in which Beckford indulged 
about the period when Buck Whaley met him was the purchase 
of Edward Gibbon's library at Lausanne, 

HALIDAY PAMPHLETS (Royal Irish Academy). 

Vol. ^c,o,page 140. Mis. Verse, 1789. 

Air: Mr. Wh — LI. — Y. 

I travers'd Judah's barren sand, 

At beauty's altar to adore — 
But there the Turk had spoil'd the land, 

And Sion's daughters were no more. 

In Greece the bold imperious mien, 

The wanton look, the leering eye, 
Bade Love's devotion not be seen. 

Where constancy is never nigh. 

From thence to Italy's fair shore 

I urged my never-ceasing way. 
And to Loretto's temple bore 

A mind devoted still to pray. 

And there, too, superstition's hand 

Had sketch'd every feature o'er. 
And made me soon regain the land. 

Where beauty fills the Western shore. 


Where Hymen with celestial power 
Connubial transports doth adorn j 

Where purest virtue sports the hour 
That ushers in each happy morn. 

Ye daughters of old Albion's isle, 
Where'er I go, where*er I stray, 

O ! Charity's sweet children, smile 
To cheer a pilgrim on his way. 

Ibid. • Vol. ZS^'P^K^ 5^- 


Now Wh — 1 — y comes adorn'd with Beauty's flowers. 
But comes resplendent with superior powers, — 
What tho* that cheek exceeds the Peach's bloom, 
That fragrant breath Arabia's rich perfume ; 
Faint in the eye of sense those charms are seen, 
To that intelligence which rules within : 
That polish'd mind, by every truth imprest. 
And the meek virtues which adorn her breast. 

^ This and the two pieces following refer to Buck Whaley's sister, 
Anne, who married the Rt. Hon. John Fitzgibbon in 1786. At a later 
period, when Lady Clare, she was distinguished for her wit and cleverness 
in the gay society which the Prince of Wales collected about him in the 
Pavilion at Brighton. 

Mr. W. H. Wilkins, in his Mrs. Fitzherbert and George IF.^ London, 
1905, Vol. L, 157, speaking of Carlton House in the year 1786, and the 
entertainments there over which Mrs. Fitzherbert presided as hostess, 
states that Lady Clare was among the " beautiful and brilliant women " 
who were frequently present. She was still, however, Mrs, Fitzgibbon at 
that time, her husband not being Lord Clare until 1795. Later in the 
same vol. (p. 268), referring to the rollicking parties continuously given 
by H.R.H. at Brighton in 1790, he mentions a number of favoured Irish 
guests whose " merry recklessness of temperament had a great attraction 
for the Prince of Wales, and indeed bore a peculiar aiBnity to his own 
character," and adds — *' among whom was the witty and fascinating 
Lady Clare, an Irish lady who was a friend of Mrs. Fitzherbert." 


Ibid. Vol. ST^ip^ge 3. 


See smiling Fitzgibbon in negligence bright, 

With a person of elegance, eye of delight ; 

Behold how she swims through the mazes of fashion. 

No stranger, tho' gay, to the joys of compassion ; 

Her charms are confess'd, yet more bright they appear 

When refresh'd by the dew of benignity's tear. 

Ilnd. Vol. Si%,page 22, "The Promenade, or Theatre of Beauty." 

With loveliest form F — tz — bon next is seen, 
Grace rules her step, and elegance her mien ; 
The sweet impression which our hearts pursue, 
In her resplendent meets th' admiring view ; 
Strikes the quick sense, in majesty array'd. 
And casts each meaner Beauty into shade. 
Not with more swiftness darts the rapid course 
Of fires electric shot with fiercest force. 


Ed. by T. Crofton Croker. Lend., 1838. 

Vol. i,page 160. — [Holt, speaking of his enemies] "They had 
as many setters about me as Buck Whaley when he got the 
Duke of Y , Miss , into his keeping." 

[On which Croker has the following note. | " I am not able 
to illustrate the scandalous anecdote here alluded to by Holt. 
Those curious in the chronicles of slander may, no doubt, readily 
have their curiosity gratified by referring to the pages of the 
Court Magazine, or the Town and Country Magazine, if such 


worse than useless publications have been preserved. Buck 
Whaley, however, was a notorious character, from his pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem and other achievements, famous in the annals of 
sporting. The Annual Register for 1788 has the following notice 
of the first of these affairs. ' A young Irish gentleman, for a very 
considerable wager, set out on Monday, the 22nd instant [Sep- 
tember], to walk to Constantinople and back in one year. It is 
said that the young gentleman has ;^20,ooo depending on the 
performance of his exploit.' . . . Whaley's extraordinary achieve- 
ment, as it was then considered, gave rise, in Dublin, to a popular 
song, known by the name of its burden, ' Round the world for 

"Mr. Whaley's sister, Isabella [.>], married the first Lord 
Clare, and to Mr. Whaley belonged the seat more than once 
mentioned [in Holt's Memoirs'] as Whaley's Abbey. It is situated 
on the side of the mountain west of the first Meeting of the 
Waters in the Vale of Avoca 

" Mr. Whaley is said to have been the possessor of some of 
the best-bred horses in Ireland. His town residence was in St. 
Stephen's Green, Dublin, from the drawing-room window of 
which, for a considerable wager, he is commonly believed to have 
leaped, on a favourite little Arabian horse, over a mail coach. 
This fete was accomplished by taking out the window-frame, and 
having a quantity of straw laid on the pavement below to receive 
the gallant horse and its determined rider. I do not vouch for 
the accuracy of this sporting anecdote ; I merely ' tell the tale as 
told to me.' " Croker in the same note mentions that " General " 
Holt at one period of the Rebellion rode a blood mare which had 
belonged to Whaley. 


(Roman Numerals refer to Preface.) 

Absolom, 193 

Achmet {i.e. Ahmed), Sultan, 127 

Acre, 236, 238, 239 

Actium, battle of, 252 

Adrian, The emperor, 218 

-^lia Capitolina, 196 

Ainslie, Sir Robert, xliii, 103, 119, 

132, 149, 191, 263, 339, 340 
Akachi, 240, 241 
Akhissar, 94 
Albacore, a fish, 39 
Aleppo, 239 
Ah Bey, 169 
AmabadgUy 127 
Ambuscade^ The, 71 
Andros, 70 
Anthemius, no 
Antibes, 308 
Antiochus, 92 
Apelles, 237 
Apes' Hill, 44 
Apraxim, Miss de, 292 
Arab horses, 178, 237, 270, 348 
Arbuthnot, Capt., 344 
Armitage, Catherine, ix 

, Robert, ix 

Artaxerxes Longimanus, 90 

Ashton, Old Times, xiii n. 

Asturias, Prince of, 179 

Atarasana, The, 60 

Athenry, viii 

Athens, 70 

Athol, Duke of, xxiv 

Auch, 12, 15, 16 

Auctozaar, 94 

Avant Souper, The, 73, 75 

B— , Lady, 27, 30 

B-, Mr, 47 

Bachman, Major, 300 

Badine, The Frigate, 341 

Bagneres, 12 

Ball, George, 155 

Barliary, Coast of, 43 

Bareges, 13 

Barnave, 284 

Barras, 285 

Barre, Chev. de la, 17 

Barrington, Sir J., xxxii n., xxxvi, 

Barthelemy, Citizen, 30 1 
Basil, ii, 134 

Basilica di Santa Maria, 216, 217 
Bastions, The, at Gibraltar, 48 
Bath, II 

Baths of Julian, The, 129 
Battery, Grand, 49 
Beaux Walk, Dublin, xi, xv 
Beckford, William, xix, 292 seq. ; 

ordered to leave Lausanne, 304, 

344, 345 
Becque figue, 246, 258 
Bedouins, 235 
Bejuk-dere, 105 
Belgrade, 340 

Belisarius, The Tower of, 135 
Bellouski, Princess, 292 
Ben Arthure, xxxiv 
Bcngore, 63 
Beresford, Rt. Hon. John, xxxiii 

-, Marcus, xxxiii n. 
-, William, xxxiv n. 



Beresford Correipondence^ The, 

xxxiii n. 
Bernard, P., 313 
Bsrruyer, 313 
Berry, Mr. H. F., v 
Besci Jacci (? Beshiktash), 120 
Betham, Sir Wm., x 
Bethlehem, 192, 213; arrival at, 

215 ; the Altar of the Manger, 

217 i town of, 219 
Biscay, Bay of, 38 
Black Mark, xxxiii 

Sea, The, 45, 105, 108, 120 

Bodendoes, The, 41 

Bologna, 305 

Boniface of Ragusa, 206 n. 

Bookbinders, Turkish, 132 

Botany, observations on, 49, 50, 

60, 84, 86, 106, 146, 248, 258, 

Bournabat, 83, 84 
Boxing Bishop, The, xxxiv 
Boyd, General Sir R., 53 
Bozeta, The hill, 193 
Brighton, 271 seq., 346 n. 
Brissot, 301 
Brussels, xix, 320 se^. 
Buckingham, Marq. of, xxxiv n. 
Bucks in Dublin, xiii 
Bunbury, Sir Chas., 274 n. 
" Burn-Chapell Whaley," xi 
Burns, Robert, xv 
Burying-ground, A Turkish, 88 

C — , Duchess of, 271 

C — , Mr., 272 

C — , Viscount, 281 

Caiffa, 167, 237 

Calais, 321,323 

Callaburne, Cape, 162 

Callister, Thos., quoted, xxiii 

Cambon, 314 

Camille, Prince, 295 

Candia, 69, 266 

Capitan Pacha, 112, 115, 120 

Caravan, Description of, 76, 77 

Carmel, Mt., 167, 237 

Cassenove, Miss, 292 

Castlereagh, Lord, xxvi 

Catholic University of Ireland, xi 

Cauterets, 12 

Cerigo, 65, 266 

Certificate of visit to Nazareth, 

Copy of, xliii, 224 
Certificate of visit to Jerusalem, 

xliii, 342 
Chambery, 303 
Chan, The, 236 
Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor, 

Chappell, or Chapell, Elizabeth, 

viii, X n. 
Chesterfield, Earl of, ix 
Chios, 70 
Choiseul-Gouffier, Count de, 138, 

Chosroes, King of Persia, 208 

Cicero, 195 

Cistern of Arcadius and Modestus, 


of Basilica, 128 

ClanwiUiam. Ste Meade. 
Clare, Lord. See Fitzgibbon, J. 
Cloncurry, Lord, xv, xxvii ; his 

Personal Recollections quoted, 

xvii, XXX, 292, 344 
Clonmell, Lord, xv 
Coffee, Jack, xxxiv 
Comnenus, Isaac, 253 
Constantine the Great, 123, 128, 

i3'> 135, 165, 197 
. Paleologus, 90, 134 

\ — ix, 134 

Constantinople, arrival at, 102 
■ description of, 103 

-154. Appendix 
Constantinople, The Sloop, 155 
Cook, 34 
Cork, XXXV 
Cornelius Nepos, 90 
Cornwallis Correspondence, The, 

quoted, xxvi 
Cornwallis, General, 47 
Corsea (Phurni), 163 n. 
Cosby, Admiral, 48 



Costello, xxxi 

Courtney, Miss, xviii, xx, xxvii 

Cox, Mr., His Travels, 165 

Creevey Papers, The, xxxix 

Crete, 69, 266 

Critheis, the mother of Homer, 

Croker (T. Crofton), xvii, 347 

Cromwell, Elizabeth, viii 

— Frances, viii 

Henry, viii, ix 

Oliver, vii-x 

Robert, viii 

CufF, Rt. Hon. James, xxxiv 

Cullen, Cardinal, xi 

Curregonde, Madlle., 106 

Cyclades, The, 69 

Cyclops, 65 

Cyprus, xl, xli ; arrival at, 238 ; 
its wine, 247, 257 ; its divisions, 
254 ; its products, ceremonies, 
etc., 254-265. Appendix 

Cyrus, 194 

Daedalus, 160 

Daly's Club, xiv, xxix 

Dardanelles, The Castle of the, 

155, 156 
Darius, 194 
David, King, 193, 219 
Deal, xvii, 37, 327, 328 
De Bouligny, Mons., 105 
Delany, Mrs., her Autobiography 

quoted, xiv 
Delos, 70 

Dervishes, Ceremonies of, I2i 
De Tott, M., 105, 162 
De Vezin, Mr., 238 n., 239 
Devonshire, Duchess of, 292, 

297 seq., 306 
Diana, Fountain of, 84 

Temple of, 159 

Digby, Earl, 344 

Dillon, Count Arthur, xix, 309, 

311, 315 i duel with, 316 sej. 

Dillon, Count Arthur, his plan to 

assassinate Whaley, 318 
Diocletian, 160 
Dion Cassius, 255 
Dobbin, Dr. Orlando T., xl 
Douglas, xxii seq. 
Dover, the York Hotel, xxix, 326 
Drinkwater's " Siege of Gibraltar," 

50, 53 "• 

Drogheda, Lord. See Moore 

Dromore, Bishop of, 230 n. 

Dublin, its condition in Whaley's 
time, xiii seq. 

, return to, from Jerusalem, 

270, 285 ; return to, after im- 
prisonment, 332 

Dublin University Magazine, 
quoted, xxxi 

Dunkirk, 321 

Dutton, Ralph, 274 n. 

E — , Madam, 244 seq. ; her 

brother, ib. 
Eighteenth Foot, The, 53 
Elisha and Elias, Dwelling-place 

of, 237 
Elliot, General, Lord Heathfield, 

50, 53 
Elliot's Parlour, 5 1 
English, Buck, xiii, and n. 
Enniscorthy, xvi, xxv 
Entraigues, 224 
Ephesus, 159 
Episcopi, 239 n. 
Escape, H.R.H.'s. 274 n. 
Esma, Sultana, 129 
Etna, Mt., 65 
Evans, Edw., in Irish Builder, 

quoted, xxviii 
Evian, in Savoy, 294 seq., 344 

Famagusta, 248 seq. 
Fangnana, 63 
Farognana, 63 

Feltham, J., Jl Tour through the Isle 
of Mann, quoted, xxiv 



Finch, Hon. Seymour, 104, 108, 

115, 116 
Fitzgerald, Tom, xxxv 
Fitzgibbon, Rt. Hon, John, Lord 

Clare, x, xx, xxv, xxix, xxxiii, 

xxxix, 331 
Fitzgibbon, Elizabeth, xxxiv n. 
Fitzpatrick's Ireland before the 

Union, v 
Florence, 305 

** Fly," Whaley's lap-dog, xxxiii 
Fogia Nova, 161 
Fons Signatus, 214 
Foot, Lundy, xxxv 
Forbes^s Barrier, 50 
Forks not used by Turks, 251 
Fort Anne, xxiii, xxvii, xxviii 
Fort Anne Hotel, xxiv seq. 
Fotcha, 161 
Fowler, Dr. Robt., Archbishop ot 

Dublin, xxxv n. 
Fox, Chas. James, 276 
Franklin, Mr., of the Pearl, 340 
Freeman^i 'Journal, The, quoted, 


French Revolution, The, 277 seq. 

G — , Admiral, 275 

G — , Major, 272 

Gabbarus, Count, 309 

Galata, 104, 108 

Garat, 283, 312 

Gelembeh, 94 

Geneva, 303 

Genia, 185 

Gentleman's Magazine, quoted, v, 

George, Prince of Wales, xxv, 

xxvi, 271, 274, 275 
George Inn, The, at Knutsford, 

George's Quay, xxxi 
Gerite, The, 114 
Giant's Causeway, The, 63 
Gibbon, Edward, xix, i, 298, 345 
Gibraltar, 45 et seq. 
, the batteries at, 48 

Gilbert's History of Dublin, xiv n. 
Gillford, Baron, xxxii 
Gilly, Giuseppe, 166 n. 
Gimine, Prince Victoire, 341 
Goold, Thos., xxix 

, Val,, xxix 

Gou rvelle, Secretary of the Cciuncil, 

Grand, Mons., xlii 
Grattan's Memoirs, xxvi n., xxxii 

n., xxxv n. 
Green, Rev. H., xviii n., xxiii n., 

xxvi n., xxviii n. 
Green, Turks not allowed to wear, 

Greenfield, Mr. T. C, xxii n., 


H — , La Baronne de, 105 
Haliday Collection of Pamphlets, 

xxxi n. 
Ham, Arabs' aversion to, 230 
Hamilton, Baron, xxxiii n. 
Harleian Society Publications, x 
Hassan Pasha, 112 seq., 115-118 
Hauchpied, Le Contc de, 75 n. 
Hays, Mr., Consul at Smyrna, 73, 

Hegira, The date of the, 135 
Hell-Fire Club, The Dublin, xiv 
Henna, use of, by Turkish ladies, 


Henry H. at Famagusta, 252 

Herbois, Collot d*, 314 

Herod the Great, 195 ; the House 

of, 209 
Herodotus, 188 
Hervey, Lord, Ambassador at 

Court of Tuscany, 305 ; 

Whaley sells his carriages and 

horses to, 306 
Heureuse Marie, The, xvii, 160 
Heydon, xxxii 
Higgins, Francis, the Sham Squire, 


Hillary, Sir William, xxv n. 
Holt*s Memoirs, xvii n., 347 



Homer, loi, 158 

Hook's Gurney Married, xvii 

Horn, Elzearius, Iconographiie, 

206 n. 
Hortus conclusus, 215 
Hubsch, Baronne de, 105 
Huish's Memoirs of George IV., 

xiii, 274 n. 
Huruge, St., 285 

Ibrahim Calcussi, Deputy Gover- 
nor of Nazareth, 178, 186, 189, 
234, 237 

Ida, Mt., 266 

Ince's Gallery, 5 1, 52 

Inscriptions taken down by 
Whaley, xxxvi seq. ; Godfrey de 
Bouillon, 198; King Baldwin, 
199; under a picture of St. Paul, 
200 i St. Helena, 204 ; Boni- 
facius of Ragusa, 206 ; the 
Virgin JVIary, 217 

Irish Binding, v 

servant, Whaley's, xxiv, 98 

State lottery, First, xiv 

Isidorus, no 

Isle of Man, xxi, xxii 

Isle of Man Examiner, The, xxviii 

Isles des Anglois, 70, 157 

Italy, 305 seq. ; the women of, 308 

Jack, Buck Whaley's Irish servant, 

Jacobin Club, The, 279 seq., 317 

Jaffa, 167 

James's Powders, 242, 340 

Jenin, 185 

Jenkinson, Sarah, or Sally, xxviii 

Jerusalem, arrival at, 191 ; Temple 
of Solomon, 192; Whaley's 
account of the principal revolu- 
tions, 193 seq. ; Temple of the 
Resurrection, 197, 208; the 
Chapel of Adam, 198 ; the 
Holy Sepulchre, 201 ; refer- 
ences to Plan (missing), 201- 

Jerusalem — continued. 

207 i Basilica Constantiniana, 
207 J the House of Herod, 209 ; 
the House of Pontius Pilate, 
209, 221, 222; the Armenian 
Convent, 210; the Gate of St. 
Stephen, 211 ; Mount of Olives, 
211; Gethsemane, ib. ; Foun- 
tain of Silva, ib. ; Solomon's 
Palace, 212; Bathsheba, 211 ; 
Valley of the Giants, 213; 
Terebinthus, ib. ; Return to, 
from Bethlehem, 220 ; Church 
of Mt. Sion, 221 ; House of 
Caiaphas, ib. ; Temple of the 
Dedication, ib. ; Hospital of St. 
Helena, ib. ; Street of the Cross, 
ib., 222 ; Certificate of having 
visited Jerusalem, 223, 224 n. ; 
departure from, 223 

Jezzar (or Jedzar) Pasha, 167- 
172, 229 

Julian, The Emperor, 196 

Justinian, 135 

Kakem, Calif of Egypt, 208 

Kara-Burnu, 70 n., 162 

Kassim-Pasha, 120 

Kilakee, near Dublin, xiv 

King, Sir Patrick, xxxiv n. 

King's Bastion, The, 53 

Knights Hospitallers, The, 198 

Knights Templars, The, 198 ; in 
Cyprus, 260 

Knox's History of co. Down, xvii n. 

Knutsford; its Traditions and His- 
tory, Pref. passim 

Knutsford, the town of, xxvii, 

La Fayette, 283, 284 

Landport, 50 

Larnaca, 238, 239 

La Touche's Bank, xii, 22 

Lausanne, xix, 293 

Lavater, i 

A A 



Lawless, The Hon. Mary, xxvii 

, Nicholas, first Lord 

Cloncurry, xxvii 
, Valentine, second Lord 

Cloncurry, xv, xvii, xxviii 
Lawlor, J., xxxii 
Le Brun, Minister for Foreign 

Affairs, 312 
Lee, Messrs., 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 

81, 83, 157, 160 
Leeson, Mrs., xxxiv n. 
Leghorn, 307 
Leinster, Duke of, xvi, 34 

Street, xxxi n. 

Lemnos, 157 

Lent in Bethlehem, 220 

Lesbos, 157 

Lewis the Sixteenth, xix, 2, 280, 

283, 284, 286; his trial, 311 

se^. ; his death, 313 
Librarians, Turkish, 132 
Lisle, 320 

Loftus, Dudley, xxxi, xxxiii 
London, The, 37, 62, 67, 81, 157 
" Long Bob the Turkey-cock," 

Lort, Dr. Michael, 230 n. 
Lottery, First Irish State, xiv 
Lubomirski, Princess, 292 n. 
Lucas's Coffee-house, xiv 
Lundy Foot, xxxv 
Lyons, 19, 20, 21 

M — , Capt. See Moore, Capt. 
M — , Capt. of the London^ 8 1 
Macbride, Admiral, 327 
Maccatitch (River), 99, loi 

(Village), 100 

Maceston, or Macestus, 100 
Magnesia, 86, 89, 90, 93 

,The Governor of, 91, 92 

Mahomet, The Sepulchre of, no 
Mahomet IL, ii, 123, 134 
Malta, 267 
Maltass, Mr., 83 n. 

, Mrs., 71 n., 72 n. 

Mamorta, or Mamortha, 227 

Man, Isle of, Pref. passim 

Manuel Comnenus, 132 

Marat, 281 

Maretimo, 63 and n. 

Margotten, Madlle., 71 

Marmora, Island of, in, 155 

, Sea of, 155 

Marsala, 64 

Marseilles, 18, 267 ; the Lazaretto 
there, j^., 308 

Matapan, Cape, 65 

Matte, The, 302 

Maubourg, La Tour, 284 

Maury, Abbe, 279 

Mayer, Signior, a painter, 339 

Mazzara, 64 n. 

McCready, Rev. C. T., Dublin 
Street Names, xxxi n. 

Meade, John, Earl of Clanwilliam, 
X, xi, xxxii 

, Lady Anne, x 

Meander, 89, 92, 160 

Mecca, no 

Meles, The River, 158 

Melos, 70 

Messaire (Cyprus), 254, 260 

Milan, 305 ; its cathedral, 306 

Minos, 69 

Mirabeau, 279 

Mitylene, 157 

Mona's Herald, quoted, xxv n. 

Monaco, Princess Joseph de, 292 

Mons Mali Consilii, 213 

Moore, Capt. Hugh, vi, xvii, xxix ; 
his MS. Journal, xli seq. ; 
extracts from, 339-43 ; his 
Itinerary, or Route, 342 ; his 
Portrait, xliii, 37, 54, 83, 98- 
100, 189-90, 225, 226, 231 

Moore, Mr. H. Armytage, xlii 

, Lord Drogheda, xxxii 

and n. 

Moorfields, Whaley lodges in, 329 

Morea, 65 

Moria, 193 

Moryson, Fynes, xxxvii 

Mr. N — , xxxviii 

Mr. R — , xxxviii 



" Mrs. Whaley," xxxviii 

MS. No. 2, xl seq. ; extract from, 

Muires of Rowallane, The, xvii n. 

N— , Mr. Sie R., Mr. 

Naas, Lord, xxxii 

Napolosa, 225-231 

Nash, Beau, xxxiii 

Nathan, The prophet, 193 

Naublanc, Mons. de, 311 

Naxos, 70 n. 

Nazareth, 175 et seq.; the Con- 
vent of the Annuncia- 
tion, 175 ; the Altar of 
the Annunciation, 177 

, The Governor of, 177, 

Certificate of 
been at, 224 
Whaley's return 

, 225 


NeapoKs, li 

Nebuchadnezzar, 194. 

Negropont, 70 

Neil, Capt., 81 

Newcastle, co. Dublin, xvi 

Nevifmarket, 275 

Nicaria, Island of, 163 

Nice, 308 

Nichol's Leicestershire, x n. 

Illustrations of Literature, 

230 n. 

Nicosia, 239, 241, 243 seq. 

Noble's Memoirs of Protectorate- 
House of Cromwell, x n. 

Nottingham, Visitations of, x n. 

o— ,315 
O— T— , 309 

Oglac Islands, 70 n. 

Olympus, Mt., 66; in Cyprus, 

Omar, Caliph of the Saracens, 196 
Opera House, Dublin, xiv n. 

Orleans, Duke of, 286, 289, 301, 

314, 320 
Orlow, Count Alexander, 113 
Ormsby, Major, xxiii 
Orr, xxxiii 
Ostend, XX, 325 seq. 
Ovid, quotation from, 160 

P— , Miss, 27, 30 

P — d, a Paris banker, 23, 24 

Paddy Puff, Sir, xxxiv 

Paddy Whack, xxxiv 

Palamont, 87 

Palecitro, 261 

Panton, Thos., 274 n. 

Paris, 24, 269, 277, 308 seq., 318 

Park Street, xxxi 

Paros, 70 

Patarsa, 241 

Patmos, 163 

Pauolo, the Guide, 82, 86, 89, 95, 

96, 98, 99, 100, 138, 148, 164, 

226, 231, 232, 237, 238, 240, 

241, 250, 343, 344 
Pearl, The, 104, 115, 155 
Pedia:us, R., 242, 247 
Peloponnesus, 66 
Pera, 104 
Petion, 284, 285 
Phokaia, 161 
Phurni, or Corsea, 163 
Pierotti, Jerusalem Explored, 198 
Piscopi, 239, 246 
Planta, History of the Helvetic 

Confederation, 300 n. 
Plunket, Peg, xxxiii 
Plutarch, 90 
Poco Roco, 50 
Pompey, 195 
Portland, Duke of, xxvi 
Port of the Galleys, The, 129 
Prince Louis de A — , 321 
Ptolemais, 236 

Quaresmius, Terra Sancite Eluci- 
datio, Ig8 n, 206 n. 


Queen's Gallery, 52 


R — , Mr., Whaley's stepfather, 

xxxviii, 10, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36 
Ramadan, The ceremonies of the, 


Raynal, 280 

Richard Coeur de Lion, 212, 253 

Richardson, John, xii, xxxviii 

Rincy, the country seat of D. of 
Orleans, 314, 318 

Robert de Torneham, 254 

Robespierre, 301, 314 

Robinson, Mr., an Irish dancing- 
master, xxviii 

Rohan Rohan, Prince and Princess 
de, 13 seq., 341 

Rome, 306 seq. 

Romoeuf, 283 

Roscia Bay, 50 

Rousseau, i, 280 

Roux, J., 313 

Russia, Empress of, 37 

Rutland, Duke of, 47 

" Rutland Gigg," a tune, xxxi 

S — , The Abbe, a great antiquary, 


, Capt., R.E., 55 

Saladin, 197 

Saltas, 41 

Samaria, formerly Sichem, 188 

Samaritans, The, 227, 228 

Samos, 163 

Santerre, 313 

Sardinia, 62 

Saussure, M. de, Les Alpes^ 293 

Sea] a, 1 01 

Scio, 70, 162 

Scipio, Lucius, 92 

Scott, Sir Walter, x 

Scurlo, 243 

Scutari, 108 

Selim, iii, 154 

Seneca, 42 

Seven Sleepers, The Grotto of, 160 

Severus, Emperor, 127 

Sheehy, Buck, xiii 

Shefa Amr, 175 

Sichem, 227. See also "Samaria* 

Sicily, 64 

Sigeum, 156 

Sinas, 41 

Singleton, xxxiii 

Sleator^s Ga%eteer^ xii 

Smith-Barrey, Mr., 191 

Smyrna, xvii, 71-83, 157 

, the Circus, or Stadium, 

158; its inhabitants, 158; the 
Street of the Franks, 158 j the 
Gate of Persecution, 159 

Sneyd, Ralph, 71 n. 

Sodom, 192, 219 

Solomon, King, 190, 193, 194, 
212, 214 

Spalmatori Island, 163 n. 

Spartel, Cape, 43, 44 

Spezzia, 308 

St. F — , Abbe, 273 

St. George, the mulatto. Comman- 
dant at Lisle, 319 

, Sir Richard, x n. 

St. George's Cave, 50 

. Hall, 49i 51, 52 

St. Helena, 176, i8g, 197 

St. James, 220 

St. John, where his Gospel was 
written, 164 

, the Evangelist, his coffin, 


d'Acre, xvii, 167, 177, 

219, 234 

St. L — , Col, 273 

St. M., Chevalier de, 309 

St. Michael's Cave, 54 seq. 

St. Vincent, Cape, 40 

St. Peter's (Sardinia), 63 

St. Stephen's Green, Pref. passim 

St. Veronica, 222 

Strabo, 256 

Stewart, Sir James, x 

, Susanna, x, 18 n. 

Sultanas, Odalisks and Asakis, 125 


Swiss, The, Observations on, 295 
Switzerland, Visit to, 291 leq. 


Tuscany, 305 
Tyrawley, Lord, xxxiv n. 

T — , Lord Chas., 292 

■ , Mons. de, 13 

Tallien, Madame, 301 

Tandour, The, 72 

Tandy, Napper, xxxv 

Tangiers, 44 

Tarbes, I2 

Tartans, 109 

Taygetos, Mt., 265 

Tayler, Mrs., Whaley's daughter, 

Tchesme, Turkish Fleet destroyed 

in Bay of, 113 
Temple, Geo., Marq. of Bucking- 
ham, xxxiv 
Tenedos, 157 
Tercese, 44 

Terra Sancta, Convent of, 215 
Tersakhineh, 1 1 1 
Themistocles, 90 
Theodosius, Emperor, 128, 133 
Theresina, a Cyprian girl bought 

by Whaley, 343 
Titus, The Emperor, 196 
Tom, Whaley's little boy, 310, 

322, 323 
Top Hanna (i.e. Top Khaneh), 

102, 115, 120, 122 
Town and Country Alagaxine, 

quoted, xi, xv, 347 
Townsend, Dr., Bp. of Meath, x 

Louisa, x 

Trajan, The Emperor, 196, 255 

Trapesa, 250 

Trent, 305 

Trimithia, 241 

Troy, 156 

Trusty, The, 48 

Turkey, the Plague in, 147 

Turkish bath, 79, 80 

-, a, Billet-doux, 147 

bullets, 80, 8 1 

marriage ceremonies, 151 

Uniacke, Col. Robt., xxxii n. 

V — , Count de, 15, 16 

Vallory, 284 

Valois Club, The, 309 

Veronica, St., 222 

Versoix, 303 

Virgil quoted, 68 

Virgin Mary, the house where she 

died, 221 
Volney's Travels, 169 
Voltaire, lOi 
Vromolaxi, 256 
Vulcan, 65 

W — , Mrs., xxxviii, 310 

W. M., substituted for T. Whaley's 
initials, xxxviii 

W — y, Secretary to a viceroy of 
Ireland, 318-19 

Wall, Coi., 315, 316 seq. 

Walshe, M, R., in Ireland, quoted, 
xiii n. 

Ward, Rev. Bernard, x 

, Hon. Robt., X 

" Watch," Whaley's Newfound- 
land dog, xxxiii 

Waterpoint, 48 

Watteville, Major de, 300 n. 

Whaley, Anne, Buck Whaley's 
mother, xi, xii 

, Anne, x, 346-7 

, Edward, the Regicide, 

viii, ix, x 

, Elizabeth, viii 

, Frances, viii 

, Henry, viii, ix 

, John, viii, x, xi, xxxiii 

, Mary Catherine, Hon. 

Mrs., xxiii, xxvii, xxviii, 
xxix, XXX 

, Oliver, viii 



Whaley, Rebecca, vui 

, Richard, viii, x, xxix 

, Richard Chapell, vil, x, 

xi, xii 

— , ^ Sophia, x 

, Susanna, x 

, Thomas, Buck Whaley*s 

son, xxix, 310, 322 

, Thomas, Buck Whaley, 

hispedigree,viii(?y.i his portraits, 
XV, xxiv seq. ; elected a Member 
of Parliament, xvi j his journey 
to Jerusalem, xvi seq. ; his 
return to Dublin, xvii, xviii ; 
opens house in London, xviii ; 
visit to Paris during the Revo- 
lution, xix i goes to Sv^itzer- 
land, ib, ; retires to the Isle of 
Man, xxi ^ builds Fort Anne 
near Douglas, xxiii seq. ; becomes 
M.P. for second time, xxv ; 
marries Hon. Miss Lawless, 
xxvii ; his death, xxviii j his 
will, xxix i his leap from a 
drawing-room window, xxix seq.^ 
326 ; his sketches, xxxvi j his 
knowledge of Latin and Greek, 
ib. ; his retirement from Ireland, 
8; his birth, /-^. i his mother, g; 
her second marriage, lO j his 
character, ib. ; sent to France, 
10; his famous wager, 34-5, 
139; starts for Jerusalem, 37; 
explores St. Michael's Cave, 
Gibraltar, 54-9 ; reaches Smyrna, 
71 ; leaves Smyrna, 83 ; at Con- 
stantinople, 102 ; dangerous ill- 
ness there, 139, 340 ; departure 
from Constantinople, 155 i re- 
turns to Smyrna, 157 ; leaves 
Smyrna for the Holy Land, 160 ; 
at Fogia Nova, 161 ; weather- 
bound at Patmos, 163; reaches 
Syria, 167 ; arrival at Nazareth, 
175; leaves Nazareth, 185; 
arrival at Neapolis, 188 ; reaches 
Jerusalem, 191 ; leaves Jeru- 
salem, 223 i certificate of having 

W haley — continued. 

been there, ib. ; certificate (copy) 
of visit to Nazareth, 224; at 
Napolosa, 227 ; return to St. 
John d'Acre, 236 ; reaches 
Cyprus, 238 ; arrival at Nicosia, 
343 ; departure from Cyprus, 
264; reaches Marseilles, 267; 
three weeks in Paris, 269 ; 
arrival in Dublin, ib. ; is paid 
his bet, 270 ; remains about two 
years in Dublin, 270 \ meets his 
lady companion (Miss Court- 
ney), ib. ; takes a house in Lon- 
don, 271 ; presented at Court 
and meets H.R.H. the Prince 
of Wales, ib. ; at Brighton with 
the Royal party, ib. ; adventure 
with blacklegs, 272 ; makes the 
acquaintance of Chas. James 
Fox, 275-6 ; repairs to Paris in 
1791, 277; his account of the 
Revolutionists, 277 seq.^ opens 
a bank for gambling in Paris, 
287-90; visits Switzerland, 291 
seq.\ meets Wm. Beckford, 295; 
and Ed. Gibbon, 298; goes to 
Italy, 305 ; returns to Paris, 
309 ; loses money to Count 
Arthur Dillon, ib. ; repairs to 
Place Louis Quinze on the day 
of the King's execution, 312 ; 
describes the King's death, 313- 
15; duel with Arthur Dillon, 
315-17 ) escapes from Paris, 
318 ; dines with Due d'Orleans 
atLincy, 319; reaches Brussels, 
320 ; Calais, 321; Ostend, 326; 
his leap from a window of the 
York Hotel, Dover, 326 ; Deal, 
327 i overtakes his lady friend, 
328; lodges in a London suburb, 
329 ; imprisoned for debt, 330 ; 
released by his brother-in-law, 
the Irish Chancellor, 331 ; re- 
turns to Dublin, 332 

Whaley, William, x 

Abbey, vii, 348 



"Whaley's Embarkation," ballad, 
xxxi seq. 

Folly," xxiii 

Wilkins (W. H.) Mrs. Fitz- 

herberi and George /^., 346 
Willis' Battery, 52 
Wilson, Capt., xvii 

Yakakiot, a mountain near Smyrna, 

86 n. 
York, Duke of, 276, 347 
Hotel, Dover, xxix 

Yachaku, 86 

Zachonona, 92 

" Zara," Whaley's lap-dog, xxxiii.